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1.  SIRT4 Represses Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Activity To Suppress Hepatic Fat Oxidation 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2013;33(22):4552-4561.
Sirtuins are a family of protein deacetylases, deacylases, and ADP-ribosyltransferases that regulate life span, control the onset of numerous age-associated diseases, and mediate metabolic homeostasis. We have uncovered a novel role for the mitochondrial sirtuin SIRT4 in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism during changes in nutrient availability. We show that SIRT4 levels decrease in the liver during fasting and that SIRT4 null mice display increased expression of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) target genes associated with fatty acid catabolism. Accordingly, primary hepatocytes from SIRT4 knockout (KO) mice exhibit higher rates of fatty acid oxidation than wild-type hepatocytes, and SIRT4 overexpression decreases fatty acid oxidation rates. The enhanced fatty acid oxidation observed in SIRT4 KO hepatocytes requires functional SIRT1, demonstrating a clear cross talk between mitochondrial and nuclear sirtuins. Thus, SIRT4 is a new component of mitochondrial signaling in the liver and functions as an important regulator of lipid metabolism.
PMCID: PMC3838178  PMID: 24043310
2.  The NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside enhances oxidative metabolism and protects against high-fat diet induced obesity 
Cell metabolism  2012;15(6):838-847.
As NAD+ is a rate-limiting co-substrate for the sirtuin enzymes, its modulation is emerging as a valuable tool to regulate sirtuin function and, consequently, oxidative metabolism. In line with this premise, decreased activity of PARP-1 or CD38 —both NAD+ consumers— increases NAD+ bioavailability, resulting in SIRT1 activation and protection against metabolic disease. Here we evaluated whether similar effects could be achieved by increasing the supply of nicotinamide riboside (NR), a recently described natural NAD+ precursor with the ability to increase NAD+ levels, Sir2-dependent gene silencing and replicative lifespan in yeast. We show that NR supplementation in mammalian cells and mouse tissues increases NAD+ levels and activates SIRT1 and SIRT3, culminating in enhanced oxidative metabolism and protection against high fat diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. Consequently, our results indicate that the natural vitamin, NR, could be used as a nutritional supplement to ameliorate metabolic and age-related disorders characterized by defective mitochondrial function.
PMCID: PMC3616313  PMID: 22682224
3.  PARP-1 inhibition increases mitochondrial metabolism through SIRT1 activation 
Cell metabolism  2011;13(4):461-468.
SIRT1 regulates energy homeostasis by controlling the acetylation status and activity of a number of enzymes and transcriptional regulators. The fact that NAD+ levels control SIRT1 activity confers a hypothetical basis for the design of new strategies to activate SIRT1 by increasing NAD+ availability. Here we show that the deletion of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) gene, encoding a major NAD+-consuming enzyme, increases NAD+ content and SIRT1 activity in brown adipose tissue and muscle. PARP-1−/− mice phenocopied many aspects of SIRT1 activation, such as a higher mitochondrial content, increased energy expenditure, and protection against metabolic disease. Also, the pharmacologic inhibition of PARP in vitro and in vivo increased NAD+ content, SIRT1 activity and enhanced oxidative metabolism. These data show how PARP-1 inhibition has strong metabolic implications through the modulation of SIRT1 activity, a property that not only could be useful in the management of metabolic diseases but also of cancer.
PMCID: PMC3086520  PMID: 21459330
caloric restriction; longevity; mitochondria; NAD+; oxidative phosphorylation; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α; poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; SIRT1
4.  PARP-2 regulates SIRT1 expression and whole body energy expenditure 
Cell metabolism  2011;13(4):450-460.
SIRT1 is a NAD+-dependent enzyme that affects metabolism by deacetylating key transcriptional regulators of energy expenditure. Here we tested whether deletion of PARP-2, an alternative NAD+ consuming enzyme, impacts on NAD+ bioavailability and SIRT1 activity. Our results indicate that PARP-2 deficiency increases SIRT1 activity in cultured myotubes. However, this increase was not due to changes in NAD+ levels, but to an increase in SIRT1 expression, as PARP-2 acts as a direct negative regulator of the SIRT1 promoter. PARP-2 deletion in mice increases SIRT1 levels, promotes energy expenditure, and increases mitochondrial content. Furthermore, PARP-2−/− mice were protected against diet-induced obesity. Despite being insulin sensitized, PARP-2−/− mice were glucose intolerant due to a defective pancreatic function. Hence, while inhibition of PARP activity promotes oxidative metabolism through SIRT1 activation, the use of PARP inhibitors for metabolic purposes will require further understanding of the specific functions of different PARP family members.
