Evolution of unresponsiveness to homeostasis-promoting signals from the microenvironment is a hallmark of malignant tumor cells. In Dunning R3327 model rat prostate tumors that are comprised of distinct stromal and epithelial compartments, progression from non-malignant, androgen-responsive tumors to malignancy is characterized by loss of compartmentation coincident with a loss of resident epithelial cell FGFR2IIIb that receives instructive signals from stromal FGF7 and FGF10. Restoration of FGFR2IIIb to malignant tumor cells restores responsiveness to stromal cells, restores distinct stromal and epithelial compartments and retards malignant progression. Cultured stromal cells from two compartment tumors are comprised of smooth muscle α−actin-positive cells that express predominantly FGFR3 and fibroblast-like cells devoid of α−actin and FGFR3. Here we show that it is primarily the smooth muscle cell-like α−actin-expressing stromal cells that survive, morphologically differentiate and delay tumor incidence and size in the presence of malignant cells in which FGFR2IIIb has been restored. Expression of FGFR3 by transfection in the fibroblast-like stromal cells conferred ability to respond similar to the smooth muscle cell-like stromal cells in which FGFR3 is normally resident. These results highlight the importance of the two-way communication back and forth between stroma and epithelium that is mediated by signaling within the FGFR family during progression to malignancy.
cell-cell communication; Dunning tumors; tumor microenvironment; prostate cancer; receptor tyrosine kinases; stromal-epithelial interactions; tissue homeostasis
LRPPRC (originally called LRP130) is an intracellular 130-kDa leucine-rich protein that co-purifies with the FGF receptor from liver cell extracts and has been detected in diverse multi-protein complexes from the cell membrane, cytoskeleton and nucleus. Here we report results of a sequence homology analysis of LRPPRC and its SEC1 domain interactive partners. Twenty-three copies of tandem repeats that are similar to PPR, TPR and HEAT repeats characterize the LRPPRC sequence. The N-terminus exhibits multiple copies of leucine-rich nuclear transport signals followed by ENTH, DUF28 and SEC1 homology domains. We used the SEC1 domain to trap interactive partners expressed from a human liver cDNA library. Interactive C19ORF5 (XP_038600) exhibited a strong homology to microtubule-associated proteins (MAP) and a potential arginine-rich mRNA binding motif. UXT (XP_033860) exhibited α-helical properties homologous to the actin-associated spectrin repeat and L/I heptad repeats in mobile transcription factors. C6ORF34 (XP_004305) was homologous to the non-DNA binding C-terminus of the E. coli Rob transcription factor. CECR2 (AAK15343) exhibited a transcription factor AT-hook motif next to two bromodomains and a homology to guanylate-binding protein 1. Taken together these features suggest a regulatory role of LRPPRC and its SEC1 domain-interactive partners in integration of cytoskeletal networks with vesicular trafficking, nucleocytosolic shuttling, chromosome remodeling and transcription.
FGF receptor; LRP repeat; microtubule-associated proteins; CECR2; chromosome remodeling; exocytosis; secretion; mobile transcription factors
Survival and evolution of aneuploid cells after an asymmetric segregation of chromosomes at mitosis may be the common initiating event and underlying cause of the genetic diversity and adaptability of cancers. We hypothesize that mechanisms exist to detect impending aneuploidy and prevent it before completion of an aberrant mitosis.
The distribution of isoforms of C19ORF5, an interactive partner with mitochondria-associated LRPPRC and tumor suppressor RASSF1A, state of spindle microtubules and mitochondrial aggregation was analyzed in synchronized mitotic cells and cells stalled in mitosis after treatment with paclitaxel.
C19ORF5 distributed broadly across the mitotic spindle and reversibly accumulated during reversible mitotic arrest. Prolonged stabilization of microtubules caused an accumulation of a C19ORF5 product with dual MAP and MtAP properties that caused irreversible aggregation of mitochondria and death of mitotic cells.
