The E2F family of transcription factors contributes to oncogenesis through activation of multiple genes involved in cellular proliferation, a process that is opposed by the Retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB). RB also increases E2F1 stability by inhibiting its proteasome-mediated degradation, but the consequences of this post-translational regulation of E2F1 remain unknown. To better understand the mechanism of E2F stabilization and its physiological relevance, we examined the streamlined Rbf1-dE2F1 network in Drosophila. During embryonic development, Rbf1 is insulated from ubiquitin-mediated turnover by the COP9 signalosome, a multi-protein complex that modulates E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Here, we report that the COP9 signalosome also protects the Cullin4-E3 ligase that is responsible for dE2F1 proteasome-mediated destruction. This dual role of the COP9 signalosome may serve to buffer E2F levels, enhancing its turnover via Cul4 protection and its stabilization through protection of Rbf1. We further show that Rbf1-mediated stabilization of dE2F1 and repression of dE2F1 cell cycle-target genes are distinct properties. Removal of an evolutionarily conserved Rbf1 C terminal degron disabled Rbf1 repression without affecting dE2F1 stabilization. This mutant form of Rbf1 also enhanced G1-to-S phase progression when expressed in Rbf1-containing S2 embryonic cells, suggesting that such mutations may generate gain-of-function properties relevant to cellular transformation. Consistent with this idea, several studies have identified mutations in the homologous C terminal domains of RB and p130 in human cancer.
retinoblastoma; tumor suppressor; E2F1; repression; proteasome; ubiquitin; degron
We report a new type of memory device based on insulating LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) hetero-interface. The microstructures of the LAO/STO interface are characterized by Cs-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, which reveals the element intermixing at the interface. The inhomogeneous element distribution may result in carrier localization, which is responsible for the insulating state. The insulating state of such interface can be converted to metallic state by light illumination and the metallic state maintains after light off due to giant persistent photoconductivity (PPC) effect. The on/off ratio between the PPC and the initial dark conductance is as large as 105. The metallic state also can be converted back to insulating state by applying gate voltage. Reversible and reproducible resistive switching makes LAO/STO interface promising as a nonvolatile memory. Our results deepen the understanding of PPC phenomenon in LAO/STO, and pave the way for the development of all-oxide electronics integrating information storage devices.
The piRNA pathway protects genomes by silencing mobile elements. Despite advances in understanding the processing events that generate piRNAs for silencing, little is known about how primary transcripts are transported from their genomic clusters to their processing centers. Using a model of the Drosophila COM/flamenco locus in ovarian somatic cells, we identified a prominent nuclear structure called Dot COM, which is enriched in long transcripts from piRNA clusters but located far from their transcription sites. Remarkably, transcripts from multiple clusters accumulate at Dot COM, which is often juxtaposed with Yb-bodies, the cytoplasmic processing centers for cluster transcripts. Genetic evidence suggests that the accumulation of precursor transcripts at Dot COM represents one of the most upstream events in the piRNA pathway. Our results provide new insights into the initial steps of the piRNA pathway, and open up a new research area important for a complete understanding of this conserved pathway.
The association between polymorphisms on 5p12 and breast cancer (BC) has been widely evaluated since it was first identified through genome-wide association approach; however, the studies have yielded contradictory results. We sought to investigate this inconsistency by performing a comprehensive meta-analysis on two wildly studied polymorphisms (rs10941679 and rs4415084) on 5p12.
Databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to find relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association. The random-effects model was applied, addressing heterogeneity and publication bias.
A total of 19 articles involving 100,083 cases and 163,894 controls were included. An overall random-effects per-allele OR of 1.09 (95% CI: 1.06–1.12; P = 4.5×10−8) and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.05–1.12; P = 4.2×10−7) was found for the rs10941679 and rs4415084 polymorphism respectively. Significant results were found in Asians and Caucasians when stratified by ethnicity; whereas no significant associations were found among Africans/African-Americans. Similar results were also observed using dominant or recessive genetic models. In addition, we find both rs4415084 and rs10941679 conferred significantly greater risks of ER-positive breast cancer than of ER-negative tumors.
Our findings demonstrated that rs10941679-G allele and rs4415084-T allele might be risk-conferring factors for the development of breast cancer, especially in Caucasians and East-Asians.
