The limbic system is thought to underlie dysfunctional affective and cognitive processes in individuals with depression. Neuroanatomical studies of subjects with depression have often examined hippocampal and amygdalar structures, since they are two key structures of the limbic system. Research has often but not always found reduced hippocampal volume in patients with major depression. The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in patients with depression subtypes relative to healthy comparison subjects.
Participants were 1) patients with major depression with psychosis, 2) patients with major depression without psychosis, and 3) healthy comparison subjects. To examine hippocampal and amygdalar volumes, all participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The authors further examined the effects of clinical and chronicity data on these two brain structures.
After age, gender, and total brain volume were controlled, depressed patients with psychosis had a significantly smaller mean amygdala volume relative to depressed patients without psychosis and healthy comparison subjects. There were no differences between depressed patients without psychosis and healthy comparison subjects. Correlational analyses suggested that age of depression onset was strongly associated with amygdala volume. No group differences in hippocampal volume were found.
There were no differences between depressed patients and healthy comparison subjects in hippocampal volume. However, psychotic but not nonpsychotic depression was associated with reduced amygdala volume. Reduced amygdala volume was not associated with severity of depression or severity of psychosis but was associated with age at onset of depression. Smaller amygdala volume may be a risk factor for later development of psychotic depression. In addition, chronicity of depression and depression subtype might be two important factors associated with hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in depression.
Objective. To demonstrate the role of Wnt/β-catenin canonical pathway in postmenopausal osteoporosis by evaluating serum β-catenin levels in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and analyzing their possible relationship with serum OPG, RANKL, the ratio of RANKL/OPG, sclerostin, and bone turnover markers. Methods. 480 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and 170 healthy postmenopausal women were enrolled in the study. Serum β-catenin, OPG, RANKL, and sclerostin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bone status was assessed by measuring bone mineral density and bone turnover markers. Estradiol levels were also detected. Results. Serum β-catenin levels were lower in postmenopausal osteoporotic women compared to nonosteoporotic postmenopausal women (26.26 ± 14.81 versus 39.33 ± 5.47 pg/mL, P < 0.001). Serum β-catenin was positively correlated with osteoprotegerin (r = 0.232, P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with the ratio of RANKL/OPG, body mass index, and sclerostin (r = −0.128, P = 0.005; r = −0.117, P = 0.010; r = −0.400, P < 0.001, resp.) in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Conclusion. The results indicate that lower serum β-catenin and concomitantly higher ratio of RANKL/OPG may be involved in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Functional communication between RANKL/RANK/OPG system and Wnt pathways plays an important role in postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation is a major focus of current research for treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). However, it is very important to promote the survival and differentiation of NSCs into myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs). In this study, myelin basic protein-activated T (MBP-T) cells were passively immunized to improve the SCI microenvironment. Olig2-overexpressing NSCs were infected with a lentivirus carrying the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene to generate Olig2-GFP-NSCs that were transplanted into the injured site to differentiate into OLs. Transferred MBP-T cells infiltrated the injured spinal cord, produced neurotrophic factors, and induced the differentiation of resident microglia and/or infiltrating blood monocytes into an “alternatively activated” anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype by producing interleukin-13. As a result, the survival of transplanted NSCs increased fivefold in MBP-T cell-transferred rats compared with that of the vehicle-treated control. In addition, the differentiation of MBP-positive OLs increased 12-fold in Olig2-GFP-NSC-transplanted rats compared with that of GFP-NSC-transplanted controls. In the MBP-T cell and Olig2-GFP-NSC combined group, the number of OL-remyelinated axons significantly increased compared with those of all other groups. However, a significant decrease in spinal cord lesion volume and an increase in spared myelin and behavioral recovery were observed in Olig2-NSC- and NSC-transplanted MBP-T cell groups. Collectively, these results suggest that MBP-T cell adoptive immunotherapy combined with NSC transplantation has a synergistic effect on histological and behavioral improvement after traumatic SCI. Although Olig2 overexpression enhances OL differentiation and myelination, the effect on functional recovery may be surpassed by MBP-T cells.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13311-011-0090-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Spinal cord injury; Passive immunization; Olig2; Neural stem cells; Transplantation
AIM: To assess the effects of preoperative treatment on the hepatic histology of non-tumoral liver and the postoperative outcome.
METHODS: One hundred and six patients underwent hepatic resection for colorectal metastases between 1999 and 2009. The surgical specimens were reviewed with established criteria for diagnosis and grading of pathological hepatic injury. The impact of preoperative therapy on liver injury and postoperative outcome was analyzed.
