Metabolic syndrome is a serious health problem in both developed and developing countries. The present study investigated the anti-metabolic disorder effects of different pomelo varieties on obese C57BL/6 mice induced by high-fat (HF) diet.
The peels of four pomelo varieties were extracted with ethanol and the total phenols and flavonoids content of these extracts were measured. For the animal experiment, the female C57BL/6 mice were fed with a Chow diet or a HF diet alone or supplemented with 1% (w/w) different pomelo peel extracts for 8 weeks. Body weight and food intake were measured every other day. At the end of the treatment, the fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance and insulin (INS) tolerance test, serum lipid profile and insulin levels, and liver lipid contents were analyzed. The gene expression analysis was performed with a quantitative real-time PCR assay.
The present study showed that the Citrus grandis liangpinyou (LP) and beibeiyou (BB) extracts were more potent in anti-metabolic disorder effects than the duanshiyou (DS) and wubuyou (WB) extracts. Both LP and BB extracts blocked the body weight gain, lowered fasting blood glucose, serum TC, liver lipid levels, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, and lowered serum insulin levels in HF diet-fed mice. Compared with the HF group, LP and BB peel extracts increased the mRNA expression of PPARα and its target genes, such as FAS, PGC-1α and PGC-1β, and GLUT4 in the liver and white adipocyte tissue (WAT).
We found that that pomelo peel extracts could prevent high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders in C57BL/6 mice through the activation of the PPARα and GLUT4 signaling. Our results indicate that pomelo peels could be used as a dietary therapy and the potential source of drug for metabolic disorders.
Sleep duration has been shown to play an important role in the development of cancer. However, the results have been inconsistent. A meta-analysis with prospective cohort studies was performed to clarify the association between short or long sleep duration and cancer risk.
PubMed and Embase databases were searched for eligible publications. Pooled relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using random- or fixed- model.
A total of 10 prospective studies (8392 incident cases and 555678 participants) were included in the meta-analysis. Neither short nor long sleep duration was statistically associated with increased risk of cancer (short sleep duration: RR=1.05, 95%CI=0.90-1.24, p=0.523; long sleep duration: RR=0.92, 95%CI=0.76-1.12, p=0.415). In the subgroup by cancer type, long sleep duration was positively associated with colorectal cancer (RR=1.29, 95%CI=1.09-1.52, p=0.003).
The present meta-analysis suggested that neither short nor long sleep duration was significantly associated with risk of cancer, although long sleep duration increased risk of with colorectal cancer. Large-scale well-design prospective studies are required to be conducted to further investigate the observed association.
Novel ABI–III compounds were designed and synthesized based on our previously reported ABI-I and ABI–II analogs. ABI–III compounds are highly potent against a panel of melanoma and prostate cancer cell lines, with the best compound having an average IC50 value of 3.8 nM. They are not substrate of Pgp and thus may effectively overcome Pgp mediated multidrug resistance. ABI–III analogs maintain their mechanisms of action by inhibition of tubulin polymerization.
Melanoma; prostate cancer; multidrug resistance; tubulin polymerization inhibitor; antiproliferative activity
Cancers have a multifactorial etiology a part of which is genetic. Recent data indicate that expression of the tight junction claudin proteins is involved in the etiology and progression of cancer.
To explore the correlations of the tight junction proteins claudin-2,-6, and −11 in the pathogenesis and clinical behavior of gastric cancer, 40 gastric cancer tissues and 28 samples of non-neoplastic tissues adjacent to the tumors were examined for expression of claudin-2,-6, and −11 by streptavidin-perosidase immunohistochemical staining method.
The positive expression rates of claudin-2 in gastric cancer tissues and adjacent tissues were 25% and 68% respectively (P < 0.001). The positive expression rates of claudin-6 in gastric cancer tissues and adjacent tissues were 55% and 79% respectively (P = 0.045 < 0.05). In contrast, the positive expression rates of claudin-11 in gastric cancer tissues and gastric cancer adjacent tissues were 80% and 46% (P = 0.004 < 0.01). Thus in our study, the expression of claudin-2, and claudin-6 was down regulated in gastric cancer tissue while the expression of claudin-11 was up regulated. Correlations between claudin expression and clinical behavior were not observed.
