The electrochemical deposition and dissolution of lead on gold electrodes immersed in an aqueous solution of lead nitrate were studied in situ using a biasing liquid cell by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We investigate in real time the growth mechanisms of lead dendrites as deposited on the electrodes under an applied potential. TEM images reveal that lead dendrites are developed by the fast protrusion of lead branches in the electrolyte and tip splitting. And, the fast growing tip of the dendritic branch is composed of polycrystalline nanograins and it develops into a single crystalline branch eventually. This study demonstrated unique electrochemical growth of single crystal dendrites through nucleation, aggregation, alignment and attachment of randomly oriented small grains. Additionally, we found the lead concentration in the electrolyte drastically influences the morphology of dendritic formation.
Background and Aims
Abscisic acid (ABA) plays crucial roles in plants' responses to abiotic stresses. ABA 8′-hydroxylation controlled by CYP707A genes has been well studied in Arabidopsis and rice, but not in legumes. The aims of the present study were to identify and functionally analyse the soybean CYP707A gene family, and to explore their expression patterns under dehydration and salt stresses.
A complementation experiment was employed to verify the function of soybean CYP707A1a in ABA catabolism. Genomic and cDNA sequences of other soybean CYP707A genes were isolated from the Phytozome database based on soybean CYP707A1a. The structure and phylogenetic relationship of this gene family was further analysed. The expression patterns of soybean CYP707A genes under dehydration and salt stress were analysed via quantitative real-time PCR.
Over-expression of GmCYP707A1a in the atcyp707a2 T-DNA insertion mutant decreased its sensitivity to ABA, indicating that GmCYP707A1a indeed functions as an ABA 8′-hydroxylase in higher plants. The soybean genome contains ten CYP707A genes. Gene structure and phylogenetic analysis showed high conservation of ten GmCYP707A genes to the other CYP707A genes from monocots and dicots. Seed imbibition induced expression of A1a, A1b, A2a, A2b, A2c, A3a and A5 in embryo, and expression of A1a, A1b, A2a and A2b in cotyledon. Dehydration induced expression of A1a, A1b, A2b, A2c, A3a, A3b, A4a, A4b and A5 both in roots and in leaves, whereas rehydration stimulated transcription of A2a, A2b, A3b, A4a and A5 in roots, and only A3b and A5 in leaves. Expression of all soybean CYP707A genes was induced either by short- or by long-term salt stress.
The first biological evidence is provided that GmCYP7071a encodes an ABA 8′-hydroxylase through transgenic studies. Ten soybean GmCYP707A genes were identified, most of them expressed in multiple soybean tissues, and were induced by imbibition, dehydration and salinity.
Abscisic acid; ABA catabolism; Glycine max; CYP707A gene family; drought; salt stress
Background and Aims
Better understanding of intrinsic control mechanisms of colonic motility will lead to better treatment options for colonic dysmotility. The aim was to investigate neurogenic and myogenic control mechanisms underlying pan-colonic motor patterns.
Analysis of in vitro video recordings of whole rat colon motility was used to explore motor patterns and their spatiotemporal organizations and to identify mechanisms of neurogenic and myogenic control using pharmacological tools.
Study of the pan-colonic spatiotemporal organization of motor patterns revealed: fluid-induced or spontaneous rhythmic propulsive long distance contractions (LDCs, 0.4–1.5/min, involving the whole colon), rhythmic propulsive motor complexes (RPMCs) (0.8–2.5/min, dominant in distal colon), ripples (10–14/min, dominant in proximal colon), segmentation and retrograde contractions (0.1–0.8/min, prominent in distal and mid colon). Spontaneous rhythmic LDCs were the dominant pattern, blocked by tetrodotoxin, lidocaine or blockers of cholinergic, nitrergic or serotonergic pathways. Change from propulsion to segmentation and distal retrograde contractions was most prominent after blocking 5-HT3 receptors. In the presence of all neural blockers, bethanechol consistently evoked rhythmic LDC-like propulsive contractions in the same frequency range as the LDCs, indicating the existence of myogenic mechanisms of initiation and propulsion.