RESULTS: Fifty-three patients (50%) received surgery alone, whereas 42 patients (39.6%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 11 (10.4%) patients received preoperative hepatic artery infusion (HAI). Chemotherapy included oxaliplatin-based regimens (31.1%) and irinotecan-based regimens (8.5%). On histopathological analysis, 16 patients (15.1%) had steatosis, 31 (29.2%) had sinusoidal dilation and 20 patients (18.9%) had steatohepatitis. Preoperative oxaliplatin was associated with sinusoidal dilation compared with surgery alone (42.4% vs 20.8%, P = 0.03); however, the perioperative complication rate was not significantly different between the oxaliplatin group and surgery group (27.3% vs 13.2%, P = 0.1). HAI was associated with more steatosis, sinusoidal dilation and steatohepatitis than the surgery group, with higher perioperative morbidity (36.4% vs 13.2%, P = 0.06) and mortality (9.1% vs 0% P = 0.02).
CONCLUSION: Preoperative oxaliplatin was associated with sinusoidal dilation compared with surgery alone. However, the preoperative oxaliplatin had no significant impact on perioperative outcomes. HAI can cause pathological changes and tends to increase perioperative morbidity and mortality.
Drug liver injury; Preoperative chemotherapy; Hepatic artery infusion; Sinusoidal dilation
In the Shandong Intervention Trial, 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment for Helicobacter pylori reduced the prevalence of precancerous gastric lesions, whereas 7.3 years of oral supplementation with garlic extract and oil (garlic treatment) or vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium (vitamin treatment) did not. Here we report 14.7-year follow-up for gastric cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality among 3365 randomly assigned subjects in this masked factorial placebo-controlled trial. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of gastric cancer incidence, and the Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative hazard of cause-specific mortality. All statistical tests were two-sided. Gastric cancer was diagnosed in 3.0% of subjects who received H pylori treatment and in 4.6% of those who received placebo (odds ratio = 0.61, 95% confidence interval = 0.38 to 0.96, P = .032). Gastric cancer deaths occurred among 1.5% of subjects assigned H pylori treatment and among 2.1% of those assigned placebo (hazard ratio [HR] of death = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.36 to 1.28). Garlic and vitamin treatments were associated with non-statistically significant reductions in gastric cancer incidence and mortality. Vitamin treatment was associated with statistically significantly fewer deaths from gastric or esophageal cancer, a secondary endpoint (HR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.30 to 0.87; P = .014).
AIM: To evaluate effects of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase1A1 (UGT1A1) and thymidylate synthetase (TS) gene polymorphisms on irinotecan in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).
METHODS: Two irinotecan- and fluorouracil-based regimens, FOLFIRI and IFL, were selected as second-line therapy for 138 Chinese mCRC patients. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples before treatment. UGT1A1 and TS gene polymorphisms were determined by direct sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism, respectively. Gene polymorphisms of UGT1A1*28, UGT1A1*6 and promoter enhancer region of TS were analyzed. The relationship between genetic polymorphisms and clinical outcome, that is, response, toxicity and survival were assessed. Pharmacokinetic analyses were performed in a subgroup patients based on different UGT1A1 genotypes. Plasma concentration of irinotecan and its active metabolite SN-38 and inactive metabolite SN-38G were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Differences in irinotecan and its metabolites between UGT1A1 gene variants were compared.
RESULTS: One hundred and eight patients received the FOLFIRI regimen, 29 the IFL regimen, and one irinotecan monotherapy. One hundred and thirty patients were eligible for toxicity and 111 for efficacy evaluation. One hundred and thirty-six patients were tested for UGT1A1*28 and *6 genotypes and 125 for promoter enhancer region of TS. Patients showed a higher frequency of wild-type UGT1A1*28 (TA6/6) compared with a Caucasian population (69.9% vs 45.2%). No significant difference was found between response rates and UGT1A1 genotype, although wild-type showed lower response rates compared with other variants (17.9% vs 24.2% for UGT1A1*28, 15.7% vs 26.8% for UGT1A1*6). When TS was considered, the subgroup with homozygous UGT1A1*28 (TA7/7) and non-3RG genotypes showed the highest response rate (33.3%), while wild-type UGT1A1*28 (TA6/6) with non-3RG only had a 13.6% response rate, but no significant difference was found. Logistic regression showed treatment duration was closely linked to clinical response. In toxicity comparison, UGT1A1*28 TA6/6 was associated with lower incidence of grade 2-4 diarrhea (27.8% vs 100%), and significantly reduced the risk of grade 4 neutropenia compared with TA7/7 (7.8% vs 37.5%). Wild-type UGT1A1*6 (G/G) tended to have a lower incidence of grade 3/4 diarrhea vs homozygous mutant (A/A) genotype (13.0% vs 40.0%). Taking UGT1A1 and TS genotypes together, lower incidence of grade 2-4 diarrhea was found in patients with non-3RG TS genotypes, when TA6/6 was compared with TA7/7 (35.3% vs 100.0%). No significant association with time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) was observed with either UGT1A1 or TS gene polymorphisms, although slightly longer TTP and OS were found with UGT1A1*28 (TA6/6). Irinotecan PK was investigated in 34 patients, which showed high area under concentration curve (AUC) of irinotecan and SN-38, but low AUC ratio (SN-38G / SN-38) in those patients with UGT1A1*28 TA7/7.