Our study provides the first evidence that claudin-2,-6, and −11 protein expression varies between human gastric cancers and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues.
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
Gastric cancer; Tight junctions; Claudin-2; Claudin-6; Claudin-11; Immunohistochemistry
Discovered over a decade ago, hephaestin (Heph) has been implicated as a ferroxidase (FOX) vital for intestinal iron absorption. Stringent structural or kinetic data derived from purified, native protein is however lacking, leading to the hypothesis that an alternate, undiscovered form of Heph could exist in mammalian enterocytes. This possibility was tested using laboratory rodent and cell culture models. Cytosolic and membrane fractions were obtained from rat enterocytes and purity of the fractions was assessed. Western blot analyses revealed Heph in cytosol obtained by three different methods, ruling out the possibility of a method-induced artifact being the major contributor to this observation. Absence of two different membrane-proteins, ferroportin 1 and Menke’s copper ATPase in cytosol, and the absence of lipids in representative cytosolic samples tested by thin layer chromatography, eliminated significant membrane contamination of cytosol. Further, immunohisto- and immunocyto-chemical analyses identified Heph in rat enterocytes and in two intestinal epithelial cell lines, IEC-6 and Caco-2, intracellularly. Additionally, cytosolic Heph increased upon iron-deprivation but more important, decreased significantly upon copper-deprivation, mimicking the response of membrane-bound Heph. Moreover, FOX activity was present in rat cytosol, and was partly inhibited by anti-Heph antibody. Finally, lack of immunodetectable ceruloplasmin (Cp) by western blot precluded Cp as an underlying cause of this activity. These data demonstrate that rat enterocytes contain a soluble/cytosolic form of Heph possibly contributing to the observed FOX activity.
Intestine; Iron; Copper; Absorption
Five new anthranilic acid derivatives, penipacids A–E (1–5), together with one known analogue (6), which was previously synthesized, were characterized from the ethyl acetate extract of the marine sediment-derived fungus Penicillium paneum SD-44. Their structures were elucidated mainly by extensive NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analysis. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds were evaluated. Compounds 1, and 5 exhibited inhibitory activity against human colon cancer RKO cell line, while compound 6 displayed cytotoxic activity against Hela cell line.
marine fungus; sediment; anthranilic acid; Penicillium paneum; cytotoxicity
The aberrant activation of the developmentally regulated anterior gradient protein 2 (AGR2) gene has been associated with a metastatic phenotype. However, its mechanism of action and its regulation in prostate cancer is unknown. We had previously found that the ErbB3 binding protein 1 (EBP1), whose expression is reduced in prostate cancer, is a putative repressor of AGR2. The current study demonstrates that overexpression of AGR2 promotes the motility and invasiveness of non-metastatic LNCaP cells, while silencing of AGR2 in metastatic LNCaP derivative C4–2B cells significantly reduced cell invasion, suggesting AGR2 is an important determinant of the invasive capacity in human prostate cancer. Further, we provide evidence that the anti-invasive effect of EBP1 occurs, at least in part, through its ability to inhibit the expression of AGR2. EBP1 suppresses the promoter activity of the AGR2 gene, downregulates Foxa1 & Foxa2-stimulated AGR2 transcription and decreases metastatic behavior. In contrast, ablation of EBP1 upregulates the expression of the AGR2 gene, enhances Foxa1 and Foxa2–stimulated AGR2 promoter activity, and results in a more metastatic phenotype. We also found a significant inverse correlation between EBP1 and AGR2 levels in prostate cancer cell lines and importantly, primary prostate tumors. Collectively, our results highlight a previously uncharacterized EBP1-Foxa-AGR2 signaling circuit that has potential mechanistic and functional significance in therapeutic management of metastatic prostate cancer.
