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1.  Discovery of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Bunyavirus Strains Originating from Intragenic Recombination 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(22):12426-12430.
This study analyzes available severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) genomes and reports that a sublineage of lineage I bears a unique M segment recombined from two of three prevailing SFTSV lineages. Through recombination, the sublineage has acquired nearly complete G1 associated with protective epitopes from lineage III, suggesting that this recombination has the capacity to induce antigenic shift of the virus. Therefore, this study provides some valuable implications for the vaccine design of SFTSV.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01317-12
PMCID: PMC3486477  PMID: 22933273
2.  Isolation and Identification of a Novel Rabies Virus Lineage in China with Natural Recombinant Nucleoprotein Gene 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e49992.
Rabies virus (RABV) causes severe neurological disease and death. As an important mechanism for generating genetic diversity in viruses, homologous recombination can lead to the emergence of novel virus strains with increased virulence and changed host tropism. However, it is still unclear whether recombination plays a role in the evolution of RABV. In this study, we isolated and sequenced four circulating RABV strains in China. Phylogenetic analyses identified a novel lineage of hybrid origin that comprises two different strains, J and CQ92. Analyses revealed that the virus 3′ untranslated region (UTR) and part of the N gene (approximate 500 nt in length) were likely derived from Chinese lineage I while the other part of the genomic sequence was homologous to Chinese lineage II. Our findings reveal that homologous recombination can occur naturally in the field and shape the genetic structure of RABV populations.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049992
PMCID: PMC3514186  PMID: 23226506
3.  Intragenic Recombination as a Mechanism of Genetic Diversity in Bluetongue Virus▿  
Journal of Virology  2010;84(21):11487-11495.
Bluetongue (BT), caused by Bluetongue virus (BTV), is an economically important disease affecting sheep, deer, cattle, and goats. Since 1998, a series of BT outbreaks have spread across much of southern and central Europe. To study why the epidemiology of the virus happens to change, it is important to fully know the mechanisms resulting in its genetic diversity. Gene mutation and segment reassortment have been considered as the key forces driving the evolution of BTV. However, it is still unknown whether intragenic recombination can occur and contribute to the process in the virus. We present here several BTV groups containing mosaic genes to reveal that intragenic recombination can take place between the virus strains and play a potential role in bringing novel BTV lineages.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00889-10
PMCID: PMC2953192  PMID: 20702614
4.  Identification of a natural human serotype 3 parainfluenza virus 
Virology Journal  2011;8:58.
Parainfluenza virus is an important pathogen threatening the health of animals and human, which brings human many kinds of disease, especially lower respiratory tract infection involving infants and young children. In order to control the virus, it is necessary to fully understand the molecular basis resulting in the genetic diversity of the virus. Homologous recombination is one of mechanisms for the rapid change of genetic diversity. However, as a negative-strand virus, it is unknown whether the recombination can naturally take place in human PIV. In this study, we isolated and identified a mosaic serotype 3 human PIV (HPIV3) from in China, and also provided several putative PIV mosaics from previous reports to reveal that the recombination can naturally occur in the virus. In addition, two swine PIV3 isolates transferred from cattle to pigs were found to have mosaic genomes. These results suggest that homologous recombination can promote the genetic diversity and potentially bring some novel biologic characteristics of HPIV.
doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-58
PMCID: PMC3045893  PMID: 21306605

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