CONCLUSION: A distinct distribution pattern of UGT1A1 genotypes in Chinese patients might contribute to relatively low toxicity associated with irinotecan and 5-fluorouracil in mCRC patients.
Irinotecan; Fluorouracil; UDP-glucuronosyltransferase1A1; Thymidylate synthetase; Polymorphisms; Pharmacokinetics; Treatment outcome; Toxicity; Metastatic colorectal cancer
To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of the combination regimen of paclitaxel, cisplatin and 5-FU (PCF) as first-line or second-line therapy in patients with advanced gastric and esophagogastric junction (EGJ) adenocarcinoma in China.
The patients were treated with paclitaxel 150 mg/m2 on d1; fractionated cisplatin 15 mg/m2 and continuous infusion 5-FU 600 mg/(m2·d) intravenously on d1-d5 of a 21-d cycle until disease progression or unacceptable toxicities.
Seventy-five patients have been enrolled, among which, 41 received PCF regimen as the first-line therapy (group A) and 34 received the regimen as the second-line therapy (group B) with the median age of 59 years old and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score ≥80. Toxicities were analyzed in all 75 patients. Seventy-one patients were evaluable for efficacy. The median overall survival (mOS) was 12.0 months (95% CI: 7.9-16.2 months) in group A and 7.3 months (95% CI: 4.3-10.3 months) in group B, respectively. The median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 5.7 months (95% CI: 4.1-7.2 months) and 5.0 months (95% CI: 3.1-6.9 months), respectively. The response rate (CR+PR) was 40% (16/40; 95% CI: 24.9-56.7%) in group A and 22.6% (7/31; 95% CI: 9.6-41.1%) in group B. Major grade 3 or 4 adverse events include neutropenia (41.3%), febrile neutropenia (9.3%), nausea/anorexia (10.7%), and vomiting (5.3%). There was no treatment-related death.
The combination chemotherapy with PCF is active and tolerable as first-line and second-line therapy in Chinese patients with advanced gastric and EGJ adenocarcinoma. The response and survival of PCF are same as those of DCF, but the tolerance is much better.
Advanced gastric cancer; esophagogastric junction (EGJ); adenocarcinoma; paclitaxel
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In this study, recombinant analgesic-antitumor peptide (rAGAP), a protein consisting of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) linked with a hexa-histidine tag, was used as an antitumor analgesic peptide. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antitumor activity of rAGAP in human colon adenocarcinoma SW480 cells and its potential molecular mechanisms of action. In this study, cell viability and apoptosis of rAGAP-treated SW480 cells was evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. Western blotting was used to investigate the effects of rAGAP on p27, Bcl-2/Bax and PTEN/PI3K/Akt cellular signal transduction. Our results showed that rAGAP not only enhanced apoptosis, but also inhibited the proliferation of SW480 cells. rAGAP upregulates the expression of p27 in SW480 cells and leads to cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. Furthermore, rAGAP significantly increases the production of Bax and PTEN and suppresses the activation of Bcl-2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and phospho-Akt (p-Akt) in SW480 cells. These results suggest that rAGAP may be a potential new anti-colorectal cancer drug.
analgesic-antitumor peptide; colorectal cancer; apoptosis; cell cycle; proliferation
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) with liver metastases after the failure of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).