Dual function microtubule-associated (MAP) and mitochondria-associated (MtAP) proteins generated by prolonged mitotic arrest trigger mitochondrial-induced mitotic cell death. This is a potential mechanism to prevent minimal survivable aneuploidy resulting from an aberrant cell division and cancers in general at their earliest common origin.
Aneuploidy; C19ORF5; genetic instability; LRPPRC; microtubule dynamics; mitochondrial dynamics; RASSF1A; paclitaxel; tumor suppression; mitochondria aggregation
C19ORF5 is a sequence homologue of microtubule-associated proteins MAP1A/MAP1B of unknown function, except for its association with mitochondria-associated proteins and the paclitaxel-like microtubule stabilizer and candidate tumor suppressor RASSF1A. Here, we show that when overexpressed in mammalian cells the recombinant 393-amino acid residue COOH terminus of C19ORF5 (C19ORF5C) exhibited four types of distribution patterns proportional to expression level. Although normally distributed throughout the cytosol without microtubular association, C19ORF5C specifically accumulated on stabilized microtubules in paclitaxel-treated cells and interacted directly with paclitaxel-stabilized microtubules in vitro. The native 113-kDa full-length C19ORF5 and a shorter 56-kDa form similarly associated with stabilized microtubules in liver cells and stabilized microtubules from their lysates. As C19ORF5 accumulated, it appeared on mitochondria and progressively induced distinct perinuclear aggregates of mitochondria. C19ORF5 overlapped with cytochrome c-deficient mitochondria with reduced membrane potential. Mitochondrial aggregation resulted in gross degradation of DNA, a cell death–related process we refer to as mitochondrial aggregation and genome destruction (MAGD). Deletion muta-genesis revealed that the C19ORF5 hyperstabilized microtubule-binding domain resides in a highly basic sequence of <100 residues, whereas the MAGD activity resides further downstream in a distinct 25-residue sequence (F967–A991). Our results suggest that C19ORF5 mediates communication between the microtubular cytoskeleton and mitochondria in control of cell death and defective genome destruction through distinct bifunctional structural domains. The accumulation of C19ORF5 and resultant MAGD signaled by hyperstabilized microtubules may be involved in the tumor suppression activity of RASSF1A, a natural microtubule stabilizer and interaction partner with C19ORF5, and the taxoid drug family.
Microtubule-associated protein 1 small form (MAP1S; originally named C19ORF5) was identified as serving as linkers to connect mitochondria with microtubules for trafficking, and to bridge the autophagy machinery with microtubules and mitochondria to affect autophagosomal biogenesis and degradation. We found that MAP1S levels become elevated immediately in response to diethylnitrosamine-induced or genome instability-driven metabolic stress in a murine model of hepatocarcinoma. Elevation of MAP1S enhances autophagy to remove p62-associated aggresomes and dysfunctional organelles that trigger DNA double-strand (DSB) breaks and genome instability. The early accumulation of an unstable genome prior to signs of tumorigenesis suggested that genome instability causes tumorigenesis. After tumorigenesis, tumor development then triggers the activation of autophagy to reduce genome instability in tumor foci. We concluded that an increase in MAP1S levels triggers autophagy in order to suppress genome instability so that both the incidence of diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis and malignant progression are suppressed. Thus, a link between MAP1S-enhanced autophagy and suppression of genomic instability and tumorigenesis has been established.
autophagy; C19ORF5; genome instability; hepatocarcinomas; LRPPRC; MAP1S; microtubules; mitochondria; p62; RASSF1A
Dysfunctional autophagy is associated with tumorigenesis, yet the relationship between the two processes remains unclear. Here, we show that MAP1S levels immediately become elevated in response to diethylnitrosamine-induced or genome instability-driven metabolic stress in a murine model of hepatocarcinoma. Upregulation of MAP1S enhanced autophagy to remove aggresomes and dysfunctional organelles that trigger DNA double strand breaks and genome instability. The early accumulation of an unstable genome prior to signs of tumorigenesis suggested that genome instability caused tumorigenesis. After tumorigenesis, tumor development then triggered the activation of autophagy to reduce genome instability in tumor foci. We therefore conclude that an increase in MAP1S levels triggers autophagy in order to suppress genome instability, so that both the incidence of diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis and malignant progression are suppressed. Taken together, the data establish a link between MAP1S-enhanced autophagy and suppression of genomic instability and tumorigenesis.