Neurogenic and myogenic control systems orchestrate distinct and variable motor patterns at different regions of the pan-colon. Cholinergic, nitrergic and serotonergic pathways are essential for rhythmic LDCs to develop. Rhythmic motor patterns in presence of neural blockade indicate the involvement of myogenic control systems and suggest a role for the networks of interstitial cells of Cajal as pacemakers.
With no lysine kinases (WNKs) play important roles in plant growth and development. However, its role in salt and osmotic stress tolerance is unclear. Here, we report that AtWNK8 is mainly expressed in primary root, hypocotyl, stamen and pistil and is induced by NaCl and sorbitol treatment. Compared to the wild-type, the T-DNA knock-out wnk8 mutant was more tolerant to severe salinity and osmotic stresses, as indicated by 27% and 198% more fresh weight in the NaCl and sorbitol treatment, respectively. The wnk8 mutant also accumulated 1.43-fold more proline than the wild-type in the sorbitol treatment. Under NaCl and sorbitol stresses, catalase (CAT) activity in wnk8 mutant was 1.92- and 3.7-times of that in Col-0, respectively. Similarly, under salt and osmotic stress conditions, peroxidase (POD) activities in wnk8 mutant were 1.81- and 1.58-times of that in Col-0, respectively. Taken together, we revealed that maintaining higher CAT and POD activities might be one of the reasons that the disruption of AtWNK8 enhances the tolerance to salt stress, and accumulating more proline and higher activities of CAT and POD might result in the higher tolerance of WNK8 to osmotic stress.
AtWNK8; Arabidopsis; salt stress; osmotic stress; proline; catalase; peroxidase
Catheter ablation has been established as a curative treatment strategy for ventricular arrhythmias. The standard procedure of most ventricular arrhythmias originating from the right ventricle is performed via the femoral vein. However, a femoral vein access may not achieve a successful ablation in some patients.
We reported a case of a 29-year old patient with symptomatic premature ventricular contractions was referred for catheter ablation. Radiofrequency energy application at the earliest endocardial ventricular activation site via the right femoral vein could not eliminate the premature ventricular contractions. Epicardial mapping could not obtain an earlier ventricular activation when compared to the endocardial mapping, and at the earliest epicardial site could not provide an identical pace mapping. Finally, we redeployed the ablation catheter via the right subclavian vein by a long sheath. During mapping of the subvalvular area of the right ventricle, a site with a good pace mapping and early ventricular activation was found, and premature ventricular contractions were eliminated successfully.
Ventricular arrhythmias originating from the subtricuspid annulus may be successfully abolished via a trans-subclavian approach and a long sheath. Although access via the right subclavian vein for mapping and ablation is an effective alternative, it is not a routine approach.
Premature ventricular contractions; Tricuspid annulus; Radiofrequency catheter ablation
Phosphorus (P) plays important roles in plant growth and development. MicroRNAs involved in P signaling have been identified in Arabidopsis and rice, but P-responsive microRNAs and their targets in soybean leaves and roots are poorly understood.
Using high-throughput sequencing-by-synthesis (SBS) technology, we sequenced four small RNA libraries from leaves and roots grown under phosphate (Pi)-sufficient (+Pi) and Pi-depleted (-Pi) conditions, respectively, and one RNA degradome library from Pi-depleted roots at the genome-wide level. Each library generated ∼21.45−28.63 million short sequences, resulting in ∼20.56−27.08 million clean reads. From those sequences, a total of 126 miRNAs, with 154 gene targets were computationally predicted. This included 92 new miRNA candidates with 20-23 nucleotides that were perfectly matched to the Glycine max genome 1.0, 70 of which belong to 21 miRNA families and the remaining 22 miRNA unassigned into any existing miRNA family in miRBase 18.0. Under both +Pi and -Pi conditions, 112 of 126 total miRNAs (89%) were expressed in both leaves and roots. Under +Pi conditions, 12 leaf- and 2 root-specific miRNAs were detected; while under -Pi conditions, 10 leaf- and 4 root-specific miRNAs were identified. Collectively, 25 miRNAs were induced and 11 miRNAs were repressed by Pi starvation in soybean. Then, stem-loop real-time PCR confirmed expression of four selected P-responsive miRNAs, and RLM-5’ RACE confirmed that a PHO2 and GmPT5, a kelch-domain containing protein, and a Myb transcription factor, respectively are targets of miR399, miR2111, and miR159e-3p. Finally, P-responsive cis-elements in the promoter regions of soybean miRNA genes were analyzed at the genome-wide scale.
