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author:("Zheng, sunun")
1.  Changes in Mitochondrial Toxicity in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells During Four-Year Administration of Entecavir Monotherapy in Chinese Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B 
Background
This study aimed to assess whether long-term entecavir monotherapy induces mitochondrial toxicity in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).
Material/Methods
This was a prospective study in 34 antiviral treatment-naïve patients with CHB who received entecavir monotherapy and were followed up for 4 years. Blood samples were collected after 0, 2, 3, and 4 years of entecavir (ETC) monotherapy (ETC0, ETC2, ETC3, and ETC4, respectively). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contents were determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and mtDNA4977 depletions were detected using nested PCR. Levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA, alanine aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), creatine kinase, urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine were recorded.
Results
mtDNA contents at ETC0 (9.6±6.3) and ETC4 (10.3±6.2) were markedly higher than at ETC2 (0.8±0.5, P<0.01) and ETC3 (1.3±0.9, P<0.01), but there were no differences between ETC2 and ETC3 or between ETC0 and ETC4. MtDNA4977 depletion appeared in 79.4% cases at ETC2 and in 70.6% at ETC3, which were much higher than at ETC0 (32.4%, P<0.01) and ETC4 (8.8%, P<0.01), but there were no differences in mtDNA4977 depletion ratio between ETC2 and ETC3, or between ETC0 and ETC4. mtDNA content was negatively correlated to mtDNA4977 depletion (partial regression coefficient of −4.555, P<0.001, R2=0.315). mtDNA content was positively correlated with age (partial regression coefficient of 0.131, P=0.045).
Conclusions
Results suggest that during 4-year entecavir monotherapy for CHB, the mtDNA contents initially decreased and then increased, while the mtDNA4977 depletion rates first increased and then decreased.
doi:10.12659/MSM.892937
PMCID: PMC4515935  PMID: 26176539
Hepatitis, Chronic; Mitochondria, Liver; Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation
2.  Increased glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase expression indicates higher survival rates in male patients with hepatitis B virus-accociated hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis 
Elevated expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) has been reported in different human malignancies. To understand its role in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the expression of GAPDH was quantitatively measured in a cohort of 72 male HCC patients without preoperative treatment, all with evidence of chronic HBV infection. Using C-terminal banding protein 1 (CTBP1) or hypoxanthine phosphori-bosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1) as reference genes, the level of GAPDH mRNA in tumor tissue was found to be significantly higher compared with that in paired non tumor tissues (P=0.0087 for CTBP1; P=0.0116 for HPRT1). Accordingly, compared with the non-tumor tissue, 37.5% (27/72) of patients' tumor tissues had a more than 2-fold increase of GAPDH expression. Furthermore, following knockdown GAPDH expression via siRNA transient transfection, HepG2 cells exhibited enhanced resistance to cytosine arabinoside (IC50, 308.28 µM vs. 67.68 µM in the control; P=0.01). Notably, higher GAPDH expression was significantly associated with lower liver fibrosis score (P=0.0394) and a tendency towards higher survival rates for patients with HCC. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first study to report that the elevated expression levels of GAPDH in HCC tumor tissue may be relevant to an improved fibrosis score and survival probability in male patients with HBV infection; however, the underlying mechanism requires further investigation.
doi:10.3892/etm.2015.2309
PMCID: PMC4471696  PMID: 26136865
hepatocellular carcinoma; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; hepatitis B virus; liver cirrhosis; chemotherapy
3.  Delayed Reduction of Hepatitis B Viral Load and Dynamics of Adefovir-Resistant Variants during Adefovir plus Entecavir Combination Rescue Therapy 
Objective: Entecavir (ETV) added to adefovir (ADV) is recommended in the consensus for management of patients with ADV resistance. However, little attention has been focused on the delayed reduction of HBV DNA and dynamics of ADV-resistant variants during ADV-ETV combination rescue therapy in the clinical setting. We characterized the dynamics of viral load and resistant variants in nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs)-naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients during antiviral treatment with ADV monotherapy followed by ADV-ETV combination therapy.
Methods: A cohort of 55 CHB patients was enrolled in this study. Three NAs-naïve patients developed ADV-resistant variants during 24-33 months of ADV monotherapy, and then switched to ADV-ETV combination therapy. Thirty-five serial serum samples from these three patients were regularly collected during treatment. Ten mutants associated with commonly used antiviral drugs were detected by pyrosequencing.