METHODS: Patients with histologically confirmed CD117-positive GIST with liver metastases who were resistant and/or intolerant to prior imatinib and/or sunitinib and who received TACE for at least one treatment cycle or only best supportive care and TKI reintroduction were eligible for the study. The patients were divided into two groups: those in TACE group received TACE treatment containing 5-20 mL iodized oil and 40-80 mg doxorubicin hydrochloride and TKI reintroduction or best supportive care, those in control group only received TKI reintroduction or best supportive care. The primary end-point was overall survival and the secondary end-points were, progression-free survival (PFS), response rates, and safety.
RESULTS: Sixty patients admitted between June 2008 and October 2011 were eligible for this study, including 22 in TACE group and 38 in control group. In the TACE group, 12 (54.5%) achieved liver partial response, 5 (22.7%) had stable disease, and 5 (22.7%) had liver progressive disease. Disease control rate of liver metastases was 77.3% in the TACE group and 39.5% in the control group. The median liver PFS in TACE group was 47.1 wk (95% CI: 23.9-70.3). The median PFS in TACE group was longer than in control group (30.0 wk, 95% CI: 20.1-39.9 vs 12.9 wk, 95% CI: 11.9-13.9) (P = 0.0001). The median overall survival in TACE group was also longer than in control group (68.5 wk, 95% CI: 57.4-79.6 vs 25.7 wk, 95% CI: 23.2-28.2) (P = 0.0001). TACE treatment signiﬁcantly reduced the risk of death (hazard ratio: 0.109). Patients without extrahepatic metastases treated with TACE had significantly better prognosis. Most of the adverse events were of grade 1 or 2 and tolerable.
CONCLUSION: TACE is effective and well tolerated in GIST patients with liver metastases after TKI failure, and it may be an optional treatment for this disease.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor; Liver metastases; Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization; Tyrosine kinase inhibitor failure; Overall survival
Control of HIV-1 replication was first achieved with regimens that included a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or a protease inhibitor (PI); however, an explanation for the high antiviral activity of these drugs has been lacking. Indeed, conventional pharmacodynamic measures like IC50 (drug concentration causing 50% inhibition) do not differentiate NNRTIs and PIs from less active nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Drug inhibitory potential depends on the slope of the dose-response curve (m), which represents how inhibition increases as a function of increasing drug concentration and is related to the Hill coefficient, a measure of intramolecular cooperativity in ligand binding to a multivalent receptor. Although NNRTIs and PIs bind univalent targets, they unexpectedly exhibit cooperative dose-response curves (m > 1). We show that this cooperative inhibition can be explained by a model in which infectivity requires participation of multiple copies of a drug target in an individual life cycle stage. A critical subset of these target molecules must be in the unbound state. Consistent with experimental observations, this model predicts m > 1 for NNRTIs and PIs and m = 1 in situations where a single drug target/virus mediates a step in the life cycle, as is the case with NRTIs and integrase strand transfer inhibitors. This model was tested experimentally by modulating the number of functional drug targets per virus, and dose-response curves for modulated virus populations fit model predictions. This model explains the high antiviral activity of two drug classes important for successful HIV-1 treatment and defines a characteristic of good targets for antiviral drugs in general, namely, intermolecular cooperativity.
Rectal cancer with rectovesical fistula is a rare and difficult to treat entity. Here, we describe a case of rectal cancer with rectovesical fistula successfully managed by multimodality treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case report in the literature.
A 51-year-old Chinese man was diagnosed as having rectal cancer accompanied by rectovesical fistula. He underwent treatment with neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy combined with total pelvic excision and adjuvant chemotherapy, as recommended by a multimodality treatment team. Post-operative pathology confirmed the achievement of pathological complete response.
This case suggests that a proactive multidisciplinary treatment is needed to achieve complete cure of locally advanced rectal cancer even in the presence of rectovesical fistula.
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)1–3 has dramatically decreased mortality from HIV-1 infection4 and is a major achievement of modern medicine. However, there is no fundamental theory of HAART. Elegant models describe the dynamics of viral replication3,5–9, but a metric for the antiviral activity of drug combinations relative to a target value needed for control of replication is lacking. Treatment guidelines10,11 are based on empirical results of clinical trials in which other factors like regimen tolerability also affect outcome. Why only certain drug combinations control viral replication remains unclear.
Here we quantify the intrinsic antiviral activity of antiretroviral drug combinations. We show that most single antiretrovirals exhibit previously unappreciated complex non-linear pharmacodynamics that determine their inhibitory potential at clinical concentrations. We demonstrate that neither of the major theories for drug combinations accurately predicts the combined effects of multiple antiretrovirals. However, combined effects can be understood with a novel approach that considers the degree of independence of drug effects.