Leaf- and root-specific miRNAs, and P-responsive miRNAs in soybean were identified genome-wide. A total of 154 target genes of miRNAs were predicted via degradome sequencing and computational analyses. The targets of miR399, miR2111, and miR159e-3p were confirmed. Taken together, our study implies the important roles of miRNAs in P signaling and provides clues for deciphering the functions for microRNA/target modules in soybean.
MicroRNA; Soybean; Phosphorus; Root; Leaf; Genome; Degradome; RLM-5’ RACE; Deep sequencing
Background and Aims
Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) are members of the metallo-phosphoesterase family and have been known to play important roles in phosphorus (P) acquisition and recycling in plants. Low P availability is a major constraint to growth and production of soybean, Glycine max. Comparative studies on structure, transcription regulation and responses to phosphate (Pi) deprivation of the soybean PAP gene family should facilitate further insights into the potential physiological roles of GmPAPs.
BLAST searches were performed to identify soybean PAP genes at the phytozome website. Bioinformatic analyses were carried out to investigate their gene structure, conserve motifs and phylogenetic relationships. Hydroponics and sand-culture experiments were carried out to obtain the plant materials. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to analyse the expression patterns of PAP genes in response to P deficiency and symbiosis.
In total, 35 PAP genes were identified from soybean genomes, which can be classified into three distinct groups including six subgroups in the phylogenetic tree. The expression pattern analysis showed flowers possessed the largest number of tissue-specific GmPAP genes under normal P conditions. The expression of 23 GmPAPs was induced or enhanced by Pi starvation in different tissues. Among them, nine GmPAP genes were highly expressed in the Pi-deprived nodules, whereas only two GmPAP genes showed significantly increased expression in the arbuscular mycorrhizal roots under low-P conditions.
Most GmPAP genes are probably involved in P acquisition and recycling in plants. Also we provide the first evidence that some members of the GmPAP gene family are possibly involved in the response of plants to symbiosis with rhizobia or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under P-limited conditions.
Soybean; Glycine max; purple acid phosphatase; expression analysis; phylogenetic analysis; phosphorus nutrition; symbiosis
The histopathological and molecular heterogeneity of normal tissue adjacent to cancerous tissue (NTAC) and normal tissue adjacent to benign tissue (NTAB), and the availability of limited specimens make deciphering the mechanisms of carcinogenesis challenging. Our goal was to identify histogenetic biomarkers that could be reliably used to define a transforming fingerprint using RNA in situ hybridization.
We evaluated 15 tumor-related RNA in situ hybridization biomarkers using tumor microarray and samples of seven tumor-adjacent normal tissues from 314 patients. Biomarkers were determined using comprehensive statistical methods (significance of support vector machine-based artificial intelligence and area under curve scoring of classification distribution).
TP53 was found to be a most reliable index (P <10-7; area under curve >87%) for distinguishing NTAC from NTAB, according to the results of a significance panel (BCL10, BECN1, BRCA2, FITH, PTCH11 and TP53).
The genetic alterations in TP53 between NTAC and NTAB may provide new insight into the field of cancerization and tumor transformation.
Cancerization; Genetic biomarkers; Normal tissue adjacent to benign; Normal tissue adjacent to cancer; Tissue microarray
Phosphorus (P) is essential for plant growth and development. Phosphate (Pi) transporter genes in the Pht1 family play important roles in Pi uptake and translocation in plants. Although Pht1 family genes have been well studied in model plants, little is known about their functions in soybean, an important legume crop worldwide.