PMCID: PMC3108571  PMID: 21459329
SIRT1; poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2); peroxisome proliferator activated receptor coactivator 1α (PGC-1α); NAD+
5.  Characterization of Nicotinamidases: Steady-State Kinetic Parameters, Class-wide Inhibition by Nicotinaldehydes and Catalytic Mechanism† 
Biochemistry  2010;49(49):10421-10439.
Nicotinamidases are metabolic enzymes that hydrolyze nicotinamide to nicotinic acid. These enzymes are widely distributed across biology, with examples found encoded in the genomes of Mycobacteria, Archaea, Eubacteria, Protozoa, yeast and invertebrates but there are none found in mammals. Although recent structural work has improved understanding of these enzymes, their catalytic mechanism is still not well understood. Recent data shows that nicotinamidases are required for growth and virulence of several pathogenic microbes. The enzymes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans regulate lifespan in their respective organisms, consistent with proposed roles in the regulation of NAD+ metabolism and organismal aging. In this manuscript, the steady state kinetic parameters of nicotinamidase enzymes from C. elegans, S. cerevisiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae (a pathogen responsible for human pneumonia), Borrelia burgdorferi (the pathogen that causes Lyme Disease) and Plasmodium falciparum (responsible for most human malaria) are reported. Nicotinamidases are generally efficient catalysts with steady state kcat values typically exceeding 1 s−1. The Km values for nicotinamide are low and are in the range from 2 – 110 µM. Nicotinaldehyde was determined to be a potent competitive inhibitor of these enzymes, binding in the low µM to low nM range for all nicotinamidases tested. A variety of nicotinaldehyde derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors in kinetic assays. Inhibitions are consistent with reaction of the universally conserved catalytic Cys on each enzyme with the aldehyde carbonyl carbon to form a thiohemiacetal complex which is stabilized by a conserved oxyanion hole. The S. pneumoniae nicotinamidase can catalyse exchange of 18O into the carboxy oxygens of nicotinic acid with 18O-water. The collected data, along with kinetic analysis of several mutants, allowed us to propose a catalytic mechanism that explains nicotinamidase and nicotinic acid 18O exchange chemistry for the S. pneumoniae enzyme involving key catalytic residues, a catalytic transition metal ion and the intermediacy of a thioester intermediate.
PMCID: PMC3010197  PMID: 20979384
6.  High Resolution Crystal Structures of Streptococcus pneumoniae Nicotinamidase with Trapped Intermediates Provide Insights into Catalytic Mechanism and Inhibition by Aldehydes∥,‡ 
Biochemistry  2010;49(40):8803-8812.
Nicotinamidases are salvage enzymes that convert nicotinamide to nicotinic acid. These enzymes are essential for the recycling of nicotinamide into NAD+ in most prokaryotes, most single cell and multicellular eukaryotes, but not in mammals. The significance of these enzymes for nicotinamide salvage and for NAD+ homeostasis has increased interest in nicotinamidases as possible antibiotic targets. Nicotinamidases are also regulators of intracellular nicotinamide concentrations, thereby regulating signaling of downstream NAD+ consuming enzymes, such as the NAD+-dependent deacetylases (sirtuins). Here, we report several high resolution crystal structures of the nicotinamidase from Streptococcus pneumoniae (SpNic) in unliganded and ligand-bound forms. The structure of the C136S mutant in complex with nicotinamide provides details about substrate binding while a trapped nicotinoyl-thioester complexed with SpNic reveals the structure of the proposed thioester reaction intermediate. Examination of the active site of SpNic reveals several important features including a metal ion that coordinates the substrate and the catalytically relevant water molecule, and an oxyanion hole which both orients the substrate and offsets the negative charge that builds up during catalysis. Structures of this enzyme with bound nicotinaldehyde inhibitors elucidate the mechanism of inhibition and provide further details about the catalytic mechanism. In addition, we provide a biochemical analysis of the identity and role of the metal ion that orients the ligand in the active site and activates the water molecule responsible for hydrolysis of the substrate. These data provide structural evidence for several proposed reaction intermediates and allow for a more complete understanding of the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme.