This analysis allows a direct comparison of the inhibitory potential of different drug combinations under clinical concentrations, reconciles the results of clinical trials, defines a target level of inhibition associated with treatment success, and provides a rational basis for treatment simplification and optimization.
In the absence of a cure, most HIV-1-infected individuals will require life-long treatment. It is therefore essential to optimize highly active antiretroviral therapy. Recent research has shown that the slope parameter or Hill coefficient, which describes the steepness of a dose-response curve, is a critical missing dimension in the evaluation of antiviral drug activity. Based on this finding, the instantaneous inhibitory potential (IIP) has been derived as a new measure of antiviral drug activity. IIP incorporates the slope parameter and thus is a more accurate pharmacodynamic measure of antiviral activity than current measures such as IC50 and inhibitory quotient. However, it remains important to determine how to use IIP to predict the in vivo efficacy of anti-HIV-1 drugs. This article discusses recent advances in in vitro measures of antiviral activity and the therapeutic implications of the dose-response curve slope and IIP.
AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety of imatinib dose escalation in Chinese patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST).
METHODS: Advanced GIST patients previously failing 400 mg imatinib treatment were enrolled in this study. Patients received imatinib with dose escalation to 600 mg/d, and further dose escalation to 800 mg/d if imatinib 600 mg/d failed. Progression-free survival, overall survival, clinical efficacy, c-kit/PDGFRA genotype and safety were evaluated.
RESULTS: 52 patients were enrolled in this study. For the 47 evaluable patients receiving imatinib (600 mg/d), the disease control rate was 40.4%, and the median progression-free survival for all patients was 17 wk (95% CI: 3.9-30.1). The median overall survival after dose escalation was 81 wk (95% CI: 36.2-125.8). Adverse events, mainly edema, fatigue, granulocytopenia and skin rash were tolerable. However, further dose escalation (800 mg/d) in 14 cases was ineffective, with disease progression and severe adverse events. Among 30 cases examined for gene mutations, patients with exon 9 mutations experienced a better progression-free survival of 47 wk.
CONCLUSION: Imatinib dose escalation to 600 mg/d is more appropriate for Chinese patients and may achieve further survival benefit.
Gene mutation; Gastrointestinal stromal tumor; Imatinib; Increased dose
To analyze the relationship between KRAS, BRAF mutations and the response toCetuximab in Chinese colorectal cancer patients.
A total of273 Chinese colorectal cancer patients were evaluated for KRAS and BRAF mutations by Sanger sequencing. Among them, 59 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) were treated with Cetuximab in combination with chemotherapy from August 2005 to July 2009. Statistical analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between KRAS, BRAF mutations and the response or survival of 59 mCRC patients.
KRAS and BRAF mutation rates were 38.5% (105/273) and 5.1% (14/273), respectively, and KRAS/BRAF mutations were mutually exclusive. Among 59 patients treated with Cetuximab plus chemotherapy, KRAS and BRAF mutations were identified in 11and 5 patients, respectively. The response rates and median progression-free survivals (PFS) in KRAS wild-type and mutant patients were 35.4% (17/48) vs. 9.1% (1/11) (P=0.054) and 153 days vs. 99 days (P=0.01), respectively.Also, the response rates and median PFS in BRAF wild-type and mutant patients were 37.2% (16/43) vs. 20% (1/5) (P=0.016) and 138 days vs. 90 days (P=0.036), respectively.
Besides KRAS, assessing BRAF mutation should also be required to select patients eligible for Cetuximab. Further prospective evaluation in large samples should be performed to confirm these preliminary findings.
KRAS; BRAF; Mutation; Cetuximab; Colorectal cancer
Toevaluate the role of class III β-tubulin (TUBB3), thymidylate synthase (TS), thymidine phosphorylase (TP), and excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) in clinical outcome of advanced gastric cancer patients receiving capecitabine plus paclitaxel or cisplatin.
The clinical data and tumor specimens from 57 advanced gastric cancer patients receiving first-line capecitabine plus paclitaxel (cohort 1, n=36) and capecitabine plus cisplatin (cohort 2, n=21) were retrospectively collected, and TUBB3, TS, TP, and ERCC1 expressions were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. The associations between expressions of biomarkers and response or survival were analyzed statistically.
