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1.  A molecular signature for the prediction of recurrence in colorectal cancer 
Molecular Cancer  2015;14(1):22.
Background
Several clinical and pathological factors have an impact on the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC), but they are not yet adequate for risk assessment. We aimed to identify a molecular signature that can reliably identify CRC patients at high risk for recurrence.
Results
Two hundred eighty-one CRC samples (stage II/III) were included in this study. A two-step gene expression profiling study was conducted. First, gene expression measurements from 81 fresh frozen CRC samples were obtained using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays. Second, a focused gene expression assay, including prognostic genes and genes of interest from literature reviews, was performed using 200 fresh frozen samples and a Taqman low-density array (TLDA) analysis. An optimal 31-gene expression classifier for the prediction of recurrence among patients with stage II/III CRC was developed using logistic regression analysis. This gene expression signature classified 58.5% of patients as low-risk and 41.5% as high-risk (P < 0.001). The signature was the strongest independent prognostic factor in the multivariate analysis. The five-year relapse-free survival (RFS) rates for the low-risk patients and the high-risk patients were 88.5% and 41.3% (P < 0.001), respectively.
Conclusion
We identified a 31-gene expression signature that is closely associated with the clinical outcome of stage II/III CRC patients.
doi:10.1186/s12943-015-0296-2
PMCID: PMC4320628  PMID: 25645394
Molecular signature; Gene expression; Colorectal cancer; Recurrence
2.  FOXM1 Promotes Lung Adenocarcinoma Invasion and Metastasis by Upregulating SNAIL 
The forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) transcription factor is one of the key genes inducing tumor invasion and metastasis by an unknown mechanism. In this study, we set out to investigate the effects of FOXM1 overexpression on metastatic human lung adenocarcinoma and the underlying mechanism. FOXM1 expression was analyzed in 78 frozen lung adenocarcinoma tissue samples using an Affymetrix microarray and a 155-paraffin-embedded lung adenocarcinoma tissue microarray with immunohistochemical detection. FOXM1 was found to be overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma, particularly in metastatic patients, compared to non-metastatic patients. Knockdown of FOXM1 by a specific siRNA significantly suppressed EMT progression, migration and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro, and tumor growth and metastasis in vivo, whereas restored expression of FOXM1 had the opposite effect. FOXM1 binds directly to the SNAIL promoter through two specific binding sites and constitutively transactivates it. Collectively, our findings indicate that FOXM1 may play an important role in advancing lung adenocarcinoma progression. Aberrant FOXM1 expression directly and constitutively activates SNAIL, thereby promoting lung adenocarcinoma metastasis. Inhibition of FOXM1-SNAIL signaling may present an ideal target for future treatment.
doi:10.7150/ijbs.10634
PMCID: PMC4279094  PMID: 25561901
Lung adenocarcinoma; Invasion; Metastasis; FOXM1; SNAIL
3.  Clinicopathological and genetic features of Chinese hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) 
The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical value of different criteria and to understand the relationship between genotype and phenotype in Chinese hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). A total of 116 unrelated probands of suspected HNPCC families from the Fudan Colorectal Registry were studied. A total of 32, 28, and 56 families fulfilled the Amsterdam criteria, the Fudan criteria and the revised Bethesda guideline, respectively. Direct DNA sequencing of all exons of hMSH2 and hMLH1 genes were performed on all 116 samples. Mutations and clinicopathological features were compared between the groups. Thirty-two pathological germline mutations were identified. Out of 32 mutations, 16 were located at hMLH1 and 16 at hMSH2. The sensitivity of Amsterdam criteria was 50 %, specificity was 81 %, and Youden’s index was 31 %. The sensitivity of Fudan criteria was 75 %, specificity was 58 %, and Youden’s index was 33 %. Among all the 32 families with mutations, families with hMSH2 mutation had a higher ratio of synchronous and metachronous colon cancers than families with hMLH1 mutation (33 vs. 6 %, P = 0.04). Patients with hMSH2 mutation more frequently harbour synchronous and metachronous colon cancers. Fudan criteria had a little higher sensitivity and accuracy than Amsterdam criteria for identification of Chinese HNPCC.
doi:10.1007/s12032-014-0223-1
PMCID: PMC4162985  PMID: 25216868
HNPCC; Clinicopathological features; MLH1/MSH2 mutations; Clinical criteria
4.  PIWIL2 induces c-Myc expression by interacting with NME2 and regulates c-Myc-mediated tumor cell proliferation 
Oncotarget  2014;5(18):8466-8477.
c-Myc serves as a crucial regulator in multiple cellular events. Cumulative evidences demonstrate that anomalous c-Myc overexpression correlates with proliferation, invasion and metastasis in various human tumors. However, the transcriptionally activating mechanisms responsible for c-Myc overexpression are complex and continue to be intangible. Here we showed that Piwi-Like RNA-Mediated Gene Silencing 2 (PIWIL2) can upregulate c-Myc via binding with NME/NM23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 (NME2). PIWIL2 promotes c-Myc transcription by interacting with and facilitating NME2 to bind to G4-motif region within c-Myc promoter. Interestingly, in a c-Myc-mediated manner, PIWIL2 upregulates RhoA, which in turn induces filamentary F-actin. Deficiency of PIWIL2 results in obstacle for c-Myc expression, cell cycle progress and cell proliferation. Taken together, our present work demonstrates that PIWIL2 modulates tumor cell proliferation and F-actin filaments via promoting c-Myc expression.
PMCID: PMC4226697  PMID: 25193865
PIWIL2; c-Myc; NME2; Proliferation; F-actin
5.  CDK11p58 inhibits ERα-positive breast cancer invasion by targeting integrin β3 via the repression of ERα signaling 
BMC Cancer  2014;14(1):577.
Background
CDK11p58, a Ser/Thr kinase that belongs to the cell division cycle 2-like 1 (CDC2L1) subfamily, is associated with cell cycle progression, tumorigenesis and apoptotic signaling. CDK11p58 is also involved in the regulation of steroid receptors, such as androgen and estrogen receptors. We previously found that CDK11p58 was abnormally expressed in prostate cancer. However, its role in breast cancer remains unclear.
Methods
CDK11p58 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining in a tissue array. A Transwell assay was used to detect invasion and metastasis in breast cancer cells. The TaqMan® Metastasis Gene Expression Assay was used to search for potential downstream factors in the CDK11p58 signaling pathway. qRT-PCR was used to evaluate mRNA levels, and the dual luciferase array was used to analyze promoter activity. Western blotting was used to detect the protein level.
Results
CDK11p58 expression was negatively correlated with node status (P = 0.012), relapse status (P = 0.002) and metastasis status (P = 0.023). Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated that the disease-free survival (DFS) was significantly poor in breast cancer patients with low CDK11 expression. Interestingly, using the breast cancer cell lines ZR-75-30 and MDA-MB-231, we found that CDK11p58 was capable of repressing the migration and invasion of ERα-positive breast cancer cells, but not ERα-negative breast cancer cells, in a kinase-dependent manner. Gene expression assays demonstrated that integrin β3 mRNA was dramatically repressed by CDK11p58, and luciferase results confirmed that the integrin β3 promoter was inhibited by CDK11p58 through ERα repression. The expression of integrin β3 was highly related to ERα signaling; ERα overexpression stimulated integrin β3 expression, whereas siRNA-mediated knockdown of ERα attenuated integrin β3 expression.
Conclusions
These data indicate that CDK11p58 is an anti-metastatic gene in ERα-positive breast cancer and that the regulation of integrin β3 by CDK11p58 via the repression of ERα signaling may constitute part of a signaling pathway underlying breast cancer invasion.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-577
PMCID: PMC4138392  PMID: 25106495
CDK11p58; Metastasis; Integrinβ3; ERα; Tissue array; TaqMan assay
6.  Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast with unusual basal-HER2 phenotype 
Objectives: To report three cases of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast with an unusual “basal-HER2” phenotype. Methods: Clinical data were analyzed. Morphological features were observed. Immunohistochemical study for ER, PR, HER2, Ki-67, CK 5/6, CK10/13, CK14, EGFR, P63 and FISH detection of HER2 gene amplification were performed. Results: Three patients were all female with 26, 57 and 66 years old. The tumors were 3 cm, 4 cm and 5 cm in size respectively. Morphologically, all three tumors were pure squamous cell carcinoma and entirely composed metaplastic squamous cells. Two tumors were moderately differentiated and one was poorly differentiated. All three patients were positive for P63 or CK10/13. All three tumors exhibited basal-HER2 phenotype: negative for ER and PR, positive for HER2 protein and HER2 gene amplification, and positive for at least two basal markers. Conclusions: SCC with basal-HER2 phenotype is an extremely rare subset of breast carcinoma. Since it may have worse prognosis than typical basal-like SCC, recognization of this unusual SCC in routine work may have obvious clinical significance.
PMCID: PMC4152088  PMID: 25197398
Squmous cell carcinoma; basal-HER2 phenotype; breast cancer
7.  Long-term follow-up of whole lung lavage in patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis 
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disorder characterized by intra-alveolar accumulation of lipid and proteinaceous material. While a small subset of patients with PAP spontaneously improve or even undergo disease remission, the majority of patients develop persistent or progressive disease. Numerous therapies have been used to treat PAP over the years; however, at present, whole lung lavage (WLL) remains the gold standard treatment for PAP. In the present study, data were accumulated from a cohort of patients with PAP (n=11) between 2003 and 2011 at the Wuxi People’s Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University. The disease affected males and females with a ratio of 2.7:1 and all the males were current or previous smokers. The disease severity score (DSS) of the patients was mainly distributed in DSS 4 or DSS 5. All the patients underwent WLL at least once, with one patient undergoing WLLs twice and another patient three times. The clinical features, arterial blood gas and pulmonary function of the patients, were assessed prior to and following the lavage. WLL resulted in a significant improvement in symptoms, radiographic features, PaO2, D(A-a)O2 and DLCO in patients with PAP, while pulmonary ventilation function did not significantly improve. WLL appears to be an effective approach for the treatment of PAP and leads to an improvement in survival rate.
doi:10.3892/etm.2014.1788
PMCID: PMC4113632  PMID: 25120596
pulmonary alveolar proteinosis; whole lung lavage; follow-up
8.  China launched a pilot project to improve its rare disease healthcare levels 
China is facing the great challenge of serving the world’s largest rare disease population. It is necessary to develop a specific medical plan to increase the levels of optimal prevention, diagnosis and treatment of rare diseases under the existing clinical service structures in China. In 2013, China launched its first pilot project focused on 20 representative rare diseases. A national network including approximately 100 provincial or municipal medical centers has been established to enable collaboration on rare diseases across China. The main objectives for this project are to develop and apply medical guidelines and clinical pathways for rare diseases, to establish a rare disease patient registry and data repository system, and to promote molecular testing for rare genetic disorders. This project also emphasizes building close links among the collaborative network, clinicians on the frontlines in basic medical services institutions and rare disease patient organizations. Primarily, this project expects to develop an actionable medical services plan to increase the delivery of quality healthcare for individuals and families living with rare diseases in China within five years.
doi:10.1186/1750-1172-9-14
PMCID: PMC3937133  PMID: 24468030
9.  Frequent copy number variations of PI3K/AKT pathway and aberrant protein expressions of PI3K subunits are associated with inferior survival in diffuse large B cell lymphoma 
Background
It has been reported that the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is activated in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), PI3K constitutive activation plays a crucial role in PI3K/AKT pathway. However, the copy number variations (CNVs) of PI3K subunits on gene level remain unknown in DLBCL. Therefore, the aim of the study is to investigate the CNV of PI3K subunits and their relationship with clinicopathological features exploring the possible mechanism underlying of PI3K activation in DLBCL.
Methods
CNV of 12 genes in the PI3K/AKT pathway was detected by NanoString nCounter in 60 de novo DLBCLs and 10 reactive hyperplasia specimens as controls. Meanwhile, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to examine the expression of p110α, p110β, p110γ, p110δ, and pAKT on DLBCL tissue microarrays.
Results
All PI3K and AKT subunits, except for PIK3R1, had various CNVs in the form of copy number amplifications and copy number losses. Their rates were in the range of 8.3–20.0%. Of them PIK3CA and PIK3CB gene CNVs were significantly associated with decreased overall survival (P = 0.029 and P = 0.019, respectively). IHC showed that the frequency of strong positive expression of p110α, p110β, p110γ, and p110δ were 26.7%, 25.0%, 18.3%, and 25.0% respectively, and they were found to be associated with decreased survival (P = 0.022, P = 0.015, P = 0.015, and P = 0.008, respectively). Expression of p110α was not only significantly associated with CNVs of PIK3CA (P = 0.002) but also positively correlated with strong positive expression of pAKT (P = 0.026).
Conclusions
CNV of PIK3CA is highly associated with aberrant p110α protein expression and subsequent activation of PI3K/AKT pathway. CNVs of PIK3CA and PIK3CB, and aberrant protein expression of p110 isoforms are of great important value for predicting inferior prognosis in DLBCL. Frequent CNVs of PI3K/AKT subunits may play an important role in the tumorigenesis of DLBCL.
doi:10.1186/1479-5876-12-10
PMCID: PMC3896773  PMID: 24418330
DLBCL; CNV; PI3K/AKT; Subunits; Survival
10.  Abnormal expression of CDK11p58 in prostate cancer 
Background
CDK11p58 is one of the large families of p34cdc2-related kinases whose functions are linked with cell cycle progression, tumorigenesis and apoptotic signaling. Our previous investigation demonstrated that CDK11p58 repressed androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity and was involved in the negative regulation of AR function.
Methods
CDK11p58 expression was examined in the prostate cancer tissues and adjacent tissues by IHC and qRT-PCR. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. The metastasis of cancer cells was evaluated by the Transwell Assay. Finally we further investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms by examining expression levels of relevant proteins using western blot analysis.
Results
We found that both RNA and protein expression of CDK11p58 were low in prostate cancer tissues compared with its adjacent noncancerous tissues. CDK11p58 promoted the prostate cancer cell apoptosis and inhibited its metastasis in a kinase dependent way. And finally CDK11p58 could inhibit the metastasis of AR positive prostate cancer cells through inhibition of integrin β3 and MMP2.
Conclusions
These data indicate that CDK11p58 is an anti-metastasis gene product in prostate cancer.
doi:10.1186/1475-2867-14-2
PMCID: PMC3893504  PMID: 24397471
CDK11p58; Metastasis; Prostate cancer; Androgen receptor
11.  Correction: Polymorphisms in the mTOR Gene and Risk of Sporadic Prostate Cancer in an Eastern Chinese Population 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):10.1371/annotation/bc36c048-60e4-48a2-908d-6253e93df062.
doi:10.1371/annotation/bc36c048-60e4-48a2-908d-6253e93df062
PMCID: PMC3882253
12.  Changes of predominant species/biovars and sequence types of Brucella isolates, Inner Mongolia, China 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2013;13:514.
Background
Human brucellosis incidence in China was divided into 3 stages, high incidence (1950-1960s), decline (1970-1980s) and re-emergence (1990-2000s). Human brucellosis has been reported in all the 32 provinces, of which Inner Mongolia has the highest prevalence, accounting for over 40% of the cases in China. To investigate the etiology alteration of human brucellosis in Inner Mongolia, the species, biovars and genotypes of 60 Brucella isolates from this province were analyzed.
Methods
Species and biovars of the Brucella strains isolated from outbreaks were determined based on classical identification procedures. Strains were genotyped by multi locus sequence typing (MLST). Sequences of 9 housekeeping genes were obtained and sequence types were defined. The distribution of species, biovars and sequence types (STs) among the three incidence stages were analyzed and compared.
Results
The three stages of high incidence, decline and re-emergence were predominated by B. melitensis biovar 2 and 3, B. abortus biovar 3, and B. melitensis biovar 1, respectively, implying changes in the predominant biovars. Genotyping by MLST revealed a total of 14 STs. Nine STs (from ST28 to ST36), accounting for 64.3% of all the STs, were newly defined and different from those observed in other countries. Different STs were distributed among the three stages. ST8 was the most common ST in 1950-1960s and 1990-2000s, while ST2 was the most common in 1970-1980s.
Conclusions
The prevalence of biovars and sequence types of Brucella strains from Inner Mongolia has changed over time in the three stages. Compared with those from other countries, new sequence types of Brucella strains exist in China.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-514
PMCID: PMC3819263  PMID: 24176041
Brucella; Genotype; Biovar; Multi locus sequence typing
13.  The molecular and cellular basis of Apert syndrome 
Summary
Apert syndrome (AS) is a rare genetic and congenital disease characterized by craniosynostosis and syndactly of hands and feet. AS patients generally require lifelong management, however there are still no effective treatment methods except surgery. In recent years, research has made great progress in the pathogenesis of AS. FGFR2 mediates extracellular signals into cells and the mutations in the FGFR2 gene cause AS occurrence. Activated FGFs/FGFR2 signaling disrupt the balance of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis via its downstream signal pathways. However, how the pathways transform the balance is not well understood and contradictions have occurred in different studies. In this review, we'll focus on these problems to get a better understanding of AS pathogenesis.
doi:10.5582/irdr.2013.v2.4.115
PMCID: PMC4204555  PMID: 25343114
Apert syndrome; FGFR2 gene; pathogenesis; signal pathways
14.  Over Time, Do Anthropometric Measures Still Predict Diabetes Incidence in Chinese Han Nationality Population from Chengdu Community? 
Objective. To examine whether anthropometric measures could predict diabetes incidence in a Chinese population during a 15-year follow-up. Design and Methods. The data were collected in 1992 and then again in 2007 from the same group of 687 individuals. Waist circumference, body mass index, waist to hip ratio, and waist to height ratio were collected based on a standard protocol. To assess the effects of baseline anthropometric measures on the new onset of diabetes, Cox's proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios of them, and the discriminatory power of anthropometric measures for diabetes was assessed by the area under the receiver operating curve (AROC). Results. Seventy-four individuals were diagnosed with diabetes during a 15-year follow-up period (incidence: 10.8%). These anthropometric measures also predicted future diabetes during a long follow-up (P < 0.001). At 7-8 years, the AROC of central obesity measures (WC, WHpR, WHtR) were higher than that of general obesity measures (BMI) (P < 0.05). But, there were no significant differences among the four anthropometric measurements at 15 years. Conclusions. These anthropometric measures could still predict diabetes with a long time follow-up. However, the validity of anthropometric measures to predict incident diabetes may change with time.
doi:10.1155/2013/239376
PMCID: PMC3810432  PMID: 24222764
15.  Central nervous system involvement in adult patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Influence of rituximab 
Oncology Letters  2012;4(3):541-545.
CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone)-like chemotherapy, in combination with rituximab (R-CHOP-like), improves outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We aimed to investigate the impact of rituximab on central nervous system (CNS) disease in adult patients. We studied 315 patients (aged 18–60 years old) from six hospitals between July 2003 and May 2008. All patients received CHOP-like (n=165) or R-CHOP-like (n=150) regimen every 3 weeks. With a median follow-up of 3.69 years, 10 patients (3.17%) developed CNS disease. The cumulative risk of CNS occurrence was not significantly different between the two treatment groups (P=0.871). We conclude that the addition of rituximab did not reduce the risk of CNS disease in adult patients with DLBCL.
doi:10.3892/ol.2012.755
PMCID: PMC3439009  PMID: 22970053
central nervous system; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; rituximab
16.  Geographical Analysis of the Distribution and Spread of Human Rabies in China from 2005 to 2011 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e72352.
Background
Rabies is a significant public health problem in China in that it records the second highest case incidence globally. Surveillance data on canine rabies in China is lacking and human rabies notifications can be a useful indicator of areas where animal and human rabies control could be integrated. Previous spatial epidemiological studies lacked adequate spatial resolution to inform targeted rabies control decisions. We aimed to describe the spatiotemporal distribution of human rabies and model its geographical spread to provide an evidence base to inform future integrated rabies control strategies in China.
Methods
We geo-referenced a total of 17,760 human rabies cases of China from 2005 to 2011. In our spatial analyses we used Gaussian kernel density analysis, average nearest neighbor distance, Spatial Temporal Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise and developed a model of rabies spatiotemporal spread.
Findings
Human rabies cases increased from 2005 to 2007 and decreased during 2008 to 2011 companying change of the spatial distribution. The ANN distance among human rabies cases increased between 2005 and 2011, and the degree of clustering of human rabies cases decreased during that period. A total 480 clusters were detected by ST-DBSCAN, 89.4% clusters initiated before 2007. Most of clusters were mainly found in South of China. The number and duration of cluster decreased significantly after 2008. Areas with the highest density of human rabies cases varied spatially each year and in some areas remained with high outbreak density for several years. Though few places have recovered from human rabies, most of affected places are still suffering from the disease.
Conclusion
Human rabies in mainland China is geographically clustered and its spatial extent changed during 2005 to 2011. The results provide a scientific basis for public health authorities in China to improve human rabies control and prevention program.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072352
PMCID: PMC3753237  PMID: 23991098
17.  Polymorphisms in the mTOR Gene and Risk of Sporadic Prostate Cancer in an Eastern Chinese Population 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e71968.
Background
The mTOR gene regulates cell growth by controlling mRNA translation, ribosome biogenesis, autophagy, and metabolism. Abnormally increased expression of mTOR was associated with carcinogenesis, and its functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may regulate the expression of mTOR and thus contribute to cancer risk.
Methodology/Principal Findings
In a hospital-based case-control study of 1004 prostate cancer (PCa) cases and 1051 cancer-free controls, we genotyped six potentially functional SNPs of mTOR (rs2536 T>C, rs1883965 G>A, rs1034528 G>C, rs17036508 T>C, rs3806317 A>G, and rs2295080 T>G) and assessed their associations with risk of PCa by using logistic regression analysis.
Conclusions/Significances
In the single-locus analysis, we found a significantly increased risk of PCa associated with mTOR rs2536 CT/CC and rs1034528 CG/CC genotypes [adjusted OR = 1.42 (1.13–1.78), P = 0.003 and 1.29 (1.07–1.55), P = 0.007), respectively], compared with their common homozygous genotypes, whereas mTOR rs2295080 GT/GG genotypes were associated with a decreased risk of PCa [adjusted OR = 0.76 (0.64–0.92), P = 0.003], compared with wild-type TT genotypes. In the combined analysis of the six SNPs, we found that individuals carrying two or more adverse genotypes had an increased risk of PCa [adjusted OR = 1.24 (1.04–1.47), P = 0.016], compared with individuals carrying less than two adverse genotypes. In the multiple dimension reduction analysis, body mass index (BMI) was the best one-factor model with the highest CVC (100%) and the lowest prediction error (42.7%) among all seven factors. The model including an interaction among BMI, rs17036508, and rs2536 was the best three-factor model with the highest CVC (100%) and the lowest prediction error of 41.9%. These findings suggested that mTOR SNPs may contribute to the risk of PCa in Eastern Chinese men, but the effect was weak and needs further validation by larger population-based studies.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071968
PMCID: PMC3734314  PMID: 23940798
18.  Role of MUC20 overexpression as a predictor of recurrence and poor outcome in colorectal cancer 
Background
Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the most common cancers worldwide. We observed that MUC20 was significantly up-regulated in CRC patients with poor prognosis based on the microarray analysis. However, little is known about the role of MUC20 in CRC.
Methods
Microarray experiments were performed on the Affymetrix U133 plus 2.0 GeneChip Array. The protein and mRNA levels of MUC20 were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Real-Time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in CRC tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues (ANCT). ShRNA and overexpression plasmids were used to regulate MUC20 expression in CRC cell lines in vitro; wound healing, Transwell migration assays, and Western blotting were used to detect migration and invasion changes.
Results
MUC20 was one of the up-regulated genes in CRC patients with poor prognosis by microarray. Using IHC and RT-qPCR, we showed that MUC20 expression was significantly higher in CRC tissues than in ANCT (P < 0.05). We further showed that MUC20 overexpression was correlated with recurrence and poor outcome (P < 0.05). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated that disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were significantly worse in CRC patients with MUC20 overexpression. The Cox multivariate analysis revealed that MUC20 overexpression and TNM stage were independent prognostic factors. Elevated expression of MUC20 in cells promoted migration and invasion, whereas ShRNA-mediated knockdown inhibited these processes. In addition, Western blotting demonstrated that MUC20-induced invasion was associated with MMP-2, MMP-3, and E-cadherin.
Conclusions
Cumulatively, MUC20 may serve as an important predictor of recurrence and poor outcome for CRC patients. MUC20 overexpression could enhance migration and invasion abilities of CRC cells. Translation of its roles into clinical practice will need further investigation and additional test validation.
doi:10.1186/1479-5876-11-151
PMCID: PMC3702436  PMID: 23787019
MUC20; Colorectal Cancer; Invasion; Recurrence
19.  The effects of a histone deacetylase inhibitor on biological behavior of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines and insights into the underlying mechanisms 
Background
Epigenetic control using histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors is a promising therapy for lymphomas. Insights into the anti-proliferative effects of HDAC inhibitors on diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and further understanding of the underlying mechanisms, which remain unclear to date, are of great importance.
Methods
Three DLBCL cell lines (DoHH2, LY1 and LY8) were used to define the potential epigenetic targets for Trichostatin A (TSA)-mediated anti-proliferative effects via CCK-8 assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. We further investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms by examining expression levels of relevant proteins using western blot analysis.
Results
TSA treatment inhibited the growth of all three DLBCL cell lines and enhanced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Molecular analysis revealed upregulated acetylation of histone H3, α-tubulin and p53, and dephosphorylation of pAkt with altered expression of its main downstream effectors (p21, p27, cyclin D1 and Bcl-2). HDAC profiling revealed that all three cell lines had varying HDAC1–6 expression levels, with the highest expression of all six isoforms, in DoHH2 cells, which displayed the highest sensitivity to TSA.
Conclusion
Our results demonstrated that the HDAC inhibitor TSA inhibited DLBCL cell growth, and that cell lines with higher expression of HDACs tended to be more sensitive to TSA. Our data also suggested that inhibition of pAkt and activation of p53 pathway are the main molecular events involved in inhibitory effects of TSA.
doi:10.1186/1475-2867-13-57
PMCID: PMC3681717  PMID: 23758695
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; HDAC; Trichostatin A; Akt pathway; p53
20.  Advances in research on and diagnosis and treatment of achondroplasia in China 
Summary
Achondroplasia is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease. Research on achondroplasia in China, however, has received little emphasis. Around 80–90% of cases of neonatal achondroplasia result from mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) according to polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). Recently, genetic research on achondroplasia in China made a major breakthrough by revealing two novel mutations located on the FGFR3 gene, thus helping to complete the pathological molecular map of achondroplasia. There are still, however, unknown aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of achondroplasia. This review will summarize advances in research on and the clinical diagnosis and treatment of achondroplasia in China.
doi:10.5582/irdr.2013.v2.2.45
PMCID: PMC4204580  PMID: 25343101
Rare diseases; gene mutation; chondrodystrophia fetalis; chondrodystrophic dwarfism
21.  A comparative proteomics study on matrix vesicles of osteoblast-like Saos-2 and U2-OS cells 
Summary
Matrix vesicles (MVs) play an important role in the initial stage of the process of bone mineralization, and are involved in multiple rare skeletal diseases with pathological mineralization or calcification. The aim of the study was to compare the proteomic profiling of osteoblast-like cells with and without mineralization ability (Saos-2 and U2-OS), and to identify novel mineralization-associated MV proteins. MVs were extracted using ExoQuick solution from mineralization-induced Saos-2 and U2-OS cells, and then were validated by transmission electron microscopy. A label-free quantitative proteomic method was used to compare the protein profiling of MVs from Saos-2 and U2-OS cells. Western-blots were used to confirm the expression of MVs proteins identified in proteomic studies. In our proteomic studies, we identified that 89 mineralization-related proteins were significantly up-regulated in Saos-2 MVs compared with U2-OS MVs. We further validated that two MVs proteins, protein kinase C α and ras-related protein Ral-A, were up-regulated in MVs of Saos-2 cells compared to those of U2-OS cells under mineralization-induction. Our findings suggest that protein kinase C α and ras-related protein Ral-A might be involved in bone mineralization as MVs components.
doi:10.5582/irdr.2013.v2.2.59
PMCID: PMC4204581  PMID: 25343104
Matrix vesicle; osteoblasts; mineralization; proteomics
22.  Live Poultry Trade in Southern China Provinces and HPAIV H5N1 Infection in Humans and Poultry: The Role of Chinese New Year Festivities 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e49712.
Background
The number of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype (HPAIV H5N1) over the past 5 years has been drastically reduced in China but sporadic infections in poultry and humans are still occurring. In this study, we aimed to investigate seasonal patterns in the association between the movement of live poultry originating from southern China and HPAIV H5N1 infection history in humans and poultry in China.
Methodology/Principal Findings
During January to April 2010, longitudinal questionnaire surveys were carried out monthly in four wholesale live bird markets (LBMs) in Hunan and Guangxi provinces of South China. Using social network analysis, we found an increase in the number of observed links and degree centrality between LBMs and poultry sources in February and March compared to the months of January and April. The association of some live poultry traders (LPT’s) with a limited set of counties (within the catchment area of LBMs) in the months of February and March may support HPAIV H5N1 transmission and contribute to perpetuating HPAIV H5N1 virus circulation among certain groups of counties. The connectivity among counties experiencing human infection was significantly higher compared to counties without human infection for the months of January, March and April. Conversely, counties with poultry infections were found to be significantly less connected than counties without poultry infection for the month of February.
Conclusions/Significance
Our results show that temporal variation in live poultry trade in Southern China around the Chinese New Year festivities is associated with higher HPAIV H5N1 infection risk in humans and poultry. This study has shown that capturing the dynamic nature of poultry trade networks in Southern China improves our ability to explain the spatiotemporal dissemination in avian influenza viruses in China.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049712
PMCID: PMC3500328  PMID: 23166751
23.  Study and analysis of the state of rare disease research in Shandong Province, China 
Summary
As the world's most populous country, China has the world's largest number of rare disease groups in terms of prevalence. However, the country has no system of registering cases of most rare diseases, so there is very little documented information on the epidemiology of those diseases. The purpose of this study was to study the state of rare disease research and survey doctors in Shandong Province regarding their level of awareness of rare diseases. Types of rare diseases and numbers of cases were tallied and their geographical distribution over the decades was analyzed. Eight hundred and twenty-four doctors in tertiary hospitals and maternity and child care hospitals were surveyed by questionnaire. Data were descriptively analyzed and a map of disease distribution was created. Articles about rare diseases were retrieved from the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database to provide pertinent data. This study yielded 5,749 cases of 323 different types of rare diseases. The survey found that doctors lack awareness of research on rare diseases. An authoritative and information-rich platform for rare disease research is urgently needed. Key steps are to study epidemiological and statistical techniques and then obtain available data to provide a basis for the definition and regulation of rare diseases in China.
doi:10.5582/irdr.2012.v1.4.161
PMCID: PMC4204566  PMID: 25343091
Rare diseases; awareness survey; descriptive analysis
24.  Abnormal expression of GADD45B in human colorectal carcinoma 
Background
GADD45B is a member of the growth arrest DNA damage-inducible gene family associated with cell growth control, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair response. The aim of this study is to detect the role of GADD45B in colorectal carcinoma (CRC); the area not studied in depth to date.
Methods
The mRNA and protein levels of GADD45B were examined by Real-Time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in CRC tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues (ANCT). Over-expression plasmids and SiRNA were used to regulate GADD45B expression in CRC cell lines in vitro and flow cytometry and Western blotting were used to detect apoptotic changes.
Results
The mRNA and protein levels of GADD45B were significantly higher in CRC tissues than those in ANCT (P<0.05). Up-regulation of GADD45B was also correlated with relapse and death of CRC patients (P<0.05). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated that disease-free survival (DFS) was significantly worse in CRC patients who showed GADD45B overexpression. A Cox multivariate analysis revealed that GADD45B overexpression and TNM stage were significant factors affecting patients’ survival. On the other hand, as a tumor suppressor gene, GADD45B amplified from normal colorectal tissues could induce apoptosis in CRC cell lines and may be associated with the p53-mediated apoptotic pathways.
Conclusion
GADD45B, a tumor suppressor gene potentially through the p53-mediated apoptotic pathways, is paradoxically overexpressed in CRC and as such may play an unappreciated role in tumorigenesis. The exact mechanism of GADD45B inactivation and overexpression requires further investigation. GADD45B could be a potential therapeutic target for CRC treatment in future.
doi:10.1186/1479-5876-10-215
PMCID: PMC3495754  PMID: 23110778
Colorectal carcinoma; GADD45B; Carcinogenesis; Relapse
25.  A systematic review of genetic skeletal disorders reported in Chinese biomedical journals between 1978 and 2012 
Little information is available on the prevalence, geographic distribution and mutation spectrum of genetic skeletal disorders (GSDs) in China. This study systematically reviewed GSDs as defined in “Nosology and Classification of genetic skeletal disorders (2010 version)” using Chinese biomedical literature published over the past 34 years from 1978 to 2012. In total, 16,099 GSDs have been reported. The most frequently reported disorders were Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, fibrous dysplasia, mucopolysaccharidosis, multiple cartilaginous exostoses, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), osteopetrosis, achondroplasia, enchondromatosis (Ollier), and osteopoikilosis, accounting for 76.5% (12,312 cases) of the total cases. Five groups (group 8, 12, 14, 18, 21) defined by “Nosology and Classification of genetic skeletal disorders” have not been reported in the Chinese biomedical literature. Gene mutation testing was performed in only a minor portion of the 16,099 cases of GSDs (187 cases, 1.16%). In total, 37 genes for 41 different GSDs were reported in Chinese biomedical literature, including 43 novel mutations. This review revealed a significant imbalance in rare disease identification in terms of geographic regions and hospital levels, suggesting the need to create a national multi-level network to meet the specific challenge of care for rare diseases in China.
doi:10.1186/1750-1172-7-55
PMCID: PMC3492206  PMID: 22913777
Rare diseases; Genetic skeletal diseases; China; Bibliographic study

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