PMCID: PMC3006156  PMID: 20853856
7.  Transition state of ADP-ribosylation of acetyllysine catalyzed by Archeaglobus fulgidus Sir2 determined by kinetic isotope effects and computational approaches 
Journal of the American Chemical Society  2010;132(35):12286-12298.
Sirtuins are protein modifying enzymes distributed throughout all forms of life. These enzymes bind NAD+, a universal metabolite, and react it with acetyllysine residues to effect deacetylation of protein side chains. This NAD+-dependent deacetylation reaction has been observed for sirtuin enzymes derived from archaeal, eubacterial, yeast, metazoan and mammalian species, suggesting conserved chemical mechanisms for these enzymes. The first chemical step of deacetylation is the reaction of NAD+ with an acetyllysine residue which forms an enzyme-bound ADPR-peptidylimidate intermediate and nicotinamide. In this manuscript, the transition state for the ADP-ribosylation of acetyllysine is solved for an Archaeaglobus fulgidus sirtuin (Af2Sir2). Kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) were obtained by the competitive substrate method and were [1N-15N] = 1.024(2), [1′N-14C] = 1.014(4), [1′N-3H] = 1.300(3), [2′N-3H] =1.099(5), [4′N-3H] = 0.997(2), [5′N-3H] = 1.020(5), [4′N-18O] = 0.984(5). KIEs were calculated for candidate transition state structures using computational methods (Gaussian 03 and ISOEFF 98) in order to match computed and experimentally determined KIEs to solve the transition state. The results indicate that the enzyme stabilizes a highly dissociated oxocarbenium ion-like transition state with very low bond orders to the leaving group nicotinamide and the nucleophile acetyllysine. A concerted yet highly asynchronous substitution mechanism forms the ADPR-peptidylimidate intermediate of the sirtuin deacetylation reaction.
PMCID: PMC2952425  PMID: 20718419
8.  Mechanism-based affinity capture of sirtuins† 
Organic & biomolecular chemistry  2010;9(4):987-993.
The ability to probe for catalytic activities of enzymes and to detect their abundance in complex biochemical contexts has traditionally relied on a combination of kinetic assays and techniques such as western blots that use expensive reagents such as antibodies. The ability to simultaneously detect activity and isolate a protein catalyst from a mixture is even more difficult and currently impossible in most cases. In this manuscript we describe a chemical approach that achieves this goal for a unique family of enzymes called sirtuins using novel chemical tools, enabling rapid detection of activity and isolation of these protein catalysts. Sirtuin deacetylases are implicated in the regulation of many physiological functions including energy metabolism, DNA-damage response, and cellular stress resistance. We synthesized an aminooxy-derivatized NAD+ and a pan-sirtuin inhibitor that reacts on sirtuin active sites to form a chemically stable complex that can subsequently be crosslinked to an aldehyde-substituted biotin. Subsequent retrieval of the biotinylated sirtuin complexes on streptavidin beads followed by gel electrophoresis enabled simultaneous detection of active sirtuins, isolation and molecular weight determination. We show that these tools are cross reactive against a variety of human sirtuin isoforms including SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3, SIRT5, SIRT6 and can react with microbial derived sirtuins as well. Finally, we demonstrate the ability to simultaneously detect multiple sirtuin isoforms in reaction mixtures with this methodology, establishing proof of concept tools for chemical studies of sirtuins in complex biological samples.
PMCID: PMC3135177  PMID: 21184005
9.  Diastereocontrolled Electrophilic Fluorinations of 2-Deoxyribonolactone: Syntheses of All Corresponding 2-Deoxy-2-fluoro-lactones and 2’-Deoxy-2’-fluoro-NAD+s 
The Journal of organic chemistry  2009;74(16):5779-5789.
