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1.  Primary Prevention of Macroangiopathy in Patients With Short-Duration Type 2 Diabetes by Intensified Multifactorial Intervention 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(4):978-984.
To explore whether intensified, multifactorial intervention could prevent macrovascular disease in patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes.
A total of 150 type 2 diabetic patients, with disease duration of <1 year and without clinical arteriosclerotic disease or subclinical atherosclerotic signs confirmed by ultrasonographic scanning of three conducting arteries, were randomized into an intensive intervention group and a conventional intervention group. They then received intensive, multifactorial intervention or conventional intervention over 7 years of follow-up. The patients’ common carotid intima-media thicknesses (CC-IMTs) were measured every year. The primary outcome was the time to the first occurrence of CC-IMTs ≥1.0 mm and/or development of atherosclerosis plaques in the carotid artery. The secondary outcome was clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease.
A total of 70 patients in the intensive group and 68 patients in the conventional group completed the 7-year follow-up. Subclinical macrovascular (primary) outcomes occurred in seven cases in the intensive group and 22 cases in the conventional group for a cumulative prevalence of 10.00 and 32.35%, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant differences between the two groups were observed regarding the secondary outcome.
Primary prevention of macrovascular diseases can be achieved through intensified, multifactorial intervention in patients with short-duration type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetic patients should undergo intensive multifactorial interventions with individual targets for the prevention of macrovascular diseases.
PMCID: PMC3609518  PMID: 23230099
2.  Impact of Lymph Node Ratio on the Survival of Patients with Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Population-Based Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e56613.
To analyze the impact of the lymph node ratio (LNR, ratio of metastatic to examined nodes) on the prognosis of hypopharyngeal cancer patients.
SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results)-registered hypopharyngeal cancer patients with lymph node metastasis were evaluated using multivariate Cox regression analysis to identify the prognostic role of the LNR. The categorical LNR was compared with the continuous LNR and pN classifications to predict cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) rates of hypopharyngeal cancer patients.
Multivariate analysis of 916 pN+ hypopharyngeal cancer cases identified race, primary site, radiation sequence, T classification, N classification, M classification, the number of regional lymph nodes examined, the continuous LNR (Hazard ratio 2.415, 95% CI 1.707–3.416, P<0.001) and age as prognostic variables that were associated with CSS in hypopharyngeal cancer. The categorical LNR showed a higher C-index and lower Akaike information criterion (AIC) value than the continuous LNR. When patients (n = 1152) were classified into four risk groups according to LNR, R0 (LNR = 0), R1 (LNR ≤0.05), R2 (LNR 0.05–0.30) and R3 (LNR >0.30), the Cox regression model for CSS and OS using the R classification had a higher C-index value and lower AIC value than the model using the pN classification. Significant improvements in both CSS and OS were found for R2 and R3 patients with postoperative radiotherapy.
LNR is a significant prognostic factor for the survival of hypopharyngeal cancer patients. Using the cutoff points 0.05/0.30, the R classification was more accurate than the pN classification in predicting survival and can be used to select high risk patients for postoperative treatment.
PMCID: PMC3576374  PMID: 23431384
3.  εPKC confers acute tolerance to cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury 
Neuroscience letters  2008;441(1):120-124.
In response to mild ischemic stress, the brain elicits endogenous survival mechanisms to protect cells against a subsequent lethal ischemic stress, referred to as ischemic tolerance. The molecular signals that mediate this protection are thought to involve the expression and activation of multiple kinases, including protein kinase C (PKC). Here we demonstrate that εPKC mediates cerebral ischemic tolerance in vivo. Systemic delivery of ψεRACK, an εPKC-selective peptide activator, confers neuroprotection against a subsequent cerebral ischemic event when delivered immediately prior to stroke. In addition, activation of εPKC by ψεRACK treatment decreases vascular tone in vivo, as demonstrated by a reduction in microvascular cerebral blood flow. Here we demonstrate the role of acute and transient εPKC in early cerebral tolerance in vivo and suggest that extra-parenchymal mechanisms, such as vasoconstriction, may contribute to the conferred protection.
PMCID: PMC2597630  PMID: 18586397
Ischemia; preconditioning; protein kinase C; cerebral blood flow
4.  Gene therapy using SOD1 protects striatal neurons from experimental stroke 
Neuroscience letters  2006;411(1):32-36.
Reactive oxygen species contribute to neuronal death following cerebral ischemia. Prior studies using transgenic animals have demonstrated the neuroprotective effect of the antioxidant, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1). In this study we investigated whether SOD1 overexpression using gene therapy techniques in non-transgenic animals would increase neuronal survival. A neurotropic, herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) vector containing the SOD1 gene was injected into the striatum either before or after transient focal cerebral ischemia. Striatal neuron survival at two days was improved by 52% when vector was delivered 12–15 hours prior to ischemia and by 53% when vector delivery was delayed 2 hours following ischemia. These data add to the growing literature which suggests that an antioxidant approach, perhaps by employing gene therapy techniques, may be beneficial in the treatment of stroke. (According to the guidline, it is mandatory to include classification terms here. But I did not find them –HZ)
PMCID: PMC1716259  PMID: 17110031
copper; zinc superoxide dismutase; gene therapy; stroke, focal ischemia, cerebral ischemia
5.  Clinicopathologic study of 1176 salivary gland tumors in a Chinese population: Experience of one cancer center 1997–2007 
Acta Oto-Laryngologica  2012;132(8):879-886.
Conclusion: Chinese patients have a higher rate of lymphoepithelial carcinoma (LEC) and salivary duct carcinoma (SDC). Comprehensive use of diagnostic modalities, neck dissection, and postoperative radiation will improve the treatment results for salivary gland tumors (SGTs). Objectives: To study the clinicopathological characteristics of SGTs in a Chinese population. Methods: The records of SGT patients operated in a tertiary cancer hospital of China were retrieved. Results: From December 1997 to December 2007, 289 malignant and 887 benign SGTs were operated at Cancer Hospital, Shanghai, China. Pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin's tumor were the most common types of SGT. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (24.6% of malignant cases) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (18.0%) were the most frequent malignant cases, followed by acinic cell carcinoma (12.1%), LEC (9.7%), and SDC (9.3%). The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound scan, fine needle aspiration biopsy, and frozen section were 58.3 and 88.6%, 87.2 and 96.7%, 86.9 and 99.6%, respectively. Neck dissections and postoperative radiation were carried out for 48.6 and 48.0% of carcinomas, respectively. The percentage of tumors by pathologic TNM stage were 23.7% for stage I, 32.9% for stage II, 17.3% for stage III, and 26.1% for stage IV. The 5-year overall survival rate was 88.0%.
PMCID: PMC3433083  PMID: 22497626
Lymphoepithelial carcinoma; salivary duct carcinoma; incidence; fine needle aspiration; frozen section

Results 1-5 (5)