Bisphenol AF (BPAF), an endocrine disrupting chemical, can induce estrogenic activity through binding to estrogen receptor (ER). However, the metabolism of BPAF in vivo and the estrogenic activity of its metabolites remain unknown. In the present study, we identified four metabolites including BPAF diglucuronide, BPAF glucuronide (BPAF-G), BPAF glucuronide dehydrated and BPAF sulfate in the urine of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. BPAF-G was further characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). After treatment with a single dose of BPAF, BPAF was metabolized rapidly to BPAF-G, as detected in the plasma of SD rats. Biotransformation of BPAF to BPAF-G was confirmed with human liver microsomes (HLM), and Vmax of glucuronidation for HLM was 11.6 nmol/min/mg. We also found that BPAF glucuronidation could be mediated through several human recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) including UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17, among which UGT2B7 showed the highest efficiency of glucuronidation. To explain the biological function of BPAF biotransformation, the estrogenic activities of BPAF and BPAF-G were evaluated in ER-positive breast cancer T47D and MCF7 cells. BPAF significantly stimulates ER-regulated gene expression and cell proliferation at the dose of 100 nM and 1 μM in breast cancer cells. However, BPAF-G did not show any induction of estrogenic activity at the same dosages, implying that formation of BPAF-G is a potential host defense mechanism against BPAF. Based on our study, biotransformation of BPAF to BPAF-G can eliminate BPAF-induced estrogenic activity, which is therefore considered as reducing the potential threat to human beings.
As a putative marker for cancer stem cells in human malignant tumors, including ovarian cancer, CD133 expression may define a tumor-initiating subpopulation of cells and is associated with the clinical outcome of patients. However, at this time its clinical significance in ovarian cancer remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical role of CD133 expression in human ovarian cancer. Immunohistochemical staining of CD133 expression was performed in 400 ovarian carcinoma samples using tissue microarray. The associations among CD133 expression and clinical factors (diagnosis, tumor grade, cancer stage, and clinical response to chemotherapy), overall survival and disease-free survival time were analyzed. CD133 expression was found in 31% of ovarian carcinoma samples. Fisher’s exact test and one-way analysis of variance suggested that CD133 expression was associated with high-grade serous carcinoma (P = 0.035), late-stage disease (P < 0.001), ascites level (P = 0.010), and non-response to chemotherapy (P = 0.023). CD133 expression was also associated with shorter overall survival time (P = 0.007) and shorter disease-free survival time (P < 0.001) by log-rank test. Moreover, CD133 expression was an independent predictor of shorter disease-free survival time in an unconditional logistic regression analysis with multiple covariates (P = 0.024). Our results thus show that CD133 expression is a predictor of poor clinical outcome for patients with ovarian cancer, supporting the proposed link between CD133 and cancer stem cells.
CD133; immunohistochemistry; ovarian cancer; prognosis
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Circulating miRNAs were recently identified as biomarkers for various physiological and pathological conditions. In this study, we aimed to identify the circulating miRNA fingerprint of vulnerable coronary artery disease (CAD) and explore its potential as a novel biomarker for this disease.
Methods and Results
The Taqman low-density miRNA array and coexpression network analyses were used to identify distinct miRNA expression profiles in the plasma of patients with typical unstable angina (UA) and angiographically documented CAD (UA group, n = 13) compared to individuals with non-cardiac chest pain (control group, n = 13). Significantly elevated expression levels of miR-106b/25 cluster, miR-17/92a cluster, miR-21/590-5p family, miR-126*, and miR-451 were observed in UA patients compared to controls. These findings were validated by real-time PCR in another 45 UA patients, 31 stable angina patients, and 37 controls. In addition, miR-106b, miR-25, miR-92a, miR-21, miR-590-5p, miR-126* and miR-451 were upregulated in microparticles (MPs) isolated from the plasma of UA patients (n = 5) compared to controls (n = 5). Using flow cytometry and immunolabeling, we further found that Annexin V+ MPs were increased in the plasma samples of UA patients compared to controls, and the majority of the increased MPs in plasma were shown to be Annexin V+ CD31+ MPs. The findings suggest that Annexin V+ CD31+ MPs may contribute to the elevated expression of the selected miRNAs in the circulation of patients with vulnerable CAD.