The ErbB2/3 heterodimer plays a critical role in breast cancer progression and in the development of endocrine resistance. EBP1, an ErbB3 binding protein, inhibits HRG-stimulated breast cancer growth, decreases ErbB2 protein levels and contributes to tamoxifen sensitivity. We report here that ectopic expression of EBP1 in Estrogen Receptor (ER) positive breast cancers that express ErbB2 at both high and low levels decreased ErbB2 protein levels. ErbB2 protein expression was also increased in mammary glands of Ebp1 knock out mice. To define the mechanism of ErbB2 down regulation, we examined the effects of EBP1 on ErbB2 mRNA levels, transcription of the ErbB2 gene and ErbB2 protein stability. We found that ectopic expression of EBP1 decreased steady state levels of endogenous ErbB2 mRNA in all cell lines tested. EBP1 overexpression decreased the activity of an ErbB2 promoter reporter in cells which overxpress ErbB2. However, reporter activity was unchanged or increased in cells which express low endogenous levels of ErbB2. We also found that ectopic expression of EBP1 accelerated ErbB2 protein degradation and enhanced ErbB2 ubiquitination in cells which express both low and high levels of ErbB2. Treatment with proteasome inhibitors prevented this decrease in ErbB2 protein levels. Ablation of EBP1 expression led to tamoxifen resistance that was abrogated by inhibition of ErbB2 activity. These results suggest that EBP1 inhibits expression of ErbB2 protein levels by multiple mechanisms and that EBP1’s effects on tamoxifen sensitivity are mediated in part by its ability to modulate ErbB2 levels.
EBP1; ErbB2; tamoxifen; breast cancer
Anesthetics have been reported to promote Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathogenesis by inducing β-amyloid protein accumulation and apoptosis. Neuroinflammation is associated with the emergence of AD. We therefore set out to determine the effects of the common anesthetic isoflurane on the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, the proinflammatory cytokines, in vitro and in vivo, employing Western blot, immunohistochemistry, ELISA, and RT-PCR. Here, we show that a clinically relevant isoflurane anesthesia increased the protein and mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the brain tissues of mice. The isoflurane anesthesia increased the amounts of TNF-α immunostaining positive cells in the brain tissues of mice, the majority of which were neurons. Furthermore, isoflurane increased TNF-α levels in primary neurons, but not microglia cells, of mice. Finally, isoflurane induced a greater degree of TNF-α increase in the AD transgenic mice than in the wild type mice. These results suggest that isoflurane may increase the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, which may cause neuroinflammation, leading to promotion of AD neuropathogenesis.
Alzheimer’s disease; Anesthesia; Isoflurane; TNF-α; IL-6; IL-1β
Acute ischemic stroke triggers complex neurovascular, neuroinflammatory and synaptic alterations. Aspirin and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 essential fatty acid family member, have beneficial effects on cerebrovascular diseases. DHA is the precursor of neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), which downregulates apoptosis and, in turn, promotes cell survival. Here we have tested the effect of aspirin plus DHA administration and discovered the synthesis of aspirin-triggered NPD1 (AT-NPD1) in the brain. Then we performed the total chemical synthesis of this molecule and tested in the setting of 2h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurological status was evaluated at 24h, 48h, 72h, and 7 days. At 3h post-stroke onset, an intravenous administration of 333μg/kg of AT-NPD1 sodium salt (AT-NPD1-SS) or methyl-ester (AT-NPD1-ME) or vehicle (saline) as treatment was given. On day 7, ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brains was conducted on 11.7T MRI. T2WI, 3D volumes, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were generated. In addition, infarct volumes and number of GFAP (reactive astrocytes), ED-1 (activated microglia/macrophages) and SMI-71-positive vessels were counted in the cortex and striatum at the level of the central lesion. All animals showed similar values for rectal and cranial temperatures, arterial blood gases, and plasma glucose during and after MCAo. Treatment with both AT-NPD1-SS and AT-NPD1-ME significantly improved neurological scores compared to saline treatment at 24h, 48h, 72h and 7 days. Total lesion volumes computed from T2WI images were significantly reduced by both AT-NPD1-SS and AT-NPD1-ME treatment in the cortex (by 44% and 81%), striatum (by 61% and 77%) and total infarct (by 48% and 78%, respectively). Brain edema, computed from T2WI in the cortex (penumbra) and striatum (core), was elevated in the saline group. In contrast, both AT-NPD1 decreased water content in the striatum on day 7. 3D volumes, computed from T2WI, were dramatically reduced with both AT-NPD1 and the lesion was mostly localized in the subcortical areas. Treatment with both AT-NPD1-SS and AT-NPD1-ME significantly reduced cortical (by 76% and 96%), subcortical (by 61% and 70%) and total (69% and 84%, respectively) infarct volumes as defined by histopathology. In conclusion, a novel biosynthetic pathway that leads to the formation of AT-NPD1 mediator in the brain was discovered. In addition, administration of synthetic AT-NPD1, in either its sodium salt or as the methyl ester, was able to attenuate cerebral ischemic injury which leads to a novel approach for pharmaceutical intervention and clinical translation.