The ability of heterologous prime-boost vaccination to elicit robust CD8+ T cell responses has been well documented. In contrast, relatively little is known about how this immunotherapeutic strategy impacts the functional qualities of expanded T cells in the course of effector and memory responses. Using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) as a boosting vector in mice, we demonstrate that a massive secondary expansion of CD8+ T cells can be achieved shortly after priming with recombinant adenoviral vectors. Importantly, VSV-boosted CD8+ T cells were more potent than those primed by adenoviruses only, as measured by cytokine production, granzyme B expression, and functional avidity. Upon adoptive transfer, equivalent numbers of VSV-expanded CD8+ T cells were more effective (on a per-cell basis) in mediating antitumor and antiviral immunity than T cells only primed with adenoviruses. Furthermore, VSV boosting accelerated the progression of expanded CD8+ T lymphocytes to a central memory phenotype, thereby altering the effector memory profile typically associated with adenoviral vaccination. Finally, the functional superiority of VSV-expanded T cells remained evident 100 d after boosting, suggesting that VSV-driven immunological responses are of sufficient duration for therapeutic applications. Our data strongly support the choice of VSV as a boosting vector in prime-boost vaccination strategies, enabling a rapid amplification of CD8+ T cells and improving the quality of expanded T cells during both early and late immunological responses.
adenovirus; CD8+ T cells; prime-boost; vaccination; vesicular stomatitis virus
Compelling evidence has shown that the incidence of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) increases with age. In this study, retrospective clinical analysis of 601 cases of LDH has been conducted to investigate the role of age in the incidence of LDH in the elderly. The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between the process of aging and the occurrence of LDH in old adults.
Clinical cases (n = 601) of LDH were retrospectively analyzed.
The imaging examination with computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging showed the occurrence of degeneration in LDH patients over 65 years of age. The most common site of LDH is toward the bottom of the spine at L4–L5 and/or L5–S1. The incidence of LDH drops with age in the elderly, especially after the age of 80 years. There is an obvious decrease in LDH in the elderly female.
A decreasing incidence of LDH with aging occurs in the elderly. This investigation indicates that aging is not a contributor to the performance of LDH in the elderly although the incidence of LDH is proportional to age.
lumbar disc herniation; incidence; aging
Electrical stimulation of brain structures has been widely used in rodent models for kindling or modeling deep brain stimulation used clinically. This requires surgical implantation of intracranial electrodes and subsequent chronic stimulation in individual animals for several weeks. Anchoring screws and dental acrylic have long been used to secure implanted intracranial electrodes in rats. However, such an approach is limited when carried out in mouse models as the thin mouse skull may not be strong enough to accommodate the anchoring screws. We describe here a screw-free, glue-based method for implanting bipolar stimulating electrodes in the mouse brain and validate this method in a mouse model of hippocampal electrical kindling.
Male C57 black mice (initial ages of 6–8 months) were used in the present experiments. Bipolar electrodes were implanted bilaterally in the hippocampal CA3 area for electrical stimulation and electroencephalographic recordings. The electrodes were secured onto the skull via glue and dental acrylic but without anchoring screws. A daily stimulation protocol was used to induce electrographic discharges and motor seizures. The locations of implanted electrodes were verified by hippocampal electrographic activities and later histological assessments.
Using the glue-based implantation method, we implanted bilateral bipolar electrodes in 25 mice. Electrographic discharges and motor seizures were successfully induced via hippocampal electrical kindling. Importantly, no animal encountered infection in the implanted area or a loss of implanted electrodes after 4–6 months of repetitive stimulation/recording.
We suggest that the glue-based, screw-free method is reliable for chronic brain stimulation and high-quality electroencephalographic recordings in mice. The technical aspects described this study may help future studies in mouse models.
Glue; Kindling; Mice
Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent which has been approved for multiple myeloma. Lenalidomide is also effective in and tolerated well by patients with follicular lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and transformed large cell lymphoma. This review summarizes the results of current preclinical and clinical studies of lenalidomide, alone or in combination with the monoclonal antibody rituximab, as a therapeutic option for these three lymphoma types. This review will serve as a tool guiding future clinical investigations to improve survival rates for these three lymphomas.