The circulating miRNA signature, consisting of the miR-106b/25 cluster, miR-17/92a cluster, miR-21/590-5p family, miR-126* and miR-451, may be used as a novel biomarker for vulnerable CAD.
Chinese Clinical Trial Register, ChiCTR-OCH-12002349.
Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus. Using a mouse model of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, we tested the hypothesis that thymosin β 4 (Tβ4) ameliorates diabetes–induced neurovascular dysfunction in the sciatic nerve and promotes recovery of neurological function from diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Tβ4 treatment of diabetic mice increased functional vascular density and regional blood flow in the sciatic nerve, and improved nerve function. Tβ4 upregulated angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) expression, but suppressed Ang2 expression in endothelial and Schwann cells in the diabetic sciatic nerve. In vitro, incubation of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) with Tβ4 under high glucose condition completely abolished high glucose-downregulated Ang1 expression and high glucose-reduced capillary-like tube formation. Moreover, incubation of HUVECs under high glucose with conditioned medium collected from Human Schwann cells (HSCs) treated with Tβ4 significantly reversed high glucose-decreased capillary-like tube formation. PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in Tβ4-regulated Ang1 expression on endothelial and Schwann cells. These data indicate that Tβ4 likely acts on endothelial cells and Schwann cells to preserve and/or restore vascular function in the sciatic nerve which facilitates improvement of peripheral nerve function under diabetic neuropathy. Thus, Tβ4 has potential for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.
Tβ4; peripheral neuropathy; diabetes; mice
Protein turnover of Patched, the Hedgehog receptor and key negative regulator of Hedgehog signaling, is controlled by the ubiquitin E3 ligase, Smurf, in a manner that depends on activation of signal transducer, Smoothened.
Hedgehog signaling plays conserved roles in controlling embryonic development; its dysregulation has been implicated in many human diseases including cancers. Hedgehog signaling has an unusual reception system consisting of two transmembrane proteins, Patched receptor and Smoothened signal transducer. Although activation of Smoothened and its downstream signal transduction have been intensively studied, less is known about how Patched receptor is regulated, and particularly how this regulation contributes to appropriate Hedgehog signal transduction. Here we identified a novel role of Smurf E3 ligase in regulating Hedgehog signaling by controlling Patched ubiquitination and turnover. Moreover, we showed that Smurf-mediated Patched ubiquitination depends on Smo activity in wing discs. Mechanistically, we found that Smo interacts with Smurf and promotes it to mediate Patched ubiquitination by targeting the K1261 site in Ptc. The further mathematic modeling analysis reveals that a bidirectional control of activation of Smo involving Smurf and Patched is important for signal-receiving cells to precisely interpret external signals, thereby maintaining Hedgehog signaling reliability. Finally, our data revealed an evolutionarily conserved role of Smurf proteins in controlling Hh signaling by targeting Ptc during development.
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is a pathway renowned for its roles in controlling embryonic development and tumorigenesis. Signaling via this pathway proceeds when Hh ligands bind to the receptor Patched (Ptc), thereby preventing Ptc from inhibiting the signal transducer, Smoothened (Smo), and thus allowing Smo to accumulate on the cell surface where it becomes activated and promotes downstream signal transduction. In the absence of Hh ligands, Ptc inhibits Smo and is a key negative regulator of Hh signaling. In this study, we investigate how protein turnover of Ptc is controlled to ensure tight regulation of Hh signaling. Using Drosophila as a model system, we provide biochemical and genetic evidence to show that the E3 ligase, Smurf, directly controls Ptc protein turnover in developing wing discs. Moreover, we found that Smurf mediates Ptc degradation in a manner that depends on Smo signaling activity: activated Smo forms a complex with Smurf to preferentially promote degradation of the ligand-unbound Ptc receptor. Using mathematic modeling we reveal that the control of Smo activation by the opposing activities of Smurf and Ptc, is important for cells receiving the Hh signal to precisely interpret and relay external signals. We show that this control mechanism is also active in vertebrates with evidence that zebrafish Smurf proteins target Ptc1 protein for degradation to control late somitogenesis during zebrafish embryogenesis.