Neuroprotectin D1; Docosahexaenoic acid; Aspirin; Stroke; Middle cerebral artery occlusion; Cerebral ischemia; Behavior; Histopathology; Rat
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) being the predominant form of the disease. Most lung cancer is caused by the accumulation of genomic alterations due to tobacco exposure. To uncover its mutational landscape, we performed whole-exome sequencing in 31 NSCLCs and their matched normal tissue samples. We identified both common and unique mutation spectra and pathway activation in lung adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas, two major histologies in NSCLC. In addition to identifying previously known lung cancer genes (TP53, KRAS, EGFR, CDKN2A and RB1), the analysis revealed many genes not previously implicated in this malignancy. Notably, a novel gene CSMD3 was identified as the second most frequently mutated gene (next to TP53) in lung cancer. We further demonstrated that loss of CSMD3 results in increased proliferation of airway epithelial cells. The study provides unprecedented insights into mutational processes, cellular pathways and gene networks associated with lung cancer. Of potential immediate clinical relevance, several highly mutated genes identified in our study are promising druggable targets in cancer therapy including ALK, CTNNA3, DCC, MLL3, PCDHIIX, PIK3C2B, PIK3CG and ROCK2.
Circulating microRNA expression levels can serve as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers in several types of malignant tumors; however, to our knowledge, there have been reports describing their value in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In this study, we used hybridization arrays to compare the microRNA expression profiles in cervical squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) samples among patients with lymph node metastasis (LNM) or without LNM; 89 microRNAs were found to fit our inclusion criteria. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), we examined the expression levels of these microRNAs in cervical cancer tissue, as well as in serum from patients and healthy women. We compared the expression levels between patients with LNM (n=40) and those without LNM (n=40) and healthy controls (n=20). Using regression analysis, we generated a comprehensive set of marker microRNAs and drew the fitted binormal receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to access the predictive value. We identified 6 serum microRNAs that can predict LNM in cervical SCC patients; these microRNAs were miR-1246, miR-20a, miR-2392, miR-3147, miR-3162-5p and miR-4484. The area under the curve (AUC) of the comprehensive set of serum microRNAs predicting LNM was 0.932 (sensitivity, 0.856; specificity, 0.850). The predictive value of the serum microRNAs was inferior to that in tissue (AUC 0.992; sensitivity, 0.967; specificity, 0.950; P=0.018). We compared the LNM predictive value of serum microRNAs and SCC antigen (SCC-Ag) by drawing fitted binormal ROC curves However, serum microRNA analysis is by far superior to serum SCC-Ag analysis (AUC 0.713; sensitivity, 0.612; specificity, 0.700; P<0.0001). Serum microRNAs are a good predictor of LNM with clinical value in early-stage cervical SCC.