Lenalidomide; Immunomodulatory; B-cell; Lymphoma
Glycerol is a major by-product of industrial ethanol production and its formation consumes up to 4 % of the sugar substrate. This study modified the glycerol decomposition pathway of an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to optimize the consumption of substrate and yield of ethanol. This study is the first to couple glycerol degradation with ethanol formation, to the best of our knowledge. The recombinant strain overexpressing GCY1 and DAK1, encoding glycerol dehydrogenase and dihydroxyacetone kinase, respectively, in glycerol degradation pathway, exhibited a moderate increase in ethanol yield (2.9 %) and decrease in glycerol yield (24.9 %) compared to the wild type with the initial glucose concentration of 15 % under anaerobic conditions. However, when the mhpF gene, encoding acetylating NAD+-dependent acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli, was co-expressed in the aforementioned recombinant strain, a further increase in ethanol yield by 5.5 % and decrease in glycerol yield by 48 % were observed for the resultant recombinant strain GDMS1 when acetic acid was added into the medium prior to inoculation compared to the wild type. The process outlined in this study which enhances glycerol consumption and cofactor regulation in an industrial yeast is a promising metabolic engineering strategy to increase ethanol production by reducing the formation of glycerol.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10295-013-1311-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Industrial yeast; Glycerol; Ethanol production; Cofactor NADH; Recombinant strain
Stem cell repair shows substantial translational potential for neurological injury, but the mechanisms of action remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether transplanted stem cells could induce comprehensive functional remyelination. Subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived adult neural precursor cells (aNPCs) were injected bilaterally into major cerebral white matter tracts of myelin-deficient shiverer mice on postnatal day (P) 0, P7, and P21. Tripotential NPCs, when transplanted in vivo, integrated anatomically and functionally into local white matter and preferentially became Olig2+, Myelin Associated Glycoprotein-positive, Myelin Basic Protein-positive oligodendrocytes, rather than Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein-positive astrocytes or Neurofiliment 200-positive neurons. Processes interacted with axons and transmission electron microscopy showed multilamellar axonal ensheathment. Nodal architecture was restored and by quantifying these anatomical parameters a computer model was generated that accurately predicted action potential velocity, determined by ex vivo slice recordings. Although there was no obvious phenotypic improvement in transplanted shi/shis, myelinated axons exhibited faster conduction, lower activation threshold, less refractoriness, and improved response to high-frequency stimulation than dysmyelinated counterparts. Furthermore, they showed improved resilience to ischemic insult, a promising finding in the context of perinatal brain injury. This study describes, for the first time mechanistically, the functional characteristics and anatomical integration of nonimmortalized donor SVZ-derived murine aNPCs in the dysmyelinated brain at key developmental time points.
Third instar larvae of the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) were reared with artificial diet containing a Bacillus thuringiensis - abamectin (BtA) biopesticide mixture that resulted in 20% mortality (LD20). The adult male survivors from larvae treated with BtA exhibited a higher percentage of “orientation” than control males but lower percentages of “approaching” and “landing” in wind tunnel bioassays. Adult female survivors from larvae treated with BtA produced higher sex pheromone titers and displayed a lower calling percentage than control females. The ratio of Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11–16:Ald) and Z-9-hexadecenal (Z9–16:Ald) in BtA-treated females changed and coefficients of variation (CV) of Z11–16:Ald and Z9–16:Ald were expanded compared to control females. The peak circadian calling time of BtA-treated females occurred later than that of control females. In mating choice experiment, both control males and BtA-treated males preferred to mate with control females and a portion of the Bt-A treated males did not mate whereas all control males did. Our Data support that treatment of larvae with BtA had an effect on the sex pheromone communication system in surviving H.armigera moths that may contribute to assortative mating.
Telomere serves two essential functions for the cell. It prevents the recognition of natural chromosome ends as DNA breaks (the end capping function). It counteracts incomplete end replication by adding DNA to the ends of chromosomes (the end elongation function). In most organisms studied, telomerase fulfills the end elongation function. In Drosophila, however, telomere specific retrotransposons have been coerced into performing this essential function for the host. In this review, we focus our discussion on transposition mechanisms and transcriptional regulation of these transposable elements, and present provocative models for the purpose of spurring new interests in the field.
As an important step of the active demethylation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC), human thymine DNA glycosylase (hTDG) efficiently excises 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) from double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Here, we present synthesis of DNA oligos containing a 2′-deoxy-2′-fluoro-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-carboxylcytidine (F-5caC) modification that act as hTDG inhibitors. The glycosylase activity assay showed that F-5caC oligos were resistant to excision by the hTDG catalytic domain (hTDGcat, residues 111–308) and they could inhibit the excision of DNA oligos containing 5caC. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed that DNA oligos containing F-5caC could bind well with unmodified hTDGcat to form a stable complex, which makes it possible to obtain the crystal structure of the complex to reveal details on how hTDGcat recognizes the DNA substrate.