Despite dramatic positive effects, there is evidence that the androgen receptor (AR) may negatively influence prostate tumor progression. Understanding the AR repressor function and how it is subverted is of particular importance in anti-androgen and AR intervention strategies.
AR, resident FGFR2IIIb and ectopic FGFR1 were expressed by transfection in the AR-negative epithelial cell line DTE that predominates in cell culture of AR-positive androgen-responsive model Dunning R3327 rat prostate tumors. Androgen-responsiveness at transcription was measured by a luciferase reporter. Cell population growth rates were assessed by cell counts, DNA synthesis and expression of cell cycle genes. AR variants (ARVs) were assessed by immunochemistry and nuclease protection of mRNA.
Expression of AR inhibited cell population growth of AR-negative DTE cells at the G1 to S phase of the cell cycle. Ectopic FGFR1, but not resident FGFR2IIIb abrogated the growth inhibitory effects of AR. Appearance of ARVs was coincident with co-expression of FGFR1 and AR and abrogation of the AR-dependent inhibition of cell growth.
DTE cells may represent nonmalignant AR-negative progenitors whose population is restricted by activation of AR in vivo. Ectopic expression of epithelial FGFR1, a common observation in tumors, overrides the inhibition of AR and thus may contribute to evolution of androgen and AR independent tumors. These results are consistent with the notion that some tumor cells are negatively restricted by AR and are unleased by androgen-deprivation or ectopic expression of FGFR1. ARV’s may play a role in the bypass of the negative restrictions of AR.
castration-resistance; fibroblast growth factor signaling; stem cells; tumor suppression; tyrosine kinases
Endocrine FGF19 and FGF21 exert their effects on metabolic homeostasis through fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and co-factor betaKlotho (KLB). Ileal FGF19 regulates bile acid metabolism through specifically FGFR4-KLB in hepatocytes where FGFR1 is not significant. Both FGF19 and FGF21 activate FGFR1-KLB whose function predominates in adipocytes. Recent studies using administration of FGF19 and FGF21 and genetic ablation of KLB or adipocyte FGFR1 indicate that FGFR1-KLB mediates the response of adipocytes to both FGF21 and FGF19. Here we show that adipose FGFR1 regulates lipid metabolism through direct effect on adipose tissue and indirect effects on liver under starvation conditions that cause hepatic stress.
We employed adipocyte-specific ablations of FGFR1 and FGFR2 genes in mice, and analyzed metabolic consequences in adipose tissue, liver and systemic parameters under normal, fasting and starvation conditions.
Under normal conditions, the ablation of adipose FGFR1 had little effect on adipocytes, but caused shifts in expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism. Starvation conditions precipitated a concurrent elevation of serum triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids, and increased hepatic steatosis and adipose lipolysis in the FGFR1-deficient mice. Little effect on glucose or ketone bodies due to the FGFR1 deficiency was observed.
Our results suggest an adipocyte-hepatocyte communication network mediated by adipocyte FGFR1 that concurrently dampens hepatic lipogenesis and adipocyte lipolysis. We propose that this serves overall to mete out and extend lipid reserves for neural fuels (glucose and ketone bodies), while at the same time governing extent of hepatosteatosis during metabolic extremes and other conditions causing hepatic stress.
Adipose tissue; Fibroblast growth factor; FGF; Fibroblast growth factor receptor; FGFR; Hepatic steatosis; Hepatic stress; Lipid metabolism; Starvation
Recent studies suggest that betaKlotho (KLB) and endocrine FGF19 and FGF21 redirect FGFR signaling to regulation of metabolic homeostasis and suppression of obesity and diabetes. However, the identity of the predominant metabolic tissue in which a major FGFR-KLB resides that critically mediates the differential actions and metabolism effects of FGF19 and FGF21 remain unclear.