The median age of 57 patients was 57 years (range: 27–75 years) with 38 males and 19 females. Of all patients, the response rates of patients with high TP, low TP and high TS, low TS expressions were 57.1%, 27.6% (P=0.024), and 55.2%, 28.6% (P=0.042), respectively. Among cohort 1, the response rates and median overall survivals of patients with low and high TUBB3 expressions were 61.1% vs. 33.3% (P=0.095) and 13.8 months vs. 6.6 months (P=0.019), respectively; the response rate (87.5%) of patients with low TUBB3 and high TP expressions was higher than that (14.3%) of patients with high TUBB3 and low TP expressions (P=0.01). Among cohort 2, the response rates of patients with low ERCC1 and high ERCC1 expressions were 45.5% and 20.0% respectively (P=0.361).
TUBB3, TS and TP expressions could predict the response of advanced gastric cancer patients receiving capecitabine-based and paclitaxel-based chemotherapy. These results will be further confirmed in future large samples.
Advanced gastric cancer; TS/TP/TUBB3/ERCC1; Capecitabine; Paclitaxel; Cisplatin
Acyclovir, a nucleoside analog, is thought to be specific for the human herpesviruses because it requires a virally encoded enzyme to phosphorylate it to acyclovir monophosphate. Recently, acyclovir triphosphate was shown to be a direct inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase. Here, we showed that acyclovir is an inhibitor of HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells from cord blood that have undetectable levels of the eight human herpesviruses. Additionally, acyclovir phosphates were detected by reverse-phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and quantified in a primer extension assay from cord blood. The data support acyclovir as an inhibitor of HIV-1 replication in herpesvirus-negative cells.
Elite controllers or suppressors (ES) are a group of HIV-1-infected individuals who maintain viral loads below the limit of detection of commercial assays for many years. The mechanisms responsible for this remarkable control are under intense study, with the hope of developing therapeutic vaccines effective against HIV-1. In this study, we addressed the question of the intrinsic susceptibility of ES CD4+ T cells to infection. While we and others have previously shown that CD4+ T cells from ES can be infected by HIV-1 isolates in vitro, these studies were confounded by exogenous activation and in vitro culture of CD4+ T cells prior to infection. In order to avoid the changes in chemokine receptor expression that have been associated with such exogenous activation, we infected purified CD4+ T cells directly after isolation from the peripheral blood of ES, viremic patients, and uninfected donors. We utilized a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing proviral construct pseudotyped with CCR5-tropic or CXCR4-tropic envelope to compare viral entry using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based, single-round virus-cell fusion assay. The frequency of productive infection was also compared by assessing GFP expression. CD4+ T cells from ES were as susceptible as or more susceptible than cells from viremic patients and uninfected donors to HIV-1 entry and productive infection. The results of this physiological study strongly suggest that differences in HIV-1 entry and infection of CD4+ T cells alone cannot explain the elite control of viral replication.
To assess the role of Thymidine Phosphorylase and β-tubulin III in clinical outcome of Chinese advanced gastric cancer patients receiving first-line capecitabine plus paclitaxel.
The clinical data and tumor biopsies prior treatment from 33 advanced gastric cancer patients receiving capecitabine plus paclitaxel (cohort 1, experimental group) and 18 patients receiving capecitabine plus cisplatin (cohort 2, control group) in Beijing Cancer Hospital from July 2003 to December 2008 were retrospectively collected and analyzed for Thymidine Phosphorylase and β-tubulin III expressions by immunohistochemistry. The relationships between expressions of biomarkers and response or survival were determined by statistical analysis.
The median age of 51 patients was 57 years (range, 27-75) with male 34 and female 17, and the response rate, median progression-free survival and overall survival were 43.1%, 120d and 265d. Among cohort 1, the response rate, median progression-free survival and overall survival in β-tubulin III positive (n = 22) and negative patients (n = 11) were 36.4%/72.7% (positive vs negative, P = 0.049), 86d/237d (P = 0.046) and 201d/388d (P = 0.029), respectively; the response rate (87.5% vs 14.3%, P = 0.01) and median progression-free survival (251d vs 84d, P = 0.003) in Thymidine Phosphorylase positive & β-tubulin III negative patients (n = 8) were also significantly higher than those in Thymidine Phosphorylase negative & β-tubulin III positive patients (n = 7). There was no correlation between β-tubulin III expression and response or survival among cohort 2 (n = 18).
In Chinese advanced gastric cancer, Thymidine Phosphorylase positive & β-tubulin III negative might predict response and prognosis to capecitabine plus paclitaxel chemotherapy. Further prospective evaluation in large samples should be performed to confirm these preliminary findings.