human thymine DNA glycosylase (hTDG); inhibitor; 2′-deoxy-2′-fluoro-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-carboxylcytidine; dsDNA
How oncogenic signalling coordinates glycolysis and anabolic biosynthesis in cancer cells remains unclear. We recently reported that the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1) regulates anabolic biosynthesis by controlling intracellular levels of its substrate 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG) and product 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PG). Here we report a novel mechanism in which Y26 phosphorylation enhances PGAM1 activation through release of inhibitory E19 that blocks the active site, stabilising cofactor 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate binding and H11 phosphorylation. We also report the crystal structure of H11-phosphorylated PGAM1 and find that phospho-H11 activates PGAM1 at least in part by promoting substrate 3-PG binding. Moreover, Y26-phosphorylation of PGAM1 is common in human cancer cells and contributes to regulation of 3-PG and 2-PG levels, promoting cancer cell proliferation and tumour growth. Since PGAM1 as a negative transcription target of TP53 is commonly upregulated in human cancers, these findings suggest that Y26 phosphorylation represents an additional acute mechanism underlying PGAM1 upregulation.
Viruses possess many strategies to impair host cellular responses to infection. Nuclear export of host messenger RNAs (mRNA) that encode antiviral factors is critical for antiviral protein production and control of viral infections. Several viruses have evolved sophisticated strategies to inhibit nuclear export of host mRNAs, including targeting mRNA export factors and nucleoporins to compromise their roles in nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking of cellular mRNA. Here, we present a review of research focused on suppression of host mRNA nuclear export by viruses, including influenza A virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, and the impact of this viral suppression on host antiviral responses.
virus; influenza virus; vesicular stomatitis virus; VSV; NS1; matrix protein; nuclear export; nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking; mRNA export; NXF1; TAP; CRM1; Rae1
Compound 2 (KU-32) is a first-generation novologue (a novobiocin-based, C-terminal, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor), that decreases glucose-induced death of primary sensory neurons and reverses numerous clinical indices of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in mice. The current study sought to exploit the C-terminal binding site of Hsp90 to determine whether the optimization of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions of second generation novologues could enhance neuroprotective activity. Using a series of substituted phenylboronic acids to replace the coumarin lactone of 2, we identified electronegative atoms placed at the meta-position of the B-ring exhibit improved cytoprotective activity, which is believed to result from favorable interactions with Lys539 in the Hsp90 C-terminal binding pocket. Consistent with these results, a meta-3-fluorophenyl substituted novologue (13b) exhibited a 14-fold lower ED50 compared to 2 for protection against glucose-induced toxicity of primary sensory neurons.
Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic virus that produces neuropsychiatric dysfunction in a wide range of warm-blooded species. Several studies have associated BDV with human psychiatric illness, but the findings remain controversial. Although oligodendrocytes are a major glial component of brain white matter and play a pivotal role in neuronal cell function, BDV's effects on human oligodendrocytes have not been clarified. Here, the effects of two BDV strains, Hu-H1 (isolated from a bipolar patient) and Strain V (a laboratory strain), on the proliferation and apoptosis of human oligodendrocytes were investigated. Three experimental cell lines were constructed: Hu-H1-infected oligodendroglioma (Hu-H1) cells, Strain V-infected oligodendroglioma (Strain V) cells, and non-infected oligodendroglioma (control) cells. BDV infection was assayed by BDV nucleoprotein (p40) immunofluorescence, cell proliferation was assayed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8), and cell cycle phases and apoptosis were assayed by flow cytometry. Expressions of the apoptosis-related proteins Bax and Bcl-2 were measured by Western blotting. p40 expression was confirmed in Hu-H1 and Strain V on and after day three post-infection. Strain V cells showed significantly greater cellular proliferation than Hu-H1 cells on and after day three post-infection. In Hu-H1 cells, Bax and Bcl-2 expression were significantly increased and decreased, respectively, on and after day three post-infection. In contrast, in Strain V cells, Bax and Bcl-2 expression were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, on and after day three post-infection. In conclusion, Hu-H1 inhibits cellular proliferation and promotes apoptosis in human oligodendrocytes via Bax upregulation and Bcl-2 downregulation. In contrast, Strain V promotes cellular proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in human oligodendrocytes via Bax downregulation and Bcl-2 upregulation. The effects of the Hu-H1 strain (isolated from a bipolar patient) are opposite from those of Strain V (a laboratory strain), thereby providing a proof of authenticity for both.