We identified and isolated a complete set of 14 Pi transporter genes (GmPT1-14) in the soybean genome and categorized them into two subfamilies based on phylogenetic analysis. Then, an experiment to elucidate Pi transport activity of the GmPTs was carried out using a yeast mutant defective in high-affinity Pi transport. Results showed that 12 of the 14 GmPTs were able to complement Pi uptake of the yeast mutant with Km values ranging from 25.7 to 116.3 µM, demonstrating that most of the GmPTs are high-affinity Pi transporters. Further results from qRT-PCR showed that the expressions of the 14 GmPTs differed not only in response to P availability in different tissues, but also to other nutrient stresses, including N, K and Fe deficiency, suggesting that besides functioning in Pi uptake and translocation, GmPTs might be involved in synergistic regulation of mineral nutrient homeostasis in soybean.
The comprehensive analysis of Pi transporter function in yeast and expression responses to nutrition starvation of Pht1 family genes in soybean revealed their involvement in other nutrient homeostasis besides P, which could help to better understand the regulation network among ion homeostasis in plants.
Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play a vital role in adaptive strategies of plants to phosphorus (P) deficiency. However, their functions in relation to P efficiency are fragmentary in common bean.
Five PvPAPs were isolated and sequenced in common bean. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PvPAPs could be classified into two groups, including a small group with low molecular mass, and a large group with high molecular mass. Among them, PvPAP3, PvPAP4 and PvPAP5 belong to the small group, while the other two belong to the large group. Transient expression of 35S:PvPAPs-GFP on onion epidermal cells verified the variations of subcellular localization among PvPAPs, suggesting functional diversities of PvPAPs in common bean. Quantitative PCR results showed that most PvPAPs were up-regulated by phosphate (Pi) starvation. Among them, the expression of the small group PvPAPs responded more to Pi starvation, especially in the roots of G19833, the P-efficient genotype. However, only overexpressing PvPAP1 and PvPAP3 could result in significantly increased utilization of extracellular dNTPs in the transgenic bean hairy roots. Furthermore, overexpressing PvPAP3 in Arabidopsis enhanced both plant growth and total P content when dNTPs were supplied as the sole external P source.
The results suggest that PvPAPs in bean varied in protein structure, response to P deficiency and subcellular localization. Among them, both PvPAP1 and PvPAP3 might function as utilization of extracellular dNTPs.
Soybean red crown rot is a major soil-borne disease all over the world, which severely affects soybean production. Efficient and sustainable methods are strongly desired to control the soil-borne diseases.
We firstly investigated the disease incidence and index of soybean red crown rot under different phosphorus (P) additions in field and found that the natural inoculation of rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could affect soybean red crown rot, particularly without P addition. Further studies in sand culture experiments showed that inoculation with rhizobia or AMF significantly decreased severity and incidence of soybean red crown rot, especially for co-inoculation with rhizobia and AMF at low P. The root colony forming unit (CFU) decreased over 50% when inoculated by rhizobia and/or AMF at low P. However, P addition only enhanced CFU when inoculated with AMF. Furthermore, root exudates of soybean inoculated with rhizobia and/or AMF significantly inhibited pathogen growth and reproduction. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that the transcripts of the most tested pathogen defense-related (PR) genes in roots were significantly increased by rhizobium and/or AMF inoculation. Among them, PR2, PR3, PR4 and PR10 reached the highest level with co-inoculation of rhizobium and AMF.
Our results indicated that inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could directly inhibit pathogen growth and reproduction, and activate the plant overall defense system through increasing PR gene expressions. Combined with optimal P fertilization, inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could be considered as an efficient method to control soybean red crown rot in acid soils.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Non-small cell lung carcinomas (Non-SCLC) account for almost 80% of lung cancers, of which 40% were adenocarcinomas. For a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind the development and progression of lung cancer, particularly lung adenocarcinoma, we have used proteomics technology to search for candidate prognostic and therapeutic targets in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. The protein profile changes between human pulmonary adenocarcinoma tissue and paired surrounding normal tissue were analyzed using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) based approach. Differentially expressed protein-spots were identified with ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS instruments. As a result, thirty two differentially expressed proteins (over 2-fold, p<0.05) were identified in pulmonary adenocarcinoma compared to normal tissues. Among them, two proteins (PKM2 and cofilin-1), significantly up-regulated in adenocarcinoma, were selected for detailed analysis. Immunohistochemical examination indicated that enhanced expression of PKM2 and cofilin-1 were correlated with the severity of epithelial dysplasia, as well as a relatively poor prognosis. Knockdown of PKM2 expression by RNA interference led to a significant suppression of cell growth and induction of apoptosis in pulmonary adenocarcinoma SPC-A1 cells in vitro, and tumor growth inhibition in vivo xenograft model (P<0.05). In addition, the shRNA expressing plasmid targeting cofilin-1 significantly inhibited tumor metastases and prolonged survival in LL/2 metastatic model. While additional works are needed to elucidate the biological significance and molecular mechanisms of these altered proteins identified in this study, PKM2 and cofilin-1 may serve as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets for pulmonary adenocarcinoma.