We show that entecavir, an FDA-approved drug used to treat chronic hepatitis B, potently inhibits HIV replication in vitro and leads to a 1 log decline in HIV RNA in vivo. Detailed analysis of two HIV-HBV co-infected patients receiving up to seven months of entecavir monotherapy demonstrated accumulation of HIV variants with the lamivudine-resistance mutation, M184V, in one of them. In vitro experiments demonstrated that M184V confers resistance to entecavir. Thus, entecavir has clinically relevant anti-HIV activity and can select for variants resistant to anti-HIV drugs. Until more is known about HIV resistance patterns and their selection by entecavir, caution is needed when using entecavir in HIV-HBV co-infected individuals not receiving fully suppressive antiretroviral regimens.
This phase I, randomized, multicenter, open-label study investigated the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of the oral mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus in Chinese patients with advanced solid tumors.
A total of 24 patients with advanced breast cancer (n = 6), gastric cancer (n = 6), non-small cell lung cancer (n = 6), or renal cell carcinoma (n = 6) who were refractory to/unsuitable for standard therapy were randomized 1:1 to oral everolimus 5 or 10 mg/day. Primary end points were pharmacokinetic parameters and safety and tolerability. Pharmacokinetic 24-h profiles were measured on day 15; trough level was measured on days 2, 8, 15, 16, and 22. Tolerability was assessed continuously. This final analysis was performed after all patients had received 6 months of study drug or had discontinued.
Everolimus was absorbed rapidly; median Tmax was 3 h (range, 1-4) and 2 h (range, 0.9-6) in the 5 and 10 mg/day groups, respectively. Pharmacokinetic parameters increased dose proportionally from the 5 and 10 mg/day doses. Steady-state levels were achieved by day 8 or earlier. The most common adverse events suspected to be related to everolimus therapy were increased blood glucose (16.7% and 41.7%) and fatigue (16.7% and 33.3%) in the everolimus 5 and 10 mg/day dose cohorts, respectively. Best tumor response was stable disease in 10 (83%) and 6 (50%) patients in the 5 and 10 mg/day groups, respectively.
Everolimus 5 or 10 mg/day was well tolerated in Chinese patients with advanced solid tumors. The observed safety and pharmacokinetic profile of everolimus from this study were consistent with previous studies.
Chinese Health Authorities 2008L09346
Members of tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins in mammals play important roles in multiple cellular processes in the immune system. In the present study we have obtained the chicken TRIM39 with the insertion of a base A at position 1006 bp, compared to the sequence in the NCBI database (Accession No: NM 001006196), which made TRIM39 fulfill the TRIM rule of domain composition with both PRY, and SPRY domains. The open reading frame consisted of 1392 bp encoding 463 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequences of TRIM39 protein in mammals were highly similar (from 91.48% to 99.61%), while chicken TRIM39 had relatively low homology with mammals (from 29.2% to 39.59%). Real time RT-PCR indicated that the mRNA expression level of TRIM39 was the highest in spleen, with a lower expression in liver, brain, and lung, suggesting it might be an important protein participating in the immune system.
chicken; tripartite motif protein 39; B30.2 domain
AIM: To investigate the prognostic value of KRAS mutation, and phosphatase and tensin (PTEN) expression in Chinese metastatic colorectal cancer metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with cetuximab.
METHODS: Ninety Chinese mCRC patients treated with cetuximab were evaluated for KRAS mutation and PTEN protein expression by DNA sequencing of codons 12 and 13 and immunohistochemistry, respectively. We then selected 61 patients treated with cetuximab, either in combination with chemotherapy, or alone as a second-line or third-line regimen to assess whether KRAS mutation or PTEN protein expression is associated with the response and the survival time of mCRC patients treated with cetuximab.
RESULTS: KRAS mutation was found in 30 (33.3%) tumor samples from the 90 patients, and positive PTEN expression was detected in 58 (64.4%) of the 90 patients. Among the 61 patients who were treated with cetuximab as a second-line or third-line regimen, the resistance to cetuximab was found in 22 patients with KRAS mutation and in 39 patients without KRAS mutation, with a response rate of 4.5% and 46.1% respectively (P = 0.001), a shorter median progression-free survival (PFS) time of 14 ± 1.3 wk and 32 ± 2.5 wk respectively (P < 0.001), a median overall survival (OS) time of 11 ± 1.2 mo and 19 ± 1.8 mo respectively (P < 0.001), as well as in 24 patients with negative PTEN expression and in 37 patients with positive PTEN expression respectively (P < 0.001), with a responsive rate of 4.2% and 48.6% respectively, a shorter median PFS survival time of 17 ± 2.0 wk and 28 ± 1.9 wk respectively (P = 0.07), and a median OS time of 11 ± 1.3 mo and 18 ± 1.9 mo respectively (P = 0.004). Combined KRAS mutation and PTEN expression analysis showed that the PFS and OS time of patients with two favorable prognostic factors were longer than those of patients with one favorable prognostic factor or no favorable prognostic factor (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: KRAS mutation and PTEN protein expression are significantly correlated with the response rate and survival time of Chinese mCRC patients treated with cetuximab.
