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Chen, Xingmiao (2)
Liu, Yang (1)
Lustig, Arthur J. (1)
Ren, Chuancheng (1)
Shen, Jiangang (1)
Wang, Ting (1)
Wu, Dongmei (1)
Wu, Jingxia (1)
Yu, Qiujing (1)
Zhai, Qiwei (1)
Zhao, Heng (1)
Zhou, Xuexia (1)
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From Rapid to Delayed and Remote Postconditioning: the Evolving Concept of Ischemic Postconditioning in Brain Ischemia
Current Drug Targets
Ischemic postconditioning is a concept originally defined to contrast with that of ischemic preconditioning. While both preconditioning and postconditioning confer a neuroprotective effect on brain ischemia, preconditioning is a sublethal insult performed in advance of brain ischemia, and postconditioning, which conventionally refers to a series of brief occlusions and reperfusions of the blood vessels, is conducted after ischemia/reperfusion. In this article, we first briefly review the history of preconditioning, including the experimentation that initially uncovered its neuroprotective effects and later revealed its underlying mechanisms-of-action. We then discuss how preconditioning research evolved into that of postconditioning – a concept that now represents a broad range of stimuli or triggers, including delayed postconditioning, pharmacological postconditioning, remote postconditioning – and its underlying protective mechanisms involving the Akt, MAPK, PKC and KATP channel cell-signaling pathways. Because the concept of postconditioning is so closely associated with that of preconditioning, and both share some common protective mechanisms, we also discuss whether a combination of preconditioning and postconditioning offers greater protection than preconditioning or postconditioning alone.
postconditioning; preconditioning; stroke; cerebral ischemia; focal ischemia; neuroprotection
WldS Reduces Paraquat-Induced Cytotoxicity via SIRT1 in Non-Neuronal Cells by Attenuating the Depletion of NAD
Lustig, Arthur J.
WldS is a fusion protein with NAD synthesis activity, and has been reported to protect axonal and synaptic compartments of neurons from various mechanical, genetic and chemical insults. However, whether WldS can protect non-neuronal cells against toxic chemicals is largely unknown. Here we found that WldS significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of bipyridylium herbicides paraquat and diquat in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, but had no effect on the cytotoxicity induced by chromium (VI), hydrogen peroxide, etoposide, tunicamycin or brefeldin A. WldS also slowed down the death of mice induced by intraperitoneal injection of paraquat. Further studies demonstrated that WldS markedly attenuated mitochondrial injury including disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, structural damage and decline of ATP induced by paraquat. Disruption of the NAD synthesis activity of WldS by an H112A or F116S point mutation resulted in loss of its protective function against paraquat-induced cell death. Furthermore, WldS delayed the decrease of intracellular NAD levels induced by paraquat. Similarly, treatment with NAD or its precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide attenuated paraquat-induced cytotoxicity and decline of ATP and NAD levels. In addition, we showed that SIRT1 was required for both exogenous NAD and WldS-mediated cellular protection against paraquat. These findings suggest that NAD and SIRT1 mediate the protective function of WldS against the cytotoxicity induced by paraquat, which provides new clues for the mechanisms underlying the protective function of WldS in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells, and implies that attenuation of NAD depletion may be effective to alleviate paraquat poisoning.
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