cervical squamous cell carcinoma; microRNA; lymph node metastasis; serum marker
Metasequoia glyptostroboides, a famous relic species of conifer that survived in China, has been successfully planted in large numbers across the world. However, limited information on male cone development in the species is available. In this study, we observed the morphological and anatomical changes that occur during male cone development in M. glyptostroboides using semi-thin sections and scanning electron microscopy. The male cones were borne oppositely on one-year-old twigs that were mainly located around the outer and sunlit parts of crown. Male cones were initiated from early September and shed pollen in the following February. Each cone consisted of spirally arranged microsporophylls subtended by decussate sterile scales, and each microsporophyll commonly consisted of three microsporangia and a phylloclade. The microsporangial wall was composed of an epidermis, endothecium, and tapetum. In mid-February, the endothecium and tapetum layers disintegrated, and in the epidermal layer the cell walls were thickened with inner protrusions. Subsequently, dehiscence of the microsporangia occurred through rupturing of the microsporangial wall along the dehiscence line. These results suggest that the structure, morphology, architecture and arrangement of male cones of M. glyptostroboides are mainly associated with the production, protection and dispersal of pollen for optimization of wind pollination.
male cone; Metasequoia glyptostroboides; pollen cone; morphological structure; development; microsporangium wall; microsporangium dehiscence; pollen release; anatomical structure; microstrobili
The Menkes copper ATPase (Atp7a) pumps copper into the trans-Golgi for cuproenzyme synthesis, and translocates to the basolateral membrane of enterocytes for copper export. Recent studies demonstrated that three 5’ end splice variants of the Atp7a transcript exist in rat duodenum, all of which are strongly induced during iron deprivation. To explore a possible role for Atp7a (and copper) in intestinal iron absorption, the current studies were undertaken to test the hypothesis that multiple Atp7a transcript and protein variants exist in intestinal epithelial cells. Northern blot analyses using probes generated from the full-length Atp7a cDNA revealed several specific hybridization bands, all of which were more intense in RNA samples extracted from duodenal enterocytes isolated from iron-deficient rats. A PCR-based approach, using forward primers specific for the alternative 5’ end splice variants and a reverse primer in exon 23, demonstrated that 3 full-length transcripts exist in rat IEC-6 cells. To identify possible Atp7a protein variants, three distinct polyclonal antisera were utilized. The specificity of the antisera was first established by western blotting and immunoprecipitation studies using samples derived from isolated rat enterocytes and Atp7a knockdown IEC-6 cells. Several specific immunoreactive bands were documented, and a unique Atp7a protein distribution in cytosolic vesicle-like structures was noted. In conclusion, multiple Atp7a transcript and protein variants exist in rodent intestinal epithelial cells and are induced by dietary iron deprivation. Further studies will be designed to determine the subcellular distribution of Atp7a protein variants and possible unique functions of each.
iron-deficiency anemia; iron; copper; intestine
We present a method and web server for predicting DNA structural features in a high-throughput (HT) manner for massive sequence data. This approach provides the framework for the integration of DNA sequence and shape analyses in genome-wide studies. The HT methodology uses a sliding-window approach to mine DNA structural information obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. It requires only nucleotide sequence as input and instantly predicts multiple structural features of DNA (minor groove width, roll, propeller twist and helix twist). The results of rigorous validations of the HT predictions based on DNA structures solved by X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy, hydroxyl radical cleavage data, statistical analysis and cross-validation, and molecular dynamics simulations provide strong confidence in this approach. The DNAshape web server is freely available at http://rohslab.cmb.usc.edu/DNAshape/.
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) belongs to the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) superfamily. Aberrant upregulation and activation of ERK cascades may often lead to tumor cell development. However, how ERK is involved in tumor progression is yet to be defined. In current study, we described that ERK undergoes S-nitrosylation by nitric oxide (NO). ERK S-nitrosylation inhibits its phosphorylation and triggers apoptotic program as verified by massive apoptosis in fluorescence staining. The proapoptotic effect of NO induced S-nitrosylation is reversed by NO scavenger Haemoglobin (HB). Furthermore, an S-nitrosylation dead ERK mutant C183A also demolishes the proapoptotic potential of NO and favors cell survival. Therefore, Cys183 might be a potential S-nitrosylation site in ERK. In addition, S-nitrosylation is a general phenomenon that regulates ERK activity. These findings identify a novel link between NO-mediated S-nitrosylation and ERK regulation, which provide critical insights into the control of apoptosis and tumor development.