Methods to construct 2’-deoxy-2’-fluoro-nucleosides have undergone limited improvement in the last twenty years in spite of substantially increased value of these compounds as pharmaceuticals and as tools for studying biological processes. We herein describe a consolidated approach to synthesize precursors to these commercially and scientifically valuable compounds via diastereocontrolled fluorination of the readily available precursor 2-deoxy-d-ribonolactone. With employment of appropriate sterically bulky silyl protecting groups at 3 and 5 positions, controlled electrophilic fluorination of the Li-ribonolactone enolate by N-fluorodibenezenesulfonamide yielded the corresponding 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-arabino-lactone in high isolated yield (72 %). The protected 2-deoxy-2, 2-difluoro-ribonolactone was obtained similarly in high yield from a second round of electrophilic fluorination (2 steps, 51% from protected ribonolactone starting material). Accomplishment of the difficult ribo-fluorination of the lactone was achieved by the directive effects of a diastereoselectively installed α-trimethylsilyl group. Electrophilic fluorination of a protected 2-deoxy-2-trimethylsilyl-arabino-lactone via enolate generation provided the protected 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-ribo-lactone as the exclusive fluorinated product. The reaction also yielded the starting material, the desilylated protected 2-deoxy-ribonolactone, which was recycled to provide a 38% chemical yield of the fluorinated product (versus initial protected ribonolactone) after consecutive silylation and fluorination cycles. Using our fluorinated sugar precursors we prepared the 2’-fluoro-arabino-, 2’-fluoro-ribo- and 2’,2’-difluoro-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides (NAD+) of potential biological interest. These syntheses provide the most consolidated and efficient methods for production of sugar precursors of 2’-deoxy-2’-fluoronucleosides and have the advantage of utilizing an air-stable electrophilic fluorinating agent. The fluorinated NAD+s are anticipated to be useful for studying a variety of cellular metabolic and signaling processes.
PMCID: PMC2789425  PMID: 19958035
10.  Plasmodium falciparum Sir2 is an NAD+-dependent deacetylase and an acetyllysine-dependent and acetyllysine-independent NAD+ glycohydrolase† 
Biochemistry  2008;47(38):10227-10239.
Sirtuins are NAD+-dependent enzymes that deacetylate a variety of cellular proteins and in some cases catalyze protein ADP-ribosyltransfer. The catalytic mechanism of deacetylation is proposed to involve an ADPR-peptidylimidate, whereas the mechanism of ADP-ribosyltransfer to proteins is undetermined. Herein we characterize a Plasmodium falciparum sirtuin that catalyzes deacetylation of histone peptide sequences. Interestingly, the enzyme can also hydrolyze NAD+. Two mechanisms of hydrolysis were identified and characterized. One is independent of acetyllysine substrate and produces α-stereochemistry as established by reaction of methanol which forms α-1-O-methyl-ADPR. This reaction is insensitive to nicotinamide inhibition. The second solvolytic mechanism is dependent on acetylated peptide and is proposed to involve the imidate to generate β-stereochemistry. Stereochemistry was established by isolation of β-1-O-methyl-ADPR when methanol was added as a co-solvent. This solvolytic reaction was inhibited by nicotinamide, suggesting that nicotinamide and solvent compete for the imidate. These findings establish new reactions of wildtype sirtuins and suggest possible mechanisms for ADP-ribosylation to proteins. These findings also illustrate the potential utility of nicotinamide as a probe for mechanisms of sirtuin catalyzed ADP-ribosyltransfer.
PMCID: PMC2732577  PMID: 18729382
11.  Glucose Restriction Inhibits Skeletal Myoblast Differentiation by Activating SIRT1 through AMPK-Mediated Regulation of Nampt 
Developmental cell  2008;14(5):661-673.
It is intuitive to speculate that nutrient availability may influence differentiation of mammalian cells. Nonetheless, a comprehensive complement of the molecular determinants involved in this process has not been elucidated yet. Here, we have investigated how nutrients (glucose) affect skeletal myogenesis. Glucose restriction (GR) impaired differentiation of skeletal myoblasts and was associated with activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activated AMPK was required to promote GR-induced transcription of the NAD+ biosynthetic enzyme Nampt. Indeed, GR augmented the Nampt activity, which consequently modified the intracellular [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio and nicotinamide levels, and mediated inhibition of skeletal myogenesis. Skeletal myoblasts derived from SIRT1+/− heterozygous mice were resistant to the effects of either GR or AMPK activation. These experiments reveal that AMPK, Nampt, and SIRT1 are the molecular components of a functional signaling pathway that allows skeletal muscle cells to sense and react to nutrient availability.
PMCID: PMC2431467  PMID: 18477450

Results 1-11 (11)