We determined the receptor and tissue specificity of FGF21 in comparison to FGF19 by using direct, sensitive and quantitative binding kinetics, and downstream signal transduction and expression of early response gene upon administration of FGF19 and FGF21 in mice. We found that FGF21 binds FGFR1 with much higher affinity than FGFR4 in presence of KLB; while FGF19 binds both FGFR1 and FGFR4 in presence of KLB with comparable affinity. The interaction of FGF21 with FGFR4-KLB is very weak even at high concentration and could be negligible at physiological concentration. Both FGF19 and FGF21 but not FGF1 exhibit binding affinity to KLB. The binding of FGF1 is dependent on where FGFRs are present. Both FGF19 and FGF21 are unable to displace the FGF1 binding, and conversely FGF1 cannot displace FGF19 and FGF21 binding. These results indicate that KLB is an indispensable mediator for the binding of FGF19 and FGF21 to FGFRs that is not required for FGF1. Although FGF19 can predominantly activate the responses of the liver and to a less extent the adipose tissue, FGF21 can do so significantly only in the adipose tissue and adipocytes. Among several metabolic and endocrine tissues, the response of adipose tissue to FGF21 is predominant, and can be blunted by the ablation of KLB or FGFR1.
Our results indicate that unlike FGF19, FGF21 is unable to bind FGFR4-KLB complex with affinity comparable to FGFR1-KLB, and therefore, at physiological concentration less likely to directly and significantly target the liver where FGFR4-KLB predominantly resides. However, both FGF21 and FGF19 have the potential to activate responses of primarily the adipose tissue where FGFR1-KLB resides.
From microscopic observations of autophagosome content it has been argued that autophagy is shut down during mitosis to protect the relative short-lived organelles spindle and chromosomes from the process while they are contiguous with cytosol. However, without autophagy, buildup of dysfunctional mitochondria arising from the intense energy demands of mitosis potentially poses a hazard to accurate partition of chromosomes. Here we show using biochemical markers of autophagosomes and mitophagosomes and a blockade at the lysosomal clearance step that autophagy/mitophagy persists during mitosis at robust levels equal to interphase. This suggests a mechanism that insulates normal spindle and chromosomes from autophagy and potentially recognition of defects in spindle and chromosomes by the autophagic process.
aneuploidy; cell synchronization; citrate synthase; LC3; lysosomal inhibitor; mitochondrial mass; mitophagosome; mitotic cell death; mitotic spindle; nocodazole
When screening a brain cDNA library, we found that the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit NR3A binds to microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 1S/chromosome 19 open reading frame 5 (C19ORF5). The interaction was confirmed in vitro and in vivo, and binding of MAP1S was localized to the membrane-proximal part of the NR3A C-terminus. MAP1S belongs to the same family as MAP1A and MAP1B, and was found to be abundant in both postnatal and adult rat brain. In hippocampal neurons the distribution-pattern of MAP1S resembled that of β-tubulin III, but a fraction of the protein colocalized with synaptic markers synapsin and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), in β-tubulin III-negative filopodia-like protrusions. There was coexistance between MAP1S and NR3A immunoreactivity in neurite shafts and occasionally in filopodia-like processes. MAP1S potentially links NR3A to the cytoskeleton, and may stabilize NR3A-containing receptors at the synapse and regulate their movement between synaptic and extrasynaptic sites.
