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1.  Transarterial embolization ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma with a lipiodol-ethanol mixture 
AIM: To determine the safety and effectiveness of transarterial embolization ablation (TEA) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with a lipiodol-ethanol mixture.
METHODS: Between January 1 and December 31, 2009, 15 patients with HCC (13 men/two women, aged 38-75 years) accepted TEA treatment and were enrolled in this study, including five newly diagnosed patients and 10 with refractory disease. Two months after TEA, angiography and contrast computed tomography (CT) were performed, and responses were assessed using a modified version of Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST version 1.1). The follow-up period was to June 30, 2010.
RESULTS: Every new case was treated once. Angiography was performed immediately after TEA, and showed that the tumor-feeding vessels were completely embolized and that lipiodol was densely deposited inside tumors. Two months after treatment, contrast CT showed no enhanced lesions. Alpha fetoprotein levels returned to normal in four patients and markedly decreased in another. mean ± SD survival after treatment was 10.8 ± 4.5 mo. All five patients survived during the follow-up period. Ten patients with refractory disease were treated a total of 14 times. Angiography immediately after TEA showed that blood flow to the tumors was obviously decreased in all cases, and contrast CT showed obvious depositions of lipiodol. Two months after treatment, the tumors had shrunk (6/10) or were stable (3/10). One had progressed after 2 mo and died of tumor rupture 3 mo after TEA. mean ± SD survival after treatment was 8.6 ± 4.3 mo; two patients survived during the follow-up period. Adverse effects included reversible hepatic decompensation, upper abdominal pain, and fever.
CONCLUSION: TEA is an effective therapy for patients with HCC and might be more effective than transcather arterial chemoembolization for treating refractory disease.
PMCID: PMC2997995  PMID: 21128329
Transarterial embolization ablation; Lipiodol-ethanol mixture; Hepatocellular carcinoma
2.  Changes in Histone H3 Lysine 36 Methylation in Porcine Oocytes and Preimplantation Embryos 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e100205.
Histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36) methylation is known to be associated with transcriptionally active genes, and is considered a genomic marker of active loci. To investigate the changes in H3K36 methylation in pig, we determined the mono-, di-, and tri-methylations of H3K36 (H3K36me1, H3K36me2 and H3K36me3, respectively) in porcine fetal fibroblasts, oocytes and preimplantation embryos by immunocytochemistry using specific antibodies and confocal microscopy. These analyses revealed that only H3K36me3 in porcine fetal fibroblasts consistently colocalized with transcription sites identified as actively synthesizing RNA based on fluorouridine (FU) incorporation. Treatment of cells with flavopiridol, which blocks transcription elongation, completely abrogated both H3K36me3 signals and RNA synthesis. All three types of H3K36 methylation were present and did not significantly differ during oocyte maturation. In parthenogenetic embryos, H3K36me1 and -me2 were detected in 1-cell through blastocyst-stage embryos. In contrast, H3K36me3 was not detected in most 1-cell stage embryos. H3K36me3 signals became detectable in 2-cell stage embryos, peaked at the 4-cell stage, decreased at the 8-cell stage, and then became undetectable at blastocyst stages in both parthenogenetic and in vitro-fertilized (IVF) embryos. Unlike the case in IVF embryos, H3K36me3 could not be demethylated completely during the 1-cell stage in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. These results collectively indicate that H3K36me3, but not H3K36me1 or -me2, is associated with transcription elongation in porcine fetal fibroblasts. H3K36me3 is developmentally regulated and may be a histone mark of embryonic gene activation in pig. Aberrant H3K36 tri-methylation occurred during the nuclear reprogramming of SCNT embryos.
PMCID: PMC4057445  PMID: 24927323
3.  Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Colorectal Carcinogenesis: A Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e93904.
This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) in colorectal carcinogenesis.
The PubMed, CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases were searched from inception through November 1st, 2013 without language restrictions. Odds ratios (ORs) or standardized mean differences (SMD) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated.
Fourteen case-control studies met the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. A total of 1,209 colorectal cancer (CRC) cases and 1,218 healthy controls were involved in this meta-analysis. Two common polymorphisms (299 A>G and 399 C>T) in the TLR-4 gene, TLR-4 mRNA and protein expression were assessed. Our meta-analysis results revealed that the TLR-4 399 C>T polymorphism might increase the risk of CRC (allele model: OR = 1.77, 95%CI = 1.32∼2.36, P<0.001; dominant model: OR = 1.83, 95%CI = 1.32∼2.52, P<0.001; respectively). However, we found no correlation between the TLR-4 299 A>G polymorphism and CRC risk (all P>0.05). A subgroup analysis by ethnicity suggested that TLR-4 genetic polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of CRC among Asians (allele model: OR = 1.50, 95%CI = 1.19∼1.88, P = 0.001; dominant model: OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.16∼1.92, P = 0.002; respectively), but not among Caucasians and Africans (all P>0.05). Furthermore, our results showed that TLR-4 mRNA and protein levels in CRC patients were higher than those in healthy controls (TLR-4 mRNA: SMD  = 2.51, 95%CI  = 0.98∼4.05, P = 0.001; TLR-4 protein: OR  = 4.75, 95%CI  = 1.16∼19.36, P = 0.030; respectively).