5-methylcytosine is an epigenetic mark that affects a broad range of biological functions in mammals. The chemically inert methyl group prevents direct labelling for subsequent affinity purification and detection. Therefore, most current approaches for the analysis of 5- methylcytosine still have limitations of being either density-biased, lacking in robustness and consistency, or incapable of analysing 5-methylcytosine specifically. Here we present an approach, TAmC-Seq, which selectively tags 5-methylcytosine with an azide functionality that can be further labelled with a biotin for affinity purification, detection and genome-wide mapping. Using this covalent labelling approach, we demonstrate high sensitivity and specificity for known methylated loci, as well as increased CpG dinucleotide coverage at lower sequencing depth as compared with antibody-based enrichment, providing an improved efficiency in the 5-methylcytosine enrichment and genome-wide profiling.
The study of 5-hydroxylmethylcytosines (5hmC) has been hampered by the lack of a method to map it at single-base resolution on a genome-wide scale. Affinity purification-based methods cannot precisely locate 5hmC nor accurately determine its relative abundance at each modified site. We here present a genome-wide approach, Tet-assisted Bisulfite Sequencing (TAB-Seq), for mapping 5hmC at base resolution and quantifying the relative abundance of 5hmC as well as 5mC when combined with traditional bisulfite sequencing. Application of this method to embryonic stem cells not only confirms widespread distribution of 5hmC in the mammalian genome, but also reveals sequence bias and strand asymmetry at 5hmC sites. We observe high levels of 5hmC and reciprocally low levels of 5mC near but not on transcription factor binding sites. Additionally, the relative abundance of 5hmC varies significantly among distinct functional sequence elements, suggesting different mechanisms for 5hmC deposition and maintenance.
Lactose–palmitoyl–trimethyl–chitosan (Lac-TPCS), a novel amphipathic self-assembled polymer, was synthesized for administration of insoluble drugs to reduce their adverse effects. The central composite design was used to study the preparation technique of harmine (HM)-loaded self-assembled micelles based on Lac-TPCS (Lac-TPCS/HM). Three preparation methods and single factors were screened, including solvent type, HM amount, hydration volume, and temperature. The optimal preparation technique was identified after investigating the influence of two independent factors, namely, HM amount and hydration volume, on four indexes, ie, encapsulation efficiency (EE), drug-loading amount (LD), particle size, and polydispersity index (PDI). Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination of 0.916 to 0.994, thus ensuring a satisfactory adjustment of the predicted prescription. The maximum predicted values of the optimal prescription were 91.62%, 14.20%, 183.3 nm, and 0.214 for EE, LD, size, and PDI, respectively, when HM amount was 1.8 mg and hydration volume was 9.6 mL. HM-loaded micelles were successfully characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and a fluorescence-quenching experiment. Sustained release of Lac-TPCS/HM reached 65.3% in 72 hours at pH 7.4, while free HM released about 99.7% under the same conditions.
harmine; chitosan derivate; self-assembled micelle; central composite design; response surface methodology; characterization
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes in which hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and enhanced oxidative stress contribute to sensory neuron pathology. KU-32 is a novobiocin-based, C-terminal inhibitor of the molecular chaperone, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). KU-32 ameliorates multiple sensory deficits associated with the progression of DPN and protects unmyelinated sensory neurons from glucose-induced toxicity. Mechanistically, KU-32 increased the expression of Hsp70 and this protein was critical for drug efficacy in reversing DPN. However, it remained unclear if KU-32 had a broader effect on chaperone induction and if its efficacy was linked to improving mitochondrial dysfunction. Using cultures of hyperglycemically stressed primary sensory neurons, the present study investigated whether KU-32 had an effect on the translational induction of other chaperones and improved mitochondrial oxidative stress and bioenergetics. A variation of stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture called pulse SILAC (pSILAC) was used to unbiasedly assess changes in protein translation. Hyperglycemia decreased the translation of numerous mitochondrial proteins that affect superoxide levels and respiratory activity. Importantly, this correlated with a decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption and an increase in superoxide levels. KU-32 increased the translation of Mn superoxide dismutase and several cytosolic and mitochondrial chaperones. Consistent with these changes, KU-32 decreased mitochondrial superoxide levels and significantly enhanced respiratory activity. These data indicate that efficacy of modulating molecular chaperones in DPN may be due in part to improved neuronal mitochondrial bioenergetics and decreased oxidative stress.