Xonghong Xiao and colleagues analyze the challenge of antimicrobial resistance in China. A government strategy to promote rational use of antimicrobials in health care reduced antibiotic sales and percentage of prescriptions for antimicrobials for both hospitalized patients and outpatients, and offers insights to shape future initiatives.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Among the various subtypes of the M group of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), clade CRF07_BC is the most prevalent in China. To date, no strong replicable CRF07_BC infectious clone has been constructed. Here we report on the construction and characterization of highly replicable infectious molecular clones from the isolate XJDC6291 of this HIV-1 subtype. Four full-length clones pXJDC2-7, pXJDC3-7, pXJDC2-6 and pXJDC3-6 were successfully produced, but only pXJDC2-7 presented detectable infectivity and replication capability. To improve the replication capability of pXJDC2-7, a 4.8 kb region spanning from the pol Integrase to nef gene of the clone was replaced by PCR products of the corresponding fragments from the original isolate XJDC6291, which produced two clones pXJDC13 and pXJDC17 that exhibited strong replication capability. The viral stocks obtained by pXJDC-13 and pXJDC-17 transfection into 293T cells replicated efficiently in human PBMCs, human primary CD4+ T cells and displayed CCR5 tropism. Sequence alignment between pXJDC13, pXJDC17 and pXJDC2-7 suggested that polymorphisms in the V1V2 region may influence infectivity, and reverse genetic experiment showed that V1V2 polymorphisms may influence the infectivity of the clones but did not affect the replication capability at a significant level. pXJDC13 and pXJDC17 displayed strong replication capability and are the first full-length infectious clones of HIV-1 CRF07_BC clade in the world. The availability of CRF07_BC infectious clones provides a useful tool for a wide range of studies, including antiretroviral drug and vaccine research as related to this HIV subtype.
The follicular hybrid is composed of more than two components of pilosebaceous unit. There are several studies of hybrid cyst, combination of trichilemmal and epidermoid cyst was the most frequently reported. In this paper, we reported one case of hybrid cyst composed of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst. A 14-year-old girl was complaint of a solitary flesh-colored to erythematous nodule with flaccid appearance sized 3.2×1.8 cm in diameter on her right upper back for one year. The histologic findings showed there were edema and proliferation of capillaries in the superficial dermis, a cyst in the middle to deep dermis. There were laminated keratins in the cystic space. The cyst wall was composed of two different components, one was composed of epithelial cells containing of granular layer, and another consisted of basophilic cells, transient cells and shadow cells. The cyst not related with Gardner’s syndrome. Hybrid cyst such as trichilemmal cyst, epidermoid and pilomatricoma cysts maybe have same clinical features or mimicking each others, but we can distinguish them from histopathology evaluation.
Hybrid cyst; bullous pilomatricoma; epidermoid cyst
The prognostic importance of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal pro BNP (NT-proBNP) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains controversial.
We conducted an unrestricted search from the MEDLINE and EMBASE in all languages that were published between 1966 and Augest2013. Twenty-seven long-term prospective studies met our inclusion criterias. From the pooled analysis, elevated BNP/NT-proBNP was significantly associated with increased all cause mortality [odds ratio (OR), 3.85; 95% CI, 3.11 to 4.75], cardiovascular mortality (OR, 4.05; 95% CI, 2.53 to 6.84), and cardiovascular events (OR, 7.02; 95% CI, 2.21 to 22.33). The funnel plot showed no evidence of publication bias. The corresponding pooled positive and negative likelihood ratio for prediction of all cause mortality were 1.86 (95% CI, 1.66 to 2.08) and 0.48 (95% CI, 0.42 to 0.55), respectively.
BNP/NT-proBNP is a promising prognostic tool to risk-stratify the patients with ESRD. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the specific pathogenic mechanisms and the impact of other potential prognostic factors.