Low phosphorus (P) availability is a major constraint to soybean growth and production. Developing P-efficient soybean varieties that can efficiently utilize native P and added P in the soils would be a sustainable and economical approach to soybean production.
This review summarizes the possible mechanisms for P efficiency and genetic strategies to improve P efficiency in soybean with examples from several case studies. It also highlights potential obstacles and depicts future perspectives in ‘root breeding’.
This review provides new insights into the mechanisms of P efficiency and breeding strategies for this trait in soybean. Root biology is a new frontier of plant biology. Substantial efforts are now focusing on increasing soybean P efficiency through ‘root breeding’. To advance this area, additional collaborations between plant breeders and physiologists, as well as applied and theoretical research are needed to develop more soybean varieties with enhanced P efficiency through root modification, which might contribute to reduced use of P fertilizers, expanding agriculture on low-P soils, and achieving more sustainable agriculture.
Soybean; genetic improvement; phosphorus efficiency; root breeding
Background and Aims
Low phosphorus (P) availability is a major constraint to soybean growth and production, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. Root traits have been shown to play critical roles in P efficiency in crops. Identification of the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring superior root systems could significantly enhance genetic improvement in soybean P efficiency.
A population of 106 F9 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between BD2 and BX10, which contrast in both P efficiency and root architecture, was used for mapping and QTL analysis. Twelve traits were examined in acid soils. A linkage map was constructed using 296 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with the Kosambi function, and the QTLs associated with these traits were detected by composite interval mapping and multiple-QTL mapping.
The first soybean genetic map based on field data from parental genotypes contrasting both in P efficiency and root architecture was constructed. Thirty-one putative QTLs were detected on five linkage groups, with corresponding contribution ratios of 9·1–31·1 %. Thirteen putative QTLs were found for root traits, five for P content, five for biomass and five for yield traits. Three clusters of QTLs associated with the traits for root and P efficiency at low P were located on the B1 linkage group close to SSR markers Satt519 and Satt519-Sat_128, and on the D2 group close to Satt458; and one cluster was on the B1 linkage group close to Satt519 at high P.
Most root traits in soybean were conditioned by more than two minor QTLs. The region closer to Satt519 on the B1 linkage group might have great potential for future genetic improvement for soybean P efficiency through root selection.
Quantitative trait loci (QTLs); soybean; Glycine max; root traits; phosphorus efficiency
The monoclonal antibody C225 interacts with the ectodomain of the EGF receptor to block ligand binding and initiates receptor endocytosis and intracellular trafficking. The data herein show that C225-dependent EGF receptor trafficking relocalizes the receptor to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nucleus. This mechanism, which also involves interaction of the C225-internalized receptor with the Sec61 translocon within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is, in most respect, analogous to the pathway previously described for EGF-induced trafficking to the ER and nucleus (Liao HJ and Carpenter G. Mol Biol Cell 2007; 18: 1064-1072), However, while inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinase activity blocks EGF-induced nuclear localization of the receptor, the same kinase inhibitors stimulate C225-dependent nuclear localization of EGF receptor in the nucleus. In contrast, the kinase inhibitor Lapatinib fails to stimulate nuclear accumulation of the receptor in C225-treated cells and does not provoke receptor dimerization as do inhibitors that recognizing the open conformation of the receptor kinase. This suggests that inhibitor-dependent receptor dimerization may facilitate C225-induced receptor trafficking.