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential to improve treatment of renal failure. The prohealing functions of MSCs have been found to be enhanced by treatment with the lipid mediator, 14S,21R-dihydroxy-docosa4Z,7Z,10Z,12E,16Z,19Z-hexaenoic acid (14S,21R-diHDHA). In this article, using a murine model of renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, we found that treatment with 14S,21R-diHDHA enhanced MSC amelioration of renal I/R injury. Treated MSCs more efficiently inhibited I/R-induced elevation of serum creatinine levels, reduced renal tubular cell death, and inhibited infiltration of neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells in kidneys. Conditioned medium from treated MSCs reduced the generation of tumor necrosis factor-α and reactive oxygen species by macrophages under I/R conditions. Infusion of treated MSCs more efficiently reduced I/R-damage to renal histological structures compared with untreated MSCs (injury score: 7.9±0.4 vs. 10.5±0.5). Treated MSCs were resistant to apoptosis in vivo when transplanted under capsules of I/R-injured kidneys (active caspase-3+ MSCs: 4.2%±2.8% vs. 11.7%±2.4% of control) and in vitro when cultured under I/R conditions. Treatment with 14S,21R-diHDHA promoted viability of MSCs through a mechanism involving activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase -Akt signaling pathway. Additionally, treatment of MSCs with 14S,21R-diHDHA promoted secretion of renotrophic hepatocyte growth factor and insulin growth factor-1. Similar results were obtained when 14S,21RdiHDHA was used to inhibit apoptosis of human MSCs (hMSCs) and to increase the generation of renotrophic cytokines from hMSCs. These findings provide a lead for new strategies in the treatment of acute kidney injury with MSCs.
About 30% stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients undergoing resection will recur. Robust prognostic markers are required to better manage therapy options. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs of 19–25 nt and play important roles in gene regulation in human cancers. The purpose of this study is to identify miRNA expression profiles that would better predict prognosis of stage I NSCLC. MiRNAs extracted from 527 stage I NSCLC patients were profiled on the human miRNA expression profiling v2 panel (Illumina). The expression profiles were analyzed for their association with cancer subtypes, lung cancer brain metastasis and recurrence/relapse free survival (RFS). MiRNA expression patterns between lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma differed significantly with 171 miRNAs, including Let-7 family members and miR-205. Ten miRNAs associated with brain metastasis were identified including miR-145*, which inhibit cell invasion and metastasis. Two miRNA signatures that are highly predictive of RFS were identified. The first contained 34 miRNAs derived from 357 stage I NSCLC patients independent of cancer subtype, whereas the second containing 27 miRNAs was adenocarcinoma specific. Both signatures were validated using formalin-fixed paraffin embedded and/or fresh frozen tissues in independent data set with 170 stage I patients. Our findings have important prognostic or therapeutic implications for the management of stage I lung cancer patients. The identified miRNAs hold great potential as targets for histology-specific treatment or prevention and treatment of recurrent disease.
Non-naturally occurring 20R epimer of 20-hydroxyvitamin D3 is synthesized based on chemical design and hypothesis. The 20R isomer is separated from semi-preparative HPLC and its structure is characterized. The comparison of 20R isomer to its 20S counterpart in biological evaluation demonstrates they have different behaviours in both antiproliferative and metabolic studies.
20R-hydroxyvitamin D3; 20S-hydroxyvitamin D3; chemical synthesis; NMR; antiproliferative activity; metabolism; CYP11A1; CYP27B1
Gender differences exist in a variety of cardiovascular and renal diseases, and testosterone may contribute to the discrepancy. Afferent arterioles (Af-Art) are the major resistance vessels in the kidney, and play an important role in the development of renal injury and hypertension.
The present study aimed to determine the acute effect and underlying mechanism(s) of testosterone on Af-Art.
The mRNA expression of androgen receptors (AR) in microdissected Af-Art was measured by RT-PCR. An in vitro microperfusion model was used to measure the diameter of Ar-Art in mice. Nitric oxide (NO) was evaluated by an NO-sensitive fluorescent dye, 4-amino-5-methylamino-2′,7′-difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM) diacetate.