Although epilepsy surgery is an effective treatment for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, surgical outcomes vary across patient groups and studies. Identification of reliable prognostic factors for surgical outcome is important for outcome research. In this study, recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses on prediction of seizure outcome have been analyzed, and common predictors of seizure outcome or unrelated factors for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), lesional extratemporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE), and tuberous sclerosis complex have been identified. Clinical factors such as lesional epilepsy, abnormal magnetic resonance imaging, partial seizures, and complete resection were found to be common positive predictors, and factors such as nonlesional epilepsy, poorly defined and localized epileptic focus, generalized seizures, and incomplete resection are common negative predictors, while factors such as age at surgery and side of surgery are unrelated to seizure outcome for TLE and lesional ETLE. In addition, diagnostic neuroimaging and resection are among the most important predictors of seizure outcome. However, common predictors of seizure outcome could not be identified in nonlesional ETLE because no predictors were found to be significant in adult patients (by meta-analysis), and outcome prediction is difficult in this case. Meta-analysis of other outcomes, such as neuropsychologic outcomes, is rare due to lack of evaluation standards. Further studies on identification of reliable predictors of surgical outcomes are needed.
neuroimaging; epilepsy surgery; outcome prediction; common predictors
Radiation myelitis is the most serious complication in clinical radiotherapy for spinal metastases. We previously showed that 125I brachytherapy induced apoptosis of spinal cord neurons accompanied by autophagy. In this study, we further investigated the mechanism by which 125I radiation triggered autophagy in neural cells. We found that autophagy induced by 125I radiation was involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mainly dependent on PERK-eIF2α pathway. The expressions of LC3II, ATG12 and PI3K were significantly suppressed in PERK knockout neural cells. Meanwhile, the expressions of phosphorylated-Akt s473 and caspase3/8 all significantly increased in neural cells transfected with a PERK siRNA and which enhanced apoptosis of neurons after 125I radiation. The results were consistent with that by MTT and Annexin-FITC/PT staining. In annimal model of banna pigs with radiation myelitis caused by 125I brachytherapy, we have successfully decreased PERK expression by intrathecal administration of the lentivirus vector. The apoptosis rate was significantly higher than that in control group and which deteriorated radiation myelitis of banna pigs. Thus, autophagy caused by 125I radiation was mainly as an attempt of cell survival at an early stage, but it would be a self-destructive process and promoted the process of apoptosis and necrosis radiated by 125I for more than 72 hours. The study would be useful and helpful to maximize efficiency of radiation therapy in clinical therapy.
‘Old’ colistin and polymyxin B are increasingly used as last-line therapy against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. For intravenous administration, colistin is dosed as its inactive prodrug colistin methanesulfonate (sodium), while polymyxin B is used as its sulfate (active antibacterial). Over the last decade significant progress has been made in understanding their chemistry, pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD). The first scientifically based dosing suggestions are now available for colistin methanesulfonate to generate a desired target steady-state plasma concentration of formed colistin in various categories of critically-ill patients. As simply increasing polymyxin dosage regimens is not an option for optimizing their PK/PD due to nephrotoxicity, combination therapy with other antibiotics has great potential to maximize the efficacy of polymyxins while minimizing emergence of resistance. We must pursue rational approaches to the use of polymyxins and other existing antibiotics through the application of PK/PD principles.
Colistin; polymyxin B; pharmacokinetics; pharmacodynamics
Age-associated central arterial wall stiffness is linked to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, including fibrosis and vascular calcification. Angiotensin II induces both matrix metalloproteinase type 2 (MMP2) and calpain-1 expression and activity in the arterial wall. But the role of calpain-1 in MMP2 activation and ECM remodeling remains unknown. Dual histo-immunolabeling demonstrates co-localization of calpain-1 and MMP2 within old rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Over-expression of calpain-1 induces MMP2 transcripts, protein levels and activity, in part, by increasing the ratio of membrane-type 1 MMPs to tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2. These effects of calpain-1 over-expression-induced MMP2 activation are linked to increased collagen I and III production and vascular calcification. In addition, over-expression of calpain-1 also induces transforming growth factor-β1/Smad signaling, elastin degradation, alkaline phosphatase activation and total calcium content, but reduces the expression of calcification inhibitors, osteopontin and osteonectin, in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and in carotid artery rings ex vivo. Furthermore, both calpain-1 and collagen II increase with aging within human aortic intima. Interestingly, in aged human aortic wall, both calpain-1 and collagen II are highly expressed in arteriosclerotic plaque areas compared to grossly normal areas. Cross-talk of two proteases, calpain-1 and MMP2, leads to secretion of active MMP2, which modulates ECM remodeling via enhancing collagen production and facilitating vascular calcification. These results establish calpain-1 as a novel molecular candidate to retard age-associated ECM remodeling and its attendant risk for hypertension and atherosclerosis.