Backgrond and Aims
Stylosanthes spp. (stylo) is one of the most important pasture legumes used in a wide range of agricultural systems on acid soils, where aluminium (Al) toxicity and phosphorus (P) deficiency are two major limiting factors for plant growth. However, physiological mechanisms of stylo adaptation to acid soils are not understood.
Twelve stylo genotypes were surveyed under field conditions, followed by sand and nutrient solution culture experiments to investigate possible physiological mechanisms of stylo adaptation to low-P acid soils.
Stylo genotypes varied substantially in growth and P uptake in low P conditions in the field. Three genotypes contrasting in P efficiency were selected for experiments in nutrient solution and sand culture to examine their Al tolerance and ability to utilize different P sources, including Ca-P, K-P, Al-P, Fe-P and phytate-P. Among the three tested genotypes, the P-efficient genotype ‘TPRC2001-1’ had higher Al tolerance than the P-inefficient genotype ‘Fine-stem’ as indicated by relative tap root length and haematoxylin staining. The three genotypes differed in their ability to utilize different P sources. The P-efficient genotype, ‘TPRC2001-1’, had superior ability to utilize phytate-P.
The findings suggest that possible physiological mechanisms of stylo adaptation to low-P acid soils might involve superior ability of plant roots to tolerate Al toxicity and to utilize organic P and Al-P.
Stylosanthes; phosphorus; P efficiency; organic P; Al toxicity; acid soil
It has been known for at least 20 years that growth factors induce the internalization of cognate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). The internalized receptors are then sorted to lysosomes or recycled to the cell surface. More recently, data have been published to indicate other intracellular destinations for the internalized RTKs. These include the nucleus, mitochondria, and cytoplasm. Also, it is recognized that trafficking to these novel destinations involves new biochemical mechanisms, such as proteolytic processing or interaction with translocons, and that these trafficking events have a function in signal transduction, implicating the receptor itself as a signaling element between the cell surface and the nucleus.
AIM: To investigate the diverse characteristics of different pathological gradings of gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) using tumor-related genes.
METHODS: GA tissues in different pathological gradings and normal tissues were subjected to tissue arrays. Expressions of 15 major tumor-related genes were detected by RNA in situ hybridization along with 3’ terminal digoxin-labeled anti-sense single stranded oligonucleotide and locked nucleic acid modifying probe within the tissue array. The data obtained were processed by support vector machines by four different feature selection methods to discover the respective critical gene/gene subsets contributing to the GA activities of different pathological gradings.
RESULTS: In comparison of poorly differentiated GA with normal tissues, tumor-related gene TP53 plays a key role, although other six tumor-related genes could also achieve the Area Under Curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic independently by more than 80%. Comparing the well differentiated GA with normal tissues, we found that 11 tumor-related genes could independently obtain the AUC by more than 80%, but only the gene subsets, TP53, RB and PTEN, play a key role. Only the gene subsets, Bcl10, UVRAG, APC, Beclin1, NM23, PTEN and RB could distinguish between the poorly differentiated and well differentiated GA. None of a single gene could obtain a valid distinction.
CONCLUSION: Different from the traditional point of view, the well differentiated cancer tissues have more alterations of important tumor-related genes than the poorly differentiated cancer tissues.
Pathological grading; Gastric adenocarcinoma; Tumor-related gene; Support vector machine; RNA in situ hybridization
AIM: To rapidly detect molecular alterations in different malignancies and investigate the possible role of Tp53, C-myc, and CCND1 genes in development of tumors in human organs and their adjacent normal tissues, as well as the possible relation between well- and poorly-differentiated tumors.
METHODS: A tissue array consisting of seven different tumors was generated. The tissue array included 120 points of esophagus, 120 points of stomach, 80 points of rectum, 60 points of thyroid gland, 100 points of mammary gland, 80 points of liver, and 80 points of colon. Expressions of Tp53, C-myc, and CCND1 were determined by RNA in situ hybridization. 3’ terminal digoxin-labeled anti-sense single stranded oligonucleotide and locked nucleic acid modifying probe were used.