Results: HBV DNA decreased to the lowest level during ADV monotherapy at 6-18 months, with a decrease of 0.95-5.51 log10 copies/mL, whereas rtA181V or rtN236T gradually increased with extended therapy. HBV DNA decreased to below the detectable level during ADV-ETV combination therapy at 21-24 months, with a decrease of 4.19-4.65 log10 copies/mL. Resistant rtA181V and rtN236T were undetectable after 21-24 months of combination therapy. Moreover, no LAM-resistant rtM204I/V or ETV-resistant variants were detected during the 27-36 months of combination therapy.
Conclusion: Although ADV-resistant variants were suppressed, viral load reduction was delayed during ADV-ETV combination rescue therapy in patients with ADV-resistant HBV. The quantification of resistant variants by pyrosequencing may facilitate monitoring of antiviral therapy.
doi:10.7150/ijms.11687
PMCID: PMC4441066  PMID: 26005376
adefovir; entecavir; hepatitis B virus; rescue therapy; resistance
4.  Restoration of intrahepatic regulatory T cells through MMP-9/13-dependent activation of TGF-β is critical for immune homeostasis following acute liver injury 
During the acute liver injury, immune responses are provoked into eliciting inflammation in the acute phase. In the healing phase, the inflammation is terminated for wound healing and restoration of immune homeostasis. In this study, we sought to address how regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in the progression of liver injury and repair. In the acute phase, intrahepatic Tregs (CD4+FoxP3+Helios+) diminished promptly through apoptosis, which was followed by inflammation and tissue injury. In the healing phase, a new subset of Tregs (CD4+Foxp3+Helios−) was generated in correlation with the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) cascade and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) activation that were manifested mainly by hepatic stellate cells. Moreover, the induction of induced Tregs and wound healing were both impaired in mice lacking TGF-β signaling or MMPs. The depletion of induced Tregs also impeded wound healing for tissue repair. Together, this study demonstrates the mechanism that the loss of nTregs through apoptosis in the acute phase may facilitate inflammation, while regenerated Tregs through MMP9/13-dependent activation of TGF-β in the healing phase are critical to terminate inflammation and allow for wound healing.
doi:10.1093/jmcb/mjt042
PMCID: PMC3841112  PMID: 24280647
liver injury; wound healing; regulatory T cells; TGF-β; IL-1; hepatic stellate cells; matrix metalloproteinase
5.  Oxidative stress promotes d-GalN/LPS-induced acute hepatotoxicity by increasing glycogen synthase kinase 3β activity 
Inflammation Research  2014;63(6):485-494.
Objective
Our previous studies have demonstrated that glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity is increased in the progression of acute liver failure (ALF), which aggravates liver injury, while its regulatory mechanism remains elusive. This study is designated to address whether oxidative stress activates GSK3β to promote ALF.
Methods
In a murine model induced by d-galactosamine (d-GalN) (700 mg/kg) and LPS (10 μg/kg), N-acetylcysteine (300 mg/kg) or SB216763 (25 mg/kg) was used to inhibit oxidative stress or GSK3β activity, respectively. Serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were assessed. The parameters of oxidative stress were evaluated in liver tissue. Whether GSK3β inhibition protects hepatocytes from oxidative stress-induced cell apoptosis was investigated in vitro. Moreover, the activity of GSK3β was measured in the liver of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and ALF patients.
Results
In vivo, N-acetylcysteine ameliorated the d-GalN/LPS-induced hepatotoxicity and reduced GSK3β activity; GSK3β inhibition increased hepatic superoxide dismutase activity and the glutathione content, decreased malondialdehyde production in the liver tissues; while GSK3β inhibition suppressed the JNK activation in the liver and decreased cytochrome c release from mitochondria. In vitro, GSK3β inhibition lessened hepatocytes apoptosis induced by H2O2 or Antimycin A, as demonstrated by decreased LDH activity, and reduced cleavage of caspase-3 expression. Furthermore, GSK3β activity in the CHB patients was increased in the phase of ALF.