calpain-1; matrix metalloproteinase type 2; vascular calcification; fibrosis; aging
Vitamin B6 is an essential cofactor for a large number of enzymes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In this study, we characterized the pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) biosynthesis pathway in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Our results revealed that S. pneumoniae possesses a de novo vitamin B6 biosynthesis pathway encoded by the pdxST genes. Purified PdxS functionally displayed as PLP synthase, whereas PdxT exhibited glutaminase activity in vitro. Deletion of pdxS, but not pdxT, resulted in a vitamin B6 auxotrophic mutant. The defective growth of the ΔpdxS mutant in a vitamin B6-depleted medium could be chemically restored in the presence of the B6 vitamers at optimal concentrations. By analyzing PdxS expression levels, we demonstrated that the expression of pdxS was repressed by PLP and activated by a transcription factor, PdxR. A pneumococcal ΔpdxR mutant also exhibited as a vitamin B6 auxotroph. In addition, we found that disruption of the vitamin B6 biosynthesis pathway in S. pneumoniae caused a significant attenuation in a chinchilla middle ear infection model and a minor attenuation in a mouse pneumonia model, indicating that the impact of vitamin B6 synthesis on virulence depends upon the bacterial infection niche.
Intracranial EEG (icEEG) monitoring is critical in epilepsy surgical planning, but it has limitations. The advances of neuroimaging have made it possible to reveal epileptic abnormalities that could not be identified previously and improve the localization of the seizure focus and the vital cortex. A frequently asked question in the field is whether non-invasive neuroimaging could replace invasive icEEG or reduce the need for icEEG in presurgical evaluation. This review considers promising neuroimaging techniques in epilepsy presurgical assessment in order to address this question. In addition, due to large variations in the accuracies of neuroimaging across epilepsy centers, multicenter neuroimaging studies are reviewed, and there is much need for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to better reveal the utility of presurgical neuroimaging. The results of multiple studies indicate that non-invasive neuroimaging could not replace invasive icEEG in surgical planning especially in non-lesional or extratemporal lobe epilepsies, but it could reduce the need for icEEG in certain cases. With technical advances, multimodal neuroimaging may play a greater role in presurgical evaluation to reduce the costs and risks of epilepsy surgery, and provide surgical options for more patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.
•Promising neuroimaging in epilepsy presurgical evaluation is reviewed.•Frequently asked questions in the field are addressed.•Multicenter presurgical neuroimaging studies are also considered and reviewed.•Randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate presurgical neuroimaging.
Multimodal neuroimaging; Focus localization; Epilepsy surgery; Presurgical evaluation
Gliomas are the most common type of primary tumor in the central nervous system and are characterized by abundant capillary angiogenesis. It is important to study the underlying molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis in order to aid the identification of potential therapeutic targets. The aim of the current study was to investigate the expression levels of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) in gliomas, and determine their relationships with angiogenesis. Immunohistochemical methods were used to detect TSP-1, TGF-β and PPAR-γ expression levels and to assess microvascular density (MVD) in 99 glioma tissue samples of various grades. The total positive expression rates of TSP-1 and PPAR-γ were 78.4 and 94.1% in low-grade gliomas and 45.8 and 39.6% in high-grade gliomas. These values suggest that their expression negatively correlated with tumor grade. However, TGF-β expression positively correlated with tumor grade; the total positive expression rate of TGF-β in high-grade gliomas (93.8%) was significantly increased compared with that in low-grade gliomas (43.1%). The MVD in the low-grade group was 28±7.2 vessels/field, which was significantly lower than in the high-grade group (45±6.2 vessels/field). TSP-1 and PPAR-γ expression levels were negatively correlated with MVD (P<0.05), while the TGF-β expression level was positively correlated with MVD (P<0.05). These results indicate that the TSP-1, TGF-β and PPAR-γ expression levels in gliomas are correlated with MVD, which suggests that these proteins may be involved in the regulation of glioma angiogenesis.
thrombospondin-1; transforming growth factor-β; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ; microvessel density; glioma
Although epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are widely used for EGFR mutated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, tumor sample availability and heterogeneity of the tumor remain challenging for physicians’ selection of these patients. Here, we developed a serum proteomic classifier based on matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to predict the clinical outcome of patients treated with EGFR-TKIs.