diabetes; hyperglycemia; SILAC; chaperones; sensory neurons; mitochondria; superoxide dismutase; oxidative stress
CYP2C9 enzyme activity is involved in the metabolism of substances related to colorectal cancer (CRC), and it is functionally linked to a genetic polymorphism. Two allelic variants of the CYP2C9 gene, namely CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3, differ from wild-type CYP2C9*1 by single amino acid substitutions. These mutated alleles encode enzymes with altered properties that are associated with impaired metabolism. In the past decade, a number of case-control studies have been carried out to investigate the relationship between the CYP2C9 polymorphism and CRC susceptibility, but the results were conflicting. To investigate this inconsistency, we performed a meta-analysis of 13 studies involving a total of 20,879 subjects for CYP2C9*2 and *3 polymorphisms to evaluate the effect of CYP2C9 on genetic susceptibility for CRC. Overall, the summary odds ratio of CRC was 0.94 (95%CI: 0.87–1.03, P = 0.18) and 1.00 (95%CI: 0.86–1.16, P = 0.99) for CYP2C9 *2 and *3 carriers, respectively. No significant results were observed in heterozygous and homozygous when compared with wild genotype for these polymorphisms. In the stratified analyses according to ethnicity, sample size, diagnostic criterion, HWE status and sex, no evidence of any gene-disease association was obtained. Our result suggest that the *2, *3 polymorphisms of CYP2C9 gene are not associated with CRC susceptibility.
This paper focus on the impact on the performance of health workers at village and township levels in the provision of a government stipulated package of basic public health service, which adopted the performance-related contracts mode.
The concept of balanced scorecard was adopted and developed to gather the 11 evaluation indicators distributed in four quadrants. These were implemented using on-site questionnaire and interview design. Four thousand and twenty-one respondents at 30 administrative villages including 2674 respondents at 20 pilot villages and 1347 at 10 control villages were investigated. Meanwhile, 62 administration officials from three counties and nine townships were interviewed.
Eight of 11 evaluation indicators were obviously better in pilot counties than in Control County, The remaining three indicators respectively represented that equal, inferior to control county, and could not clear judge.
The performance of health workers at village and township levels in the provision of basic public health service in pilot counties, which adopted the performance-related contracts mode, is better than before and control county.
Public health; Performance-related contracts; Balanced scorecard
Volvariella volvacea, the edible straw mushroom, is a highly nutritious food source that is widely cultivated on a commercial scale in many parts of Asia using agricultural wastes (rice straw, cotton wastes) as growth substrates. However, developments in V. volvacea cultivation have been limited due to a low biological efficiency (i.e. conversion of growth substrate to mushroom fruit bodies), sensitivity to low temperatures, and an unclear sexuality pattern that has restricted the breeding of improved strains. We have now sequenced the genome of V. volvacea and assembled it into 62 scaffolds with a total genome size of 35.7 megabases (Mb), containing 11,084 predicted gene models. Comparative analyses were performed with the model species in basidiomycete on mating type system, carbohydrate active enzymes, and fungal oxidative lignin enzymes. We also studied transcriptional regulation of the response to low temperature (4°C). We found that the genome of V. volvacea has many genes that code for enzymes, which are involved in the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. The molecular genetics of the mating type system in V. volvacea was also found to be similar to the bipolar system in basidiomycetes, suggesting that it is secondary homothallism. Sensitivity to low temperatures could be due to the lack of the initiation of the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, trehalose and glycogen biosyntheses in this mushroom. Genome sequencing of V. volvacea has improved our understanding of the biological characteristics related to the degradation of the cultivating compost consisting of agricultural waste, the sexual reproduction mechanism, and the sensitivity to low temperatures at the molecular level which in turn will enable us to increase the industrial production of this mushroom.
Since the emergence of drug-resistant mutants has limited the efficacy of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), it is essential to develop new antivirals with better drug-resistance and pharmacokinetic profiles. Here we designed and synthesized a series of 1-[(2-benzyloxyl/alkoxyl)methyl]-5-halo-6-aryluracils, the HEPT analogues, and evaluated their biological activity using Nevirapine and 18 (TNK-651) as reference compounds. Most of these compounds, especially 6b, 7b, 9b, 11b and 7c, exhibited highly potent anti-HIV-1 activity against both wild-type and NNRTI-resistant HIV-1 strains. The compound 7b, that had the highest selectivity index (SI = 38,215), is more potent than Nevirapine and 18. These results suggest that introduction of halogen at the C-5 position may contribute to the effectiveness of these compounds against RTI-resistant variants. In addition, m-substituents on the C-6 aromatic moiety could significantly enhance activity against NNRTI-resistant HIV-1 strains. These compounds can be further developed as next-generation NNRTIs with improved antiviral efficacy and drug-resistance profile.
HIV-1; Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs); Drug-resistance