Conclusions
Results indicate that GSK3β activation contributes to liver injury by participating in oxidative stress response in ALF and is, therefore, a potential therapeutic target for ALF.
doi:10.1007/s00011-014-0720-x
PMCID: PMC4018480  PMID: 24531650
GSK3β; SB216763; Acute liver failure; Oxidative stress; N-acetylcysteine
6.  Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Ameliorates D-GalN/LPS-Induced Liver Injury by Reducing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Triggered Apoptosis 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e45202.
Background
Glycogen synthase kinase 3β(GSK3β) is a ubiquitous serine-threonine protein kinase that participates in numerous cellular processes and disease pathophysiology. We aimed to determine therapeutic potential of GSK3β inhibition and its mechanism in a well-characterized model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced model of acute liver failure (ALF).
Methodology
In a murine ALF model induced by D-GalN(700 mg/kg)/LPS(10 µg/kg), we analyzed GSK3β mechanisms using a specific chemical inhibitor, SB216763, and detected the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Mice were administered SB216763 at 2 h before or after D-GalN/LPS injection, respectively, and then sacrificed 6 h after D-GalN/LPS treatment to evaluate its prophylactic and therapeutic function. The lethality rate, liver damage, ERS, cytokine expression, MAP kinase, hepatocyte apoptosis and expression of TLR 4 were evaluated, respectively. Whether the inhibition of GSK3β activation protected hepatocyte from ERS-induced apoptosis was investigated in vitro.
Principal Findings
GSK3β became quickly activated (dephosphorylated) upon D-GalN/LPS exposure. Administration of SB216763 not only ameliorated liver injury, as evidenced by reduced transaminase levels, and well-preserved liver architecture, but also decreased lethality. Moreover, GSK3β inhibition resulted in down-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins C/EBP–homologous protein(CHOP) and caspase-12, which are related to ERS. To further demonstrate the role of ERS, we found that GSK3β inhibition protected hepatocyte from ERS-induced cell death. GSK3β inhibition down-regulated the MAPK pathways, reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines and decreased expression of TLR4.
Conclusions
Our findings demonstrate the key function of GSK3β signaling in the pathophysiology of ALF, especially in regulating the ERS, and provide a rationale for targeting GSK3β as a potential therapeutic strategy to ameliorate ALF.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045202
PMCID: PMC3461002  PMID: 23028846
7.  Interleukin-1 as an Injury Signal Mobilizes Retinyl Esters in Hepatic Stellate Cells through Down Regulation of Lecithin Retinol Acyltransferase 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(11):e26644.
Retinoids are mostly stored as retinyl esters in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) through esterification of retinol and fatty acid, catalyzed by lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT). This study is designated to address how retinyl esters are mobilized in liver injury for tissue repair and wound healing. Initially, we speculated that acute inflammatory cytokines may act as injury signal to mobilize retinyl esters by down-regulation of LRAT in HSCs. By examining a panel of cytokines we found interleukin-1 (IL-1) can potently down-regulate mRNA and protein levels of LRAT, resulting in mobilization of retinyl esters in primary rat HSCs. To simulate the microenvironment in the space of Disse, HSCs were embedded in three-dimensional extracellular matrix, by which HSCs retaine quiescent phenotypes, indicated by up-regulation of LRAT and accumulation of lipid droplets. Upon IL-1 stimulation, LRAT expression went down together with mobilization of lipid droplets. Secreted factors from Kupffer cells were able to suppress LRAT expression in HSCs, which was neutralized by IL-1 receptor antagonist. To explore the underlying mechanism we noted that the stability of LRAT protein is not significantly regulated by IL-1, indicating the regulation is likely at transcriptional level. Indeed, we found that IL-1 failed to down-regulate recombinant LRAT protein expressed in HSCs by adenovirus, while transcription of endogenous LRAT was promptly decreased. Following liver damage, IL-1 was promptly elevated in a close pace with down-regulation of LRAT transcription, implying their causative relationship. After administration of IL-1, retinyl ester levels in the liver, as measured by LC/MS/MS, decreased in association with down-regulation of LRAT. Likewise, IL-1 receptor knockout mice were protected from injury-induced down-regulation of LRAT. In summary, we identified IL-1 as an injury signal to mobilize retinyl ester in HSCs through down-regulation of LRAT, implying a mechanism governing transition from hepatic injury to wound healing.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026644
PMCID: PMC3208544  PMID: 22073179

Results 1-7 (7)