Testosterone had no effect on microperfused Af-Art when added into the bath. Therefore we pre-constricted the Af-Art to about 30% with norepinephrine (NE, 10−6mol/L); administration of testosterone (10−9 to 10−7mol/L) subsequently dilated the Af-Art in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.001; n=7). AR mRNA was expressed in microdissected Af-Art measured by RT-PCR. An AR antagonist, flutamide (10−5mol/L), totally blocked testosterone (10−8mol/L)-induced vasodilator effect. NO production of Af-Art wall was increased when testosterone was added into the bath solution after NE treatment, from 278.4 ± 12.1 units/min to 351.2 ± 33.1 units/min (p<0.05; n=3). In the presence of NO inhibition with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 3×10−4mol/L), the testosterone-induced dilatation was blunted compared with NE (p<0.05).
We conclude that testosterone dilates pre-constricted mouse Af-Art in a dose-dependent manner by activation of AR and partially mediated by NO.
kidney; testosterone; androgen receptors; nitric oxide
The tentpole is a unique structure of the female gametophyte in Ginkgo biloba; however, its exact functions in the reproductive process are unclear. In the present study, we used semi-thin sectioning and electron microscopy to study the structure and function of the tentpole during fertilization in G. biloba. The tentpole was always initiated between two or more deeply immersed archegonia. Before fertilization, the tentpole had developed into a column-like structure, protruding toward the archegonial chamber; cells at the periphery of tentpole were loosely ranged, and abundant lipid droplets and starch grains were accumulated in the tentpole cells. After fertilization, the tentpole degenerated, and some membranous debris was overlaid on its surface. In addition, there were significant decreases in the lipids and starch grains. These results suggested that the tentpole led to the degeneration of the megaspore membrane and then supported the pliable apex of the nucellar tissues. Importantly, the tentpole also contributed to supplying nutrition for fertilization and embryo development.
Ginkgo biloba L.; anatomical feature; fertilization; morphological structure; tentpole
The disease take-all, caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis, is one of the most destructive root diseases of wheat worldwide. Breeding resistant cultivars is an effective way to protect wheat from take-all. However, little progress has been made in improving the disease resistance level in commercial wheat cultivars. MYB transcription factors play important roles in plant responses to environmental stresses. In this study, an R2R3-MYB gene in Thinopyrum intermedium, TiMYB2R-1, was cloned and characterized. The gene sequence includes two exons and an intron. The expression of TiMYB2R-1 was significantly induced following G. graminis infection. An in vitro DNA binding assay proved that TiMYB2R-1 protein could bind to the MYB-binding site cis-element ACI. Subcellular localization assays revealed that TiMYB2R-1 was localized in the nucleus. TiMYB2R-1 transgenic wheat plants were generated, characterized molecularly, and evaluated for take-all resistance. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed that TiMYB2R-1 was integrated into the genomes of three independent transgenic wheat lines by distinct patterns and the transgene was heritable. Reverse transcription–PCR and western blot analyses revealed that TiMYB2R-1 was highly expressed in the transgenic wheat lines. Based on disease response assessments for three successive generations, the significantly enhanced resistance to take-all was observed in the three TiMYB2R-1-overexpressing transgenic wheat lines. Furthermore, the transcript levels of at least six wheat defence-related genes were significantly elevated in the TiMYB2R-1 transgenic wheat lines. These results suggest that engineering and overexpression of TiMYB2R-1 may be used for improving take-all resistance of wheat and other cereal crops.
Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici; MYB transcription factor; take-all resistance; Thinopyrum intermedium; transformation; Triticum aestivum.
The ideal measures to prevent postoperative delirium remain unestablished. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the significance of potential interventions.
The PRISMA statement guidelines were followed. Two researchers searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library for articles published in English before August 2012. Additional sources included reference lists from reviews and related articles from 'Google Scholar'. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on interventions seeking to prevent postoperative delirium in adult patients were included. Data extraction and methodological quality assessment were performed using predefined data fields and scoring system. Meta-analysis was accomplished for studies that used similar strategies. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of postoperative delirium. We further tested whether interventions effective in preventing postoperative delirium shortened the length of hospital stay.