A total of 68 patients were included in this study. All patients received EGFR-TKIs as second or third line treatment and blood samples were collected before treatment. Using magnetic bead assisted serum peptide capture coupled to MALDI-TOF-MS, pretreatment serum from 24 NSCLC patients was analyzed to develop a proteomic classifier (training set). In a blinded test set with 44 patients, each sample was classified into “good” or “poor” groups using this classifier. Survival analysis of each group was done based on this classification.
A 3-peptide proteomic classifier was developed from the training set. In the testing set, the classifier was able to distinguish patients of “good” or “poor” outcomes with 93% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The overall survival and progression free survival of the predicted good group were found to be significantly longer than the poor group, not only in the whole population but also in certain subgroups, such as pathological adenocarcinoma and nonsmokers. With respect to the tumor samples available for EGFR mutation detection, all eight EGFR mutant tumors and three of the 12 wild type EGFR tumors were classified as good while nine of the 12 wild type EGFR tumors were classified as poor.
The current study has shown that a proteomic classifier can predict the outcome of patients treated with EGFR-TKIs and may aid in patient selection in the absence of available tumor tissue. Further studies are necessary to confirm these findings.
non-small-cell lung cancer; matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry; proteomic classifier; survival
Digestive malignancies, especially pancreatic cancer (PC), gastric cancer (GC), and colorectal cancer (CRC), still occur at persistently high rates, and disease progression in these cancers has been associated with tumor immunosurveillance escape. Natural killer (NK) cell dysfunction may be responsible for this phenomenon, however, the exact relationship between tumor immunosurveillance escape in digestive malignancies and NK cell dysfunction remains unclear.
Percentage of the surface receptors NKG2A, KIR3DL1, NKG2D, NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, and DNAM-1, as well as the cytotoxic granules perforin and granzyme B positive NK cells were determined in patients with pancreatic cancer (n = 31), gastric cancer (n = 31), and CRC (n = 32) prior to surgery and healthy controls (n = 31) by multicolor flow cytometry. Independent t-tests or Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to compare the differences between the patient and healthy control groups, as well as the differences between patients with different pathologic features of cancer.
Percentage of NKG2D, NKp30, NKp46, and perforin positive NK cells was significantly down-regulated in patients with PC compared to healthy controls, as well as GC and CRC; reduced levels of these molecules was associated with indicators of disease progression in each malignancy (such as histological grade, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis). On the contrary, percentage of KIR3DL1 positive NK cells was significantly increased in patients with PC, as well as GC and CRC, but was not associated with any indicators of disease progression.
Altered percentage of surface receptors and cytotoxic granules positive NK cells may play a vital role in tumor immunosurveillance escape by inducing NK cell dysfunction in patients with PC, GC, and CRC.
Cytotoxic granules; Digestive malignancies; NK cells; Surface receptors
To investigate the characteristics and criterion of graft rejection in mice model.
C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice corneal grafts were grafted onto BALB/c hosts. Each group was divided into two subgroups according to the corneal opacity scores 12d after transplantation. The characteristics of opacity and neovascularization were observed. Mice of the 12th, 50th day after transplantation, the grafts biopsy of mice in allogeneic group 1, which opacity score exceed 3, were prepared for histological observation and those restore transparent were endothelial stained.
There was no difference of corneal opacity score on the 7th and 12th day after operation; the histological results had no disparity between syngeneic group and allogeneic group. On the 12th day after surgery, the turbidity curve was apparent in grafts with opacity score < 2. Mononuclear cells were shown in grafts with opacity score reached 3 in allogeneic group 1. Different rejection performance was observed in tissue sections on the 50th day after surgery.