N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor; NR3A; Microtubule associated-protein; MAP1S; C19ORF5
Mitochondria are the bioenergetic and metabolic centers in eukaryotic cells and play a central role in apoptosis. Mitochondrial distribution is controlled by the microtubular cytoskeleton. The perinuclear aggregation of mitochondria is one of the characteristics associated with some types of cell death. Control of mitochondrial aggregation particularly related to cell death events is poorly understood. Previously, we identified ubiquitously expressed transcript (UXT) as a potential component of mitochondrial associated LRPPRC, a multidomain organizer that potentially integrates mitochondria and the microtubular cytoskeleton with chromosome remodeling. Here we show that when overexpressed in mammalian cells, green fluorescent protein-tagged UXT (GFP-UXT) exhibits four types of distribution patterns that are proportional to the protein level, and increase with time. UXT initially was dispersed in the extranuclear cytosol, then appeared in punctate cytosolic dots, then an intense perinuclear aggregation that eventually invaded and disrupted the nucleus. The punctate cytosolic aggregates of GFP-UXT coincided with aggregates of mitochondria and LRPPRC. We conclude that increasing concentrations of UXT contributes to progressive aggregation of mitochondria and cell death potentially through association of UXT with LRPPRC.
Apoptosis; Cell death; C19ORF5; LRPPRC; RASSF1A; Prefoldin; Microtubule-associated proteins
Availability of the complete sequence of the human genome and sequence homology analysis has accelerated new protein discovery and clues to protein function. Protein–protein interaction cloning suggests multisubunit complexes and pathways. Here, we combine these molecular approaches with cultured cell colocalization analysis to suggest a novel complex and a pathway that integrate the mitochondrial location and the microtubular cytoskeleton with chromosome remodeling, apoptosis, and tumor suppression based on a novel leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat-motif–containing protein (LRPPRC) that copurified with the fibroblast growth factor receptor complex. One round of interaction cloning and sequence homology analysis defined a primary LRPPRC complex with novel subunits cat eye syndrome chromosome region candidate 2 (CECR2), ubiquitously expressed transcript (UXT), and chromosome 19 open reading frames 5 (C19ORF5) but still of unknown function. Immuno, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag colocalization analyses revealed that LRPPRC appears in both cytosol and nuclei of cultured cells, colocalizes with mitochondria and β-tubulin rather than with α-actin in the cytosol of interphase cells, and exhibits phase-dependent organization around separating chromosomes in mitotic cells. GFP–tagged CECR2B was strictly nuclear and colocalized with condensed DNA in apoptotic cells. GFP–tagged UXT and GFP–tagged C19ORF5 appeared in both cytosol and nuclei and colocalized with LRPPRC and β-tubulin. Cells exhibiting nuclear C19ORF5 were apoptotic. Screening for interactive substrates with the primary LRPPRC substrates in the human liver complementary DNA library revealed that CECR2B interacted with chromatin-associated TFIID-associated protein TAFII30 and ribonucleic acid splicing factor SRP40, UXT bridged to CBP/p300–binding factor CITED2 and kinetochore-associated factor BUB3, and C19ORF5 complexed with mitochondria-associated NADH dehydrogenase I and cytochrome c oxidase I. C19ORF5 also interacted with RASSF1, providing a bridge to apoptosis and tumor suppression.
apoptosis; chromosome separation; cytokinesis; genetic instability; microtubule-associated proteins; nucleo-cytosolic shuttling; tumor suppressor
C19ORF5 is a homologue of microtubule-associated protein MAP1B that interacts with natural paclitaxel-like microtubule stabilizer and candidate tumor suppressor RASSF1A. Although normally distributed throughout the cytosol, C19ORF5 specifically associates with microtubules stabilized by paclitaxel or RASSF1A. At sufficiently high concentrations, C19ORF5 causes mitochondrial aggregation and genome destruction (MAGD). The accumulation on hyperstabilized microtubules coupled to MAGD has been proposed to mediate tumor suppression by the taxoid drug family and RASSF1A. Here, we show that the C-terminus of C19ORF5 (C19ORF5C) interacts with mitochondria-associated DNA binding protein, LRPPRC, in liver cells. Like LRPPRC, C19ORF5 also binds DNA with an affinity and specificity sufficient to be of utility in DNA affinity chromatography to purify homogeneous recombinant C19ORF5C from bacterial extracts. Homogeneous C19ORF5 exhibited no intrinsic DNase activity. Deletion mutagenesis indicated that C19ORF5 selectively binds double stranded DNA through its microtubule binding domain. These results suggest C19ORF5 as a DNA binding protein similar to microtubule-associated proteins tau and MAP2.