We identified 38 RCTs with interventions ranging from perioperative managements to pharmacological, psychological or multicomponent interventions. Meta-analysis showed dexmedetomidine sedation was associated with less delirium compared to sedation produced by other drugs (two RCTs with 415 patients, pooled risk ratio (RR) = 0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.16 to 0.95). Both typical (three RCTs with 965 patients, RR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.93) and atypical antipsychotics (three RCTs with 627 patients, RR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.26 to 0.50) decreased delirium occurrence when compared to placebos. Multicomponent interventions (two RCTs with 325 patients, RR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.58 to 0.86) were effective in preventing delirium. No difference in the incidences of delirium was found between: neuraxial and general anesthesia (four RCTs with 511 patients, RR = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.65 to 1.50); epidural and intravenous analgesia (three RCTs with 167 patients, RR = 0.93; 95% CI = 0.61 to 1.43) or acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and placebo (four RCTs with 242 patients, RR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.63 to 1.44). Effective prevention of postoperative delirium did not shorten the length of hospital stay (10 RCTs with 1,636 patients, pooled SMD (standard mean difference) = -0.06; 95% CI = -0.16 to 0.04).
The included studies showed great inconsistencies in definition, incidence, severity and duration of postoperative delirium. Meta-analysis supported dexmedetomidine sedation, multicomponent interventions and antipsychotics were useful in preventing postoperative delirium.
Our previous studies have shown that hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO-PC) induces tolerance to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). This study aimed to investigate whether SirT1, a class III histone deacetylase, is involved in neuroprotection elicited by HBO-PC in animal and cell culture models of ischemia. Rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion for 120 minutes after HBO-PC (once a day for 5 days). Primary cultured cortical neurons were exposed to 2 hours of HBO-PC after 2 hours of oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD). We showed that HBO-PC increased SirT1 protein and mRNA expression, promoted neurobehavioral score, reduced infarct volume, and improved morphology at 24 hours and 7 days after cerebral I/R. Neuroprotection of HBO-PC was attenuated by SirT1 inhibitor EX527 and SirT1 knockdown by short interfering RNA (siRNA), whereas it was mimicked by SirT1 activator resveratrol. Furthermore, HBO-PC enhanced SirT1 expression and cell viability and reduced lactate dehydrogenase release 24 hours after OGD/re-oxygenation. The neuroprotective effect of HBO-PC was emulated through upregulating SirT1 and, reversely, attenuated through downregulating SirT1. The modulation of SirT1 was made by adenovirus infection carrying SirT1 or SirT1 siRNA. Besides, SirT1 increased B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression and decrease cleaved caspase 3. These results indicate that SirT1 mediates HBO-PC-induced tolerance to cerebral I/R through inhibition of apoptosis.
cerebral ischemia/reperfusion; hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning; neuroprotection; oxygen–glucose deprivation; SirT1
Wax gourd is a popular vegetable in East Asia. In traditional Chinese medicine, wax gourd peel is used to prevent and treat metabolic diseases such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. However, there is no experimental evidence to support these applications. Here, we examined the effect of the extract of wax gourd peel (EWGP) on metabolic disorders in diet-induced C57BL/6 obese mice. In the preventive experiment, EWGP blocked body weight gain and lowered serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), liver TG and TC contents, and fasting blood glucose in mice fed with a high-fat diet. In the therapeutic study, we induced obesity in the mice and treated with EWGP for two weeks. We found that EWGP treatment reduced serum and liver triglyceride (TG) contents and fasting blood glucose and improved glucose tolerance in the mice. Reporter assay and gene expression analysis showed that EWGP could inhibit peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) transactivities and could decrease mRNA levels of PPARγ and its target genes. We also found that HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) was downregulated in the mouse liver by EWGP. Our data suggest that EWGP lowers hyperlipidemia of C57BL/6 mice induced by high-fat diet via the inhibition of PPARγ and HMGCR signaling.