Cetuximab; Metastatic colorectal cancer; KRAS mutation; Phosphatase and tensin protein expression
AIM: To compare the differences between dideoxy sequencing/KRAS StripAssay/pyrosequencing for detection of KRAS mutation in Chinese colorectal cancer (CRC) patients.
METHODS: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples with tumor cells ≥ 50% were collected from 100 Chinese CRC patients at Beijing Cancer Hospital. After the extraction of genome DNA from FFPE samples, fragments contained codons 12 and 13 of KRAS exon 2 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by dideoxy sequencing, the KRAS StripAssay and pyrosequencing. In addition, the sensitivities of the 3 methods were compared on serial dilutions (contents of mutant DNA: 100%, 50%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1%, 0%) of A549 cell line DNA (carrying the codon 12 Gly>Ser mutation) into wild-type DNA (human normal intestinal mucosa). The results of dideoxy sequencing, the KRAS StripAssay and pyrosequencing were analyzed by Chromas Software, Collector for KRAS StripAssay and the pyrosequencing PyroMarkTM Q24 system, respectively.
RESULTS: Among 100 patients, KRAS mutations were identified in 34%, 37% and 37% of patients by dideoxy sequencing, the KRAS StripAssay and pyrosequencing, respectively. The sensitivity was highest with the KRAS StripAssay (1%), followed by pyrosequencing (5%), and dideoxy sequencing was lowest (15%). Six different mutation types were found in this study with 3 main mutations Gly12Asp (GGT>GAT), Gly12Val (GGT>GTT) and Gly13Asp (GGC>GAC). Thirty-three patients were identified to have KRAS mutations by the 3 methods, and a total of 8 patients had conflicting results between 3 methods: 4 mutations not detected by dideoxy sequencing and the KRAS StripAssay were identified by pyrosequencing; 3 mutations not detected by dideoxy sequencing and pyrosequencing were identified by the KRAS StripAssay; and 1 mutation not detected by pyrosequencing was confirmed by dideoxy sequencing and the KRAS StripAssay. Among these discordant results, the results identified by dideoxy sequencing were consistent either with the KRAS StripAssay or with pyrosequencing, which indicated that the accuracy of dideoxy sequencing was high.
CONCLUSION: Taking a worldwide view of reports and our results, dideoxy sequencing remains the most popular method because of its low cost and high accuracy.
DNA mutational analysis; KRAS; Mutation; Dideoxy sequencing; KRAS StripAssay; Pyrosequencing
Purpose. This phase II, open-label, multicenter study assessed the oral, multitargeted, tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib in patients with advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma who had received prior chemotherapy. Experimental design. Patients received sunitinib 50 mg/day on Schedule 4/2 (4 weeks on treatment, followed by 2 weeks off treatment). The primary endpoint was objective response rate; secondary endpoints included clinical benefit rate, duration of response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability, and quality of life. Results. Of 78 patients enrolled, most had gastric adenocarcinoma (93.6%) and metastatic disease (93.6%). All were evaluable for safety and efficacy. Two patients (2.6%) had partial responses and 25 patients (32.1%) had a best response of stable disease for ≥6 weeks. Median PFS was 2.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–2.6 months) and median OS was 6.8 months (95% CI, 4.4–9.6 months). Grade ≥3 thrombocytopenia and neutropenia were reported in 34.6% and 29.4% of patients, respectively, and the most common non-hematologic adverse events were fatigue, anorexia, nausea, diarrhea, and stomatitis. Pharmacokinetics of sunitinib and its active metabolite were consistent with previous reports. There were no marked associations between baseline soluble protein levels, or changes from baseline, and measures of clinical outcome. Conclusions. The progression-delaying effect and manageable toxicity observed with sunitinib in this study suggest that although single-agent sunitinib has insufficient clinical value as second-line treatment for advanced gastric cancer, its role in combination with chemotherapy merits further study.
Sunitinib; Gastric cancer; Tyrosine kinase inhibitor; Pharmacokinetics; Pharmacodynamics