RESULTS: The expression level of Tp53 gene was higher in six different carcinoma tissue samples than in paracancerous tissue samples with the exception in colon carcinoma tissue samples (P < 0.05). The expression level of CCND1 gene was significantly different in different carcinoma tissue samples with the exception in esophagus and colon carcinoma tissue samples. The expression level of C-myc gene was different in esophagus carcinoma tissue samples (χ2 = 18.495, P = 0.000), stomach carcinoma tissue samples (χ2 = 23.750, P = 0.000), and thyroid gland tissue samples (χ2 = 10.999, P = 0.004). The intensity of signals was also different in different carcinoma tissue samples and paracancerous tissue samples.
CONCLUSION: Over-expression of the Tp53, CCND1, and C-myc genes appears to play a role in development of human cancer by regulating the expression of mRNA. Tp53, CCND1 and C-myc genes are significantly correlated with the development of different carcinomas.
Tp53; C-myc; CCND1; Tissue microarray; RNA in situ hybridization
Cryphonectria parasitica strain EP721 is infected with a strain of hypovirus CHV1, CHV1-EP721, and exhibits typical hypovirulence-associated traits such as reduced pigmentation and reduced asexual sporulation. However, the accumulation of the viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in this hypovirus-infected C. parasitica strain is atypically low. We now report the complete nucleotide sequence and construction of a full-length infectious cDNA clone for hypovirus CHV1-EP721. The genome sequence of CHV1-EP721 was determined to be 12,724 bp in length and to share extensive homology with two other hypovirus strains, CHV1-Euro7 and CHV1-EP713, with an average of 99% and 90% identities at the nucleotide level and 99% and 92% identities at the amino acid level, respectively. CHV1-EP721 was successfully introduced into virus-free fungal host strain EP721(-v) by transfection with transcripts derived from a full-length viral cDNA. The transfected strain had a phenotype indistinguishable from that of EP721, and the accumulation of CHV1-EP721 dsRNA in the transfectant was lower than those transfected by CHV1-Euro7 and CHV1-EP713 transcripts. Through the construction of chimeric viruses by domain swapping using infectious cDNA clones of CHV1-EP721, CHV1-EP713, and CHV1-Euro7 hypoviruses, the determinant for the low level of viral dsRNA accumulation in CHV1-EP721 was mapped to the second of two CHV1-EP721 open reading frames (ORFs), ORF B. Further refined swapping of domains within ORF B identified a 2.5-kb coding region between p48 and the polymerase domain of CHV1-EP721 as being responsible for the low viral dsRNA accumulation. Evidence is also provided that low rates of hypovirus transmission through conidial spores correlates with low viral dsRNA accumulation.
The epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent trafficking of the intact EGF receptor to the nucleus and its requirement for growth factor induction of cyclin D and other genes has been reported. Unresolved is the mechanism by which this or other transmembrane proteins are excised from a lipid bilayer before nuclear translocalization. We report that, after the addition of EGF, the cell surface EGF receptor is trafficked to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it associates with Sec61β, a component of the Sec61 translocon, and is retrotranslocated from the ER to the cytoplasm. Abrogation of Sec61β expression prevents EGF-dependent localization of EGF receptors to the nucleus and expression of cyclin D. This indicates that EGF receptors are trafficked from the ER to the nucleus by a novel pathway that involves the Sec61 translocon.
The innate immune system protects against infection and tissue injury through the specialized organs of the reticuloendothelial system, including the lungs, liver, and spleen. The central nervous system regulates innate immune responses via the vagus nerve, a mechanism termed the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway. Vagus nerve stimulation inhibits proinflammatory cytokine production by signaling through the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit. Previously, the functional relationship between the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway and the reticuloendothelial system was unknown. Here we show that vagus nerve stimulation fails to inhibit tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production in splenectomized animals during lethal endotoxemia. Selective lesioning of the common celiac nerve abolishes TNF suppression by vagus nerve stimulation, suggesting that the cholinergic pathway is functionally hard wired to the spleen via this branch of the vagus nerve. Administration of nicotine, an α7 agonist that mimics vagus nerve stimulation, increases proinflammatory cytokine production and lethality from polymicrