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author:("Yan, zhijin")
1.  Repurposing of Yunnan Baiyao as an Alternative Therapy for Minor Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis 
The study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of an herbal extract of Yunnan Baiyao formulated in toothpaste as an alternative therapy for minor RAS. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial (from March 2010 to March 2011) was conducted on a cohort of 227 minor RAS patients. The toothpaste containing Yunnan Baiyao was used twice daily as part of the patient's routine oral hygiene for 5 days. An assessment of ulcerative size and pain was recorded on day 0 (baseline), day 3, and day 5. Any noted adverse reactions were recorded. All data were analyzed using the SAS software 8.0. As a result, the toothpaste containing Yunnan Baiyao began to present noticeable effectiveness on ulcer healing (ulcer size) by day 3 (27.5% versus 15.8%, P < 0.05), which further improved by day 5 when compared to the placebo (66.4% versus 50.0%, P = 0.01). A significant difference in alleviating pain was noted on day 5 for those who used the toothpaste containing Yunnan Baiyao (66.4% versus 51.8%, P < 0.05). No side effects were noted as a result of the Yunnan Baiyao. Therefore, Yunnan Baiyao may provide an alternative therapy for minor ulcers by promoting healing.
doi:10.1155/2012/284620
PMCID: PMC3521495  PMID: 23258985
2.  Potent Antifungal Activity of Pure Compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine Extracts against Six Oral Candida Species and the Synergy with Fluconazole against Azole-Resistant Candida albicans 
This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activities of four traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) extracts. The inhibitory effects of pseudolaric acid B, gentiopicrin, rhein, and alion were assessed using standard disk diffusion and broth microdilution assays. They were tested against six oral Candida species, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida guilliermondii, including clinical isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. It was found that pseudolaric acid B had the most potent antifungal effect and showed similar antifungal activity to all six Candida spp, and to isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. The MIC values ranged from 16 to 128 μg/mL. More interestingly, a synergistic effect of pseudolaric acid B in combination with fluconazole was observed. We suggest that pseudolaric acid B might be a potential therapeutic fungicidal agent in treating oral candidiasis.
doi:10.1155/2012/106583
PMCID: PMC3291469  PMID: 22454653
3.  Self-assembled rosette nanotubes encapsulate and slowly release dexamethasone 
Rosette nanotubes (RNTs) are novel, self-assembled, biomimetic, synthetic drug delivery materials suitable for numerous medical applications. Because of their amphiphilic character and hollow architecture, RNTs can be used to encapsulate and deliver hydrophobic drugs otherwise difficult to deliver in biological systems. Another advantage of using RNTs for drug delivery is their biocompatibility, low cytotoxicity, and their ability to engender a favorable, biologically-inspired environment for cell adhesion and growth. In this study, a method to incorporate dexamethasone (DEX, an inflammatory and a bone growth promoting steroid) into RNTs was developed. The drug-loaded RNTs were characterized using diffusion ordered nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DOSY NMR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Results showed for the first time that DEX can be easily and quickly encapsulated into RNTs and released to promote osteoblast (bone-forming cell) functions over long periods of time. As a result, RNTs are presented as a novel material for the targeted delivery of hydrophobic drugs otherwise difficult to deliver.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S18755
PMCID: PMC3124389  PMID: 21720515
nanotubes; drug delivery; self-assembly; physiological conditions
4.  Self-assembled rosette nanotubes for incorporating hydrophobic drugs in physiological environments 
Rosette nanotubes (RNTs) are novel, biomimetic, injectable, self-assembled nanomaterials. In previous studies, materials coated with RNTs have significantly increased cell growth (eg, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and endothelial cells) due to the favorable cellular environment created by RNTs. It has also been suggested that the tubular RNT structures formed by base stacking and hydrophobic interactions can be used for drug delivery, and this possibility has not been studied to date. Here we investigated methods to load and deliver tamoxifen (TAM, a hydrophobic anticancer drug) using two different types of RNTs: single- base RNTs and twin-base RNTs. Drug-loaded RNTs were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion-ordered nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DOSY NMR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy at different ratios of twin-base RNTs to TAM. The results demonstrated successful incorporation of hydrophobic TAM into RNTs. Importantly, because of the hydrophilicity of the outer surface of the RNTs, TAM-loaded RNTs were dissolved in water, and thus have great potential to deliver hydrophobic drugs in various physiological environments. The results also showed that twin-base RNTs further improved TAM loading. Therefore, this study demonstrated that hydrophobic pharmaceutical agents (such as TAM), once considered hard to deliver, can be easily incorporated into RNTs for anticancer treatment purposes.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S11957
PMCID: PMC3026575  PMID: 21289987
drug delivery; rosette nanotubes; self-assembly; tamoxifen
5.  Limb remote ischemic postconditioning protects against focal ischemia in rats 
Brain research  2009;1288:88-94.
Remote ischemic postconditioning (RIP) refers to an ischemia conducted in a distant organ that protects against a prior ischemia in another organ. We tested whether RIP protects against focal ischemia in the rat brain. Stroke was generated by a permanent occlusion of the left distal middle cerebral artery combined with a 30 min occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries (CCA) in male rats. After CCA release, RIP was generated by 3 cycles of 15 min occlusion/15 min release of the left hind femoral artery. The results showed that rapid RIP performed immediately after CCA release reduced infarction by 67% measured at 2 d after stroke. In addition, delayed RIP initiated as late as 3 h, but not 6 h, still robustly reduced infarction by 43% 2 d after stroke. RIP's protective effect was abolished by injecting the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, and the afferent nerve blocker, capsaicin, suggesting that RIP blocks ischemic injury by modulating protein synthesis and nerve activity. Nevertheless, rapid RIP did not reduce infarction size 2 months after stroke while it ameliorated the outcome of the behavioral test. In conclusion, RIP attenuates brain injury after focal ischemia.
doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2009.07.029
PMCID: PMC2744502  PMID: 19631625
stroke; cerebral ischemia; preconditioning; remote postconditioning
6.  Inhibiting caspase-3 activity blocks beta-catenin degradation after focal ischemia in rat 
Neuroreport  2008;19(8):821-824.
Beta-catenin can be cleaved by caspase-3 or degraded by activated glycogen synthase kinase-3β via phosphorylating β-catenin. We tested the hypothesis that β-catenin undergoes degradation after stroke, and its degradation is dependent on caspase activity. Stroke was generated by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion and 1h of transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion in rats. Active caspase-3 was expressed in the ischemic cortex from 5 to 48 h after stroke, whereas β-catenin markedly degraded at 24 and 48 h after stroke. The caspase 3-specific inhibitor, Z-DQMD-FMK, attenuated β-catenin degradation, but it did not affect phosphorylation of both β-catenin and glycogen synthase kinase-3β. In conclusion, β-catenin degraded after stroke, and its degradation was caspase-3 dependent.
doi:10.1097/WNR.0b013e3282ffda72
PMCID: PMC2744604  PMID: 18463494
β-catenin; caspase-3; focal ischemia; glycogen synthase kinase-3β; stroke
7.  Correction: Delayed Postconditioning Protects against Focal Ischemic Brain Injury in Rats 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(2):10.1371/annotation/bbfdac40-32cc-4c3a-a049-436796875bf4.
doi:10.1371/annotation/bbfdac40-32cc-4c3a-a049-436796875bf4
PMCID: PMC2661501
8.  Delayed Postconditioning Protects against Focal Ischemic Brain Injury in Rats 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(12):e3851.
Background
We and others have reported that rapid ischemic postconditioning, interrupting early reperfusion after stroke, reduces infarction in rats. However, its extremely short therapeutic time windows, from a few seconds to minutes after reperfusion, may hinder its clinical translation. Thus, in this study we explored if delayed postconditioning, which is conducted a few hours after reperfusion, offers protection against stroke.
Methods and Results
Focal ischemia was generated by 30 min occlusion of bilateral common carotid artery (CCA) combined with permanent occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCA); delayed postconditioning was performed by repetitive, brief occlusion and release of the bilateral CCAs, or of the ipsilateral CCA alone. As a result, delayed postconditioning performed at 3h and 6h after stroke robustly reduced infarct size, with the strongest protection achieved by delayed postconditioning with 6 cycles of 15 min occlusion/15 min release of the ipsilateral CCA executed from 6h. We found that this delayed postconditioning provided long-term protection for up to two months by reducing infarction and improving outcomes of the behavioral tests; it also attenuated reduction in 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-uptake therefore improving metabolism, and reduced edema and blood brain barrier leakage. Reperfusion in ischemic stroke patients is usually achieved by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) application, however, t-PA's side effect may worsen ischemic injury. Thus, we tested whether delayed postconditioning counteracts the exacerbating effect of t-PA. The results showed that delayed postconditioning mitigated the worsening effect of t-PA on infarction.
Conclusion
Delayed postconditioning reduced ischemic injury after focal ischemia, which opens a new research avenue for stroke therapy and its underlying protective mechanisms.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003851
PMCID: PMC2588536  PMID: 19066627

Results 1-8 (8)