Our findings provide empirical evidence that TLR-4 may play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Thus, TLR-4 is a promising potential biomarker for the early diagnosis of CRC.
PMCID: PMC3976338  PMID: 24705379
4.  Association between thrombelastography system and thromboembolic and bleeding events in Chinese aged people 
Objectives: This study was designed to obtain the knowledge about TEG indexes distribution in Chinese aged people, as well as to test the hypothesis that previous TEG indexes are associated with the subsequent thromboembolic and bleeding events in the aged population. Methods: We conducted a two-year follow-up study in Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China. 403 aged people were enrolled in our study. They received TEG measurements at least once when they entered this study. We collected their demographical characteristics, clinical examination information and their outcome during their observational period. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the relationship between the four indexes from TEG and the outcome via a pathway of indicator. Results: We found that in the “model of bleeding” (adjusted by confounding of Anticoagulants), the model fit indices with chi-square/df = 9.555/7, CFI was 0.997, TLI was 0.994 and standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) was 0.034; while in the “model of thromboembolic events” (adjusted by confounding of Anticoagulants), the model fit indices with chi-square/df = 6.070/7, CFI was1.000, TLI was 1.002 and standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) was 0.000. The “model of thromboembolic events” showed that the four indexes (R, K, MA and ANGLE) were all significantly associated with thromboembolic events, while this significance was not found in the “model of bleeding”. Conclusions: Previous TEG indexes are significantly associated with the subsequent thromboembolic events in the aged population. Future study can test this association and provide more information for the clinical use.
PMCID: PMC3631558  PMID: 23641310
Thrombelastography (TEG); thromboembolic event; bleeding; Chinese aged population; structural equation modeling (SEM)
5.  NEMO is a key component of NF-κB- and IRF-3-dependent TLR3-mediated immunity to herpes simplex virus 
Children with germline mutations in TLR3, UNC93B1, TRAF3 and STAT1 are prone to herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE), owing to impaired TLR3-triggered, UNC-93B-dependent, interferon (IFN)-α/β and/or -λ-mediated STAT1-dependent immunity.
We explore here the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of HSE in a child with a hypomorphic mutation in NEMO, which encodes the regulatory subunit of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex.
The TLR3 signaling pathway was investigated in the patient's fibroblasts by analyses of IFN-β, -λ, and IL-6 mRNA and protein levels, by quantitative PCR and ELISA, respectively, upon TLR3 stimulation (TLR3 agonists or TLR3-dependent viruses). NF-κB activation was assessed by EMSA and IRF-3 dimerization on native gels after stimulation with a TLR3 agonist.
The patient's fibroblasts displayed impaired responses to TLR3 stimulation in terms of IFN-β, -λ, and IL-6 production, owing to impaired activation of both NF-κB and IRF-3. Moreover, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a potent IFN-inducer in human fibroblasts, and HSV-1, induced only low levels of IFN-β and -λ in the patient's fibroblasts, resulting in enhanced viral replication and cell death, as reported for UNC-93B-deficient fibroblasts.
HSE may occur in patients carrying NEMO mutations, due to the impairment of NF-κB- and IRF-3-dependent-TLR3-mediated antiviral IFN production.
PMCID: PMC3164951  PMID: 21722947
NEMO; immunodeficiency; Toll-like receptor 3; herpes simplex encephalitis
6.  4-(4-Chloro­benzo­yl)-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl 4-chloro­benzoate 
In the title compound, C24H16Cl2N2O3, the three benzene rings are twisted with respect to the central pyrazole ring, making dihedral angles of 71.56 (9) (4-chloro­benzo­yloxy), 57.55 (8) (4-chloro­benzo­yl) and 39.33 (1)° (phen­yl).
PMCID: PMC3239043  PMID: 22199891
7.  3-Methyl-4-{[(3-{[(3-methyl-5-oxo-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl­idene)(phen­yl)meth­yl]amino­meth­yl}benz­yl)amino](phen­yl)methyl­idene}-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one 
The complete mol­ecule of the title compound, C42H36N6O2, is generated by a crystallographic twofold axis with two C atoms of the central phenyl group lying on the axis. In the independent part of the mol­ecule, one amino group is involved in an intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond, and the two adjacent phenyl rings are twisted from the plane of the pyrazolone ring with dihedral angles of 6.82 (3) and 88.32 (6)°. The crystal packing exhibits no classical inter­molecular contacts.
PMCID: PMC3213468  PMID: 22091047
8.  trans-3,3′,4,5′-Tetra­meth­oxy­stilbene 
The title compound, C18H20O4, was synthesized by a Wittig–Horner reaction of diethyl 3,4-dimeth­oxy­benzyl­phosphate and 3,5-dimeth­oxy­benzaldehyde. In the crystal, the dihedral angle between the two aromatic rings is 2.47 (12)°. All the meth­oxy groups are almost coplanar with the aromatic ring to which they are attached [C—C—O—C torsion angles = −2.8 (3), −5.2 (4), −176.3 (2) and −178.0 (2)°].