Aneuploidy; Apoptosis; DNA binding; LRPPRC; MAP1B; Microtubule-associated proteins; Mitochondria; Mitotic spindle; Paclitaxel; RASSF1A; VCY2IP1
Although the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling axis plays important roles in cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation, the molecular mechanism underlying how the FGF elicits these diverse regulatory signals is not well understood. By using the Frs2α null mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) in conjunction with inhibitors to multiple signaling pathways, here we report that the FGF signaling axis activates mTOR via the FGF receptor substrate 2α (FRS2α)-mediated PI3K/Akt pathway, and suppresses autophagy activity in MEFs. In addition, the PI3K/Akt pathway regulated mTOR is crucial for the FGF signaling axis to suppress autophagy in MEFs. Since autophagy has been proposed to play important roles in cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation, the findings suggest a novel mechanism for the FGF signaling axis to transmit regulatory signals to downstream effectors.
FGF; autophagy; mouse embryonic fibroblast; receptor tyrosine kinase; cell signaling.
Autophagy is a dynamic process during which isolation membranes package substrates to form autophagosomes that are fused with lysosomes to form autolysosomes for degradation. Although it is agreed that the LC3II-associated mature autophagosomes move along microtubular tracks, it is still in dispute if the conversion of LC3I to LC3II before autophagosomes are fully mature and subsequent fusion of mature autophagosomes with lysosomes require microtubules.
We use biochemical markers of autophagy and a collection of microtubule interfering reagents to test the question. Results show that interruption of microtubules with either microtubule stabilizing paclitaxel or destabilizing nocodazole similarly impairs the conversion of LC3I to LC3II, but does not block the degradation of LC3II-associated autophagosomes. Acetylation of microtubules renders them resistant to nocodazole treatment. Treatment with vinblastine that causes depolymerization of both non-acetylated and acetylated microtubules results in impairment of both LC3I-LC3II conversion and LC3II-associated autophagosome fusion with lysosomes.
Acetylated microtubules are required for fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes to form autolysosomes.
In partnership with exclusively the epithelial FGFR2IIIb isotype and a structurally-specific heparan sulfate motif, stromal-derived FGF7 delivers both growth-promoting and growth-limiting differentiation signals to epithelial cells that promote cellular homeostasis between stromal and epithelial compartments. Intercompartmental homeostasis supported by FGF7/FGFR2IIIb is subverted in many solid epithelial tumors. The normally mesenchymal-derived homologue FGFR1 drives proliferation and a progressive tumor-associated phenotype when it appears ectopically in epithelial cells. In order to understand the mechanism underlying the unique biological effects of FGFR2IIIb, we developed an inducible FGFR2IIIb expression system that is specifically dependent on FGF7 for activation in an initially unresponsive cell line to avoid selection for only the growth-promoting aspects of FGFR2IIIb signaling. We then determined FGF7/FGFR2IIIb signaling-specific tyrosine phosphorylated proteins within 5 min after FGF7 stimulation by phosphopeptide immunoaffinity purification and nano-LC-MS/MS. The FGF7/FGFR2 pair caused tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple proteins that have been implicated in the growth stimulating activities of FGFR1 that included multi-substrate organizers FRS2α and IRS4, ERK2 and phosphatases SHP2 and SHIP2. It uniquely phosphorylated CDK2 and phosphatase PTPN18 on sites involved in the attenuation of cell proliferation, and several factors that maintain nuclear-cytosolic relationships (emerin and LAP2), protein structure and other cellular fine structures as well as some proteins of unknown functions. Several of the FGF7/FGFR2IIIb-specific targets have been associated with maintenance of function and tumor suppression and disruption in tumors. In contrast, a number of pTyr substrates associated with FGF2/FGFR1 that are generally associated with intracellular Ca2+-phospholipid signaling, membrane and cytoskeletal plasticity, cell adhesion, migration and the tumorigenic phenotype were not observed with FGF7/FGFR2IIIb. Our findings provide specific downstream targets for dissection of causal relationships underlying the distinct role of FGF7/FGFR2IIIb signaling in epithelial cell homeostasis.
receptor tyrosine kinases; signaling networks; stromal-epithelial homeostasis; tumor suppression; tyrosine phosphatases
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family signaling mediates cell-to-cell communication in development and organ homeostasis in adults. Of the FGF receptor (FGFR) isotypes, FGFR4 is the sole resident isotype present in mature parenchymal hepatocytes. FGFR1 that is normally associated with activated nonparenchymal cells appears ectopically in hepatoma cells. Ectopic expression and chronic activity of FGFR1 in hepatocytes accelerates diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis by driving unrestrained cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Hepatocyte FGFR4 mediates liver’s role in systemic cholesterol/bile acid and lipid metabolism and affects proper hepatolobular restoration after damage without effect on cell proliferation. Here we ask whether FGFR4 plays a role in progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We report that although spontaneous HCC was not detected in livers of FGFR4-deficient mice, the ablation of FGFR4 accelerated DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. In contrast to FGFR1 that induced a strong mitogenic response and depressed rate of cell death in hepatoma cells, FGFR4 failed to induce a mitogenic response and increased the rate of cell death. FGFR1 but not FGFR4 induced cyclin D1 and repressed p27 expression. Analysis of activation of Erk, JNK and PI3K-related AKT signaling pathways indicated that in contrast to FGFR1, FGFR4 failed to sustain Erk activation and did not activate AKT. These differences may underlie the opposing effects of FGFR1 and FGFR4. These results suggest that in contrast to ectopic FGFR1 that is a strong promoter of hepatoma, resident FGFR4 that mediates differentiated hepatocyte metabolic functions also serves to suppress hepatoma progression.
FGF; cholesterol metabolism; hepatocellular carcinoma; liver adenoma; metabolism; tyrosine kinase signaling
Heparinase I from Flavobacterium heparinum, a source of diverse polysaccharidases, suffers from low yields, insufficient purity for structural studies and insolubility when expressed as a recombinant product in Escherichia coli that is devoid of glycosaminoglycan polysaccharidases. In this study, cDNA coding for the orthologue of F. heparinum heparinase I was constructed from genomic information from the mammalian gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and expressed in E. coli as a fusion protein with GST at the N-terminus. This resulted in high yield (30 mg/g dry bacteria) of soluble product and facilitated one-step affinity purification to homogeneity. Purified heparinase I bearing the GST fusion exhibited a Km of 2.3 μM and Vmax of 42.7 μmol/min with a specific activity of 164 units/mg with heparin (average 12000 Da) as substrate. The results indicate a 2-fold improvement in yield, specific activity and affinity for heparin as substrate over previous reports. The data suggest that the heparinase I from the gut symbiont exhibits a higher intrinsic affinity for heparin than that from F. heparinum. The purified GST fusion enzyme exhibited a requirement for Ca2++ and a pH optimum between 6.7 to 7.3 that was similar to the enzyme freed of the N-terminal GST portion. Our study revealed that catalytic activity of heparinase I requires a reducing environment. The GST facilitated immobilization of heparinase I in solid phase either for clinical purposes or for structural studies in absence of interference by contaminating polysaccharidases.