Grafts, opacity score exceeds 3 from the 7th to the 12th day after operation could not be judged as a rejection. We should pay more attention to the variation of grafts opacity since 12d after corneal transplantation.
corneal transplantation; graft survival; experimental study
To compare the regularity and accuracy of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flaps created by the Ziemer FEMTO LDV “Classic” (Ziemer “Classic”) and Ziemer FEMTO LDV Crystal Line femtosecond laser (Ziemer Crystal Line).
Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (RTVue OCT) was used to measure the morphology of 200 LASIK flaps of 100 consecutive patients created with the Ziemer Classic (100 flaps) or the Ziemer Crystal Line (100 flaps) at one week postoperatively. Flap thickness was evaluated at 36 specified measurement points on each flap. For all procedures with both lasers, the nominal flap thickness was 110µm.
The mean flap thickness of the Ziemer Crystal Line group (102.49±2.68µm) was thinner than that of the Ziemer Classic group (107.65±5.09µm) (P<0.01). Average thickness of all flaps was uniform within 4µm at all measurement points. The flaps in the Ziemer Crystal Line group were more regular than those in the Ziemer Classic group when measured from the center to the periphery. The maximum deviation from the nominal 110µm of 36 measurements was 8µm in the Ziemer Classic group, while in the Ziemer Crystal Line group it was 9µm. Within the 3 600 measurements on the 100 eyes, differences greater than 20µm were observed 0.14% in the Ziemer Classic group, and 0.04% in the Ziemer Crystal Line group.
The flaps created with the Ziemer FEMTO LDV Crystal Line femtosecond laser are more uniform and thinner than those created by the Ziemer FEMTO LDV Classic femtosecond laser.
laser in situ keratomileusis; flap thickness; femtosecond laser; fourier-domain optical coherence tomography
N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene, which plays an important role in controlling tumor growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of NDRG2 gene in bladder cancer (BC) tissues and several bladder cancer cell lines, and to seek its clinical and pathological significance. Ninety-seven bladder carcinoma and 15 normal bladder tissue sections were analyzed retrospectively with immunohistochemistry. The human bladder cancer cell line T24 was infected with LEN-NDRG2 or LEN-LacZ. The effects of NDRG2 overexpression on T24 cells and T24 nude mouse xenografts were measured via cell growth curves, tumor growth curves, flow cytometric analysis, western blot and Transwell assay. NDRG2 was highly expressed in normal bladder tissue, but absent or rarely expressed in cacinomatous tissues (χ2=8.761, p < 0.01). The NDRG2 level was negatively correlated with tumor grade and pathologic stage(r=-0.248, p < 0.05), as well as increased c-myc level (r=-0.454, p< 0.001). The expression of NDRG2 was low in the three BC cell lines. T24 cells infected with LEN-NDRG2 showed inhibition of proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, and NDRG2 overexpression can inhibit tumor growth and invasion in vitro.
Cultures previously set up for isolation of mycoplasmal agents from blood of patients with poorly-defined illnesses, although not yielding positive results, were cryopreserved because of suspicion of having low numbers of unknown microbes living in an inactive state in the broth. We re-initiated a set of 3 cultures for analysis of the "uncultivable" or poorly-grown microbes using NGS technology. Broth of cultures from 3 blood samples, submitted from OHSU between 2000 and 2004, were inoculated into culture flasks containing fresh modified SP4 medium and kept at room temperature (RT), 30°C and 35°C. The cultures showing evidence of microbial growth were expanded and subjected to DNA analysis by genomic sequencing using Illumina MiSeq. Two of the 3 re-initiated blood cultures kept at RT after 7–8 weeks showed evidence of microbial growth that gradually reached into a cell density with detectable turbidity. The microbes in the broth when streaked on SP4 agar plates produced microscopic colonies in ∼ 2 weeks. Genomic studies revealed that the microbes isolated from the 2 blood cultures were a novel Afipia species, tentatively named Afipia septicemium. Microbes in the 3rd culture (OHSU_III) kept at RT had a limited level of growth and could not reach a plateau with high cell density. Genomic sequencing identified the microbe in the culture as a previously unknown species of Bradyrhizobium bacteria. This study reports on the isolation of novel Afipia and Bradyrhizobium species. Isolation of Bradyrhizobium species bacteria has never been reported in humans. The study also reveals a previously unrecognized nature of hematogenous infections by the 2 unique groups of Bradyrhizobiaceae. Our studies show that improvement of culture system plus effective use of NGS technology can facilitate findings of infections by unusual microbes in patients having poorly-defined, sometimes mysterious illnesses.