PMCID: PMC3212342  PMID: 22090999
9.  Ethyl 5-methyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxyl­ate 
In the title mol­ecule, C8H11NO2, the r.m.s. deviation of non-H atoms from their best plane is 0.031 Å. Mol­ecules are connected via a pair of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a centrosymmetric dimer.
PMCID: PMC3151843  PMID: 21836994
10.  Ethyl 2-(1H-1,2,3-benzotriazol-1-yl)acetate 
The title compound, C10H11N3O2, was synthesized by the reaction of 1H-benzotriazole with ethyl 2-chloro­acetate in ethanol. The non-H atoms, excluding the benzotriazol-1-yl group, are almost coplanar (r.m.s. deviation of the non-H atoms = 0.0409 Å). The dihedral angle formed between this plane and the benzotriazole ring is 79.12 (5)° In the crystal, weak inter­molecular C—H⋯N and C—H⋯O inter­actions help to consolidate the three-dimensional network.
PMCID: PMC3050192  PMID: 21522649
11.  2-Chloro-N-methyl-N-phenyl­acetamide 
In the title compound, C9H10ClNO, the non-H atoms, excluding the phenyl group, are almost coplanar (r.m.s. deviation of the non-H atoms = 0.1015 Å). The dihedral angle formed between this plane and the benzene ring is 87.07 (5)°. Weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions help to stabilize the packing.
PMCID: PMC3050318  PMID: 21522779
12.  (E,E)-3,3′-Dimethyl-1,1′-diphenyl-4,4′-{[3-aza­pentane-1,5-diylbis(aza­nedi­yl)]bis­(phenyl­methyl­idyne)}di-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one 
The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C38H37N7O2, contains one half-mol­ecule, situated on a twofold rotational axis, in which one amino group is involved in intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond and the two phenyl rings are twisted from the plane of pyrazolone ring by 26.69 (10) and 79.64 (8)°. The crystal packing exhibits no classical inter­molecular contacts.
PMCID: PMC3011678  PMID: 21589602
13.  Ethyl 3,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxyl­ate 
The non-H atoms of the title compound, C9H13NO2, are almost coplanar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0358 Å). Weak inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into zigzag chains along the b axis with graph-set motif C(5). The chains are further linked into a three-dimensional network by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions.
PMCID: PMC3008020  PMID: 21588658
14.  N-(4-Chloro­phen­yl)-2-(8-quinol­yloxy)acetamide monohydrate 
In the title compound, C17H13ClN2O2·H2O, the dihedral angle between the quinoline ring system and the benzene ring is 13.0 (1)°. An intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond may influence the mol­ecular conformation. In the crystal structure, acetamide mol­ecules are linked to water mol­ecules via inter­molecular O—H⋯ N and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and in turn linked into chains along [010] via O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds.
PMCID: PMC3007349  PMID: 21588294
15.  Ethyl 3,4-dimethyl-5-[(E)-(phenyl­imino)­meth­yl]-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxyl­ate 
In the title compound, C16H18N2O2, the mol­ecule adopts an E conformation about the C=N double bond. The dihedral angle between the pyrrole and phenyl rings is 41.55 (8)°. In the crystal structure, pairs of inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into centrosymmetric dimers. In the dimer, the two pyrrole rings are almost coplanar and the two phenyl rings are parallel to each other.
PMCID: PMC3006869  PMID: 21587883
16.  Serious response during tilt-table test in elderly and its prophylactic management 
Objective: To evaluate the serious response during tilt-table test (TTT) and its prophylactic management. Method: Seventy-six elderly patients were tested at a tilt angle of 70 degrees for a maximum of 45 min and then subjected to isoproterenol-provocative tilt testing. ECG and blood pressure were monitored during the test and patients were kept at normal saline condition through a peripheral intravenous duct. Results: Fifty-one of 76 patients were defined as positive including 23 having serious response; 6 of the 23 patients had arteriosclerosis involving internal carotid arteries and 7 cases had bradycardia, two of which were associated with II°-I A-V block and the others with chronic atrial fibrillation. The serious response consisted of cardiac arrest for more than 5 s (6 cases), or serious bradycardia for more than 1 min (7 cases) or serious hypotension for more than 1 min (10 cases). Those with serious response were managed by returning to supine position, thus driving up legs and intravenous atropine, CPR (2 cases with cardiac arrest) and needing oxygen supplementation (11 cases). Only 2 hypotension patients recovered gradually by 10 min after emergency management, while others recovered rapidly with no complications. Conclusion: Although non-invasive, TTT may result in serious response, especially in elderly. Therefore proper patient selection, control of isoproterenol infusion and close observation of vital signs are decisive for a safe consequence.
PMCID: PMC1389741  PMID: 15754430
Tilt-table test (TTT); Vasovagal syncope (VVS); Serious response; Prophylactic management

Results 1-16 (16)