bacterial symbionts; carbohydrate microsequencing; chimeric tagged enzymes; enzyme immobilization; extracellular matrices; FGF signaling; glycobiology; heparan sulfate; heparin; oligosaccharides; polysaccharidases
Fgfr4 has been shown to be important for appropriate muscle development in chick limb buds, however, Fgfr4 null mice show no phenotype. Here, we show that staged induction of muscle regeneration in Fgfr4 null mice becomes highly abnormal at the time point when Fgfr4 is normally expressed. By 7 days of regeneration, differentiation of myotubes became poorly coordinated and delayed by both histology and embryonic myosin heavy chain staining. By 14 days, much of the muscle was replaced by fat and calcifications. To begin to dissect the molecular pathways involving Fgfr4, we queried the promoter sequences for transcriptional factor binding sites, and tested candidate regulators in a 27 time point regeneration series. The Fgfr4 promoter region contained a Tead protein binding site (M-CAT 5′-CATTCCT-3′), and Tead2 showed induction during regeneration commensurate with Fgfr4 regulation. Co-transfection of Tead2 and Fgfr4 promoter reporter constructs into C2C12 myotubes showed Tead2 to activate Fgfr4, and mutation of the M-CAT motif in the Fgfr4 promoter abolished these effects. Immunostaining for Tead2 showed timed expression in myotube nuclei consistent with the mRNA data. Query of the expression timing and genomic sequences of Tead2 suggested direct regulation by MyoD, and, consistent with this, MyoD directly bound to two strong E-boxes in the first intron of Tead2 by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Moreover, co-transfection of MyoD and Tead2 intron reporter constructs into 10T1/2 cells activated reporter activity in a dose dependent manner. This activation was greatly reduced when the two E-boxes were mutated. Our data suggest a novel MyoD-Tead2-Fgfr4 pathway important for effective muscle regeneration.
Muscle regeneration; Tead; TEF; Fgfr; MyoD; Microarray
The cell type-specific, mutually-exclusive alternative splicing
of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) pre-mRNA is tightly
regulated. A sequence termed ISAR (intronic splicing activator and repressor)
has been implicated as an important cis regulatory
element in both activation of exon IIIb and repression of exon IIIc
splicing in epithelial cells. In order to better understand how
this single sequence could have dual roles, we transfected minigenes
containing a series of 2-bp mutations in the 18 3′-most
nucleotides of ISAR that we refer to as the ISAR core. Transfection
of cells with dual-exon (IIIb and IIIc) minigenes revealed that
mutation of terminal sequences of the core led to decreased exon
IIIb inclusion and increased exon IIIc inclusion. Transfection of
cells with single-exon IIIb minigenes and single-exon IIIc minigenes
revealed that mutation of terminal sequences of the ISAR
core led to decreased exon IIIb inclusion and increased exon IIIc inclusion,
respectively. Nucleotides of the ISAR core responsible for exon
IIIb activation appear to overlap very closely with those required
for exon IIIc repression. We describe a model in which ISAR and
a 5′ intronic sequence known
as IAS2 form a stem structure required for simultaneous exon IIIb
activation and exon IIIc repression.
Alternative splicing of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGF-R2) is an example of highly regulated alternative splicing in which exons IIIb and IIIc are utilized in a mutually exclusive manner in different cell types. The importance of this splicing choice is highlighted by studies which indicate that deregulation of the FGF-R2 splicing is associated with progression of prostate cancer. Loss of expression of a IIIb exon-containing isoform of FGF-R2 [FGF-R2 (IIIb)] accompanies the transition of a well-differentiated, androgen-dependent rat prostate cancer cell line, DT3, to the more aggressive, androgen-independent AT3 cell line. We have used transfection of rat FGF-R2 minigenes into DT3 and AT3 cancer cell lines to study the mechanisms that control alternative splicing of rat FGF-R2. Our results support a model in which an important cis-acting element located in the intron between these alternative exons mediates activation of splicing using the upstream IIIb exon and repression of the downstream IIIc exon in DT3 cells. This element consists of 57 nucleotides (nt) beginning 917 nt downstream of the IIIb exon. Analysis of mutants further demonstrates that an 18-nt “core sequence” within this element is most crucial for its function. Based on our observations, we have termed this sequence element ISAR (for intronic splicing activator and repressor), and we suggest that factors which bind this sequence are required for maintenance of expression of the FGF-R2 (IIIb) isoform.