Aquatic birds harbor diverse influenza A viruses and are a major viral reservoir in nature. The recent discovery of influenza viruses of a new H17N10 subtype in Central American fruit bats suggests that other New World species may similarly carry divergent influenza viruses. Using consensus degenerate RT-PCR, we identified a novel influenza A virus, designated as H18N11, in a flat-faced fruit bat (Artibeus planirostris) from Peru. Serologic studies with the recombinant H18 protein indicated that several Peruvian bat species were infected by this virus. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that, in some gene segments, New World bats harbor more influenza virus genetic diversity than all other mammalian and avian species combined, indicative of a long-standing host-virus association. Structural and functional analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase indicate that sialic acid is not a ligand for virus attachment nor a substrate for release, suggesting a unique mode of influenza A virus attachment and activation of membrane fusion for entry into host cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that bats constitute a potentially important and likely ancient reservoir for a diverse pool of influenza viruses.
Previous studies indicated that a novel influenza A virus (H17N10) was circulating in fruit bats from Guatemala (Central America). Herein, we investigated whether similar viruses are present in bat species from South America. Analysis of rectal swabs from bats sampled in the Amazon rainforest region of Peru identified another new influenza A virus from bats that is phylogenetically distinct from the one identified in Guatemala. The genes that encode the surface proteins of the new virus from the flat-faced fruit bat were designated as new subtype H18N11. Serologic testing of blood samples from several species of Peruvian bats indicated a high prevalence of antibodies to the surface proteins. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that bat populations from Central and South America maintain as much influenza virus genetic diversity in some gene segments as all other mammalian and avian species combined. The crystal structures of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins indicate that sialic acid is not a receptor for virus attachment nor a substrate for release, suggesting a novel mechanism of influenza A virus attachment and activation of membrane fusion for entry into host cells. In summary, our findings indicate that bats constitute a potentially important reservoir for influenza viruses.
The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) system is an adaptive immune system in prokaryotes. Interference complexes encoded by CRISPR-associated (cas) genes utilize small RNAs for homology-directed detection and subsequent degradation of invading genetic elements, and they have been classified into three main types (I–III). Type III complexes share the Cas10 subunit but are subclassifed as type IIIA (CSM) and type IIIB (CMR), depending on their specificity for DNA or RNA targets, respectively. The role of CSM in limiting the spread of conjugative plasmids in Staphylococcus epidermidis was first described in 2008. Here, we report a detailed investigation of the composition and structure of the CSM complex from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, using a combination of electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and deep sequencing. This reveals a three-dimensional model for the CSM complex that includes a helical component strikingly reminiscent of the backbone structure of the type I (Cascade) family.
•The CSM complex from Sulfolobus solfataricus has been purified and characterized•EM reveals a helical backbone with striking similarities to the Cascade complex•Mass spectrometry defines the subunit stoichiometry and organization of the complex•CSM subunits are modified by methylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation
Objective. To analyze the methylation status of miR-124a loci in synovial tissues of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). Materials and Methods. DNA obtained from the frozen tissue of 7 RA samples, 6 osteoarthritis (OA) samples, and 3 healthy controls were undergoing bisulfite conversion and then analyzed for miR-124a promoter methylation using MSP assay. Results. miR-124-a1 and miR-124-a2 promoter methylation were both seen in 71.4% of RA samples compared to 16.7% of OA samples. miR-124-a3 promoter methylation was seen in 57.1% of RA samples and 0% of OA samples. All the three loci were unmethylated in 3 healthy controls. Conclusion. The methylation status of miR-124a seen in this study concurs with that reported in tumor cells, indicating epigenetic dysregulation constituents, a mechanism in the development of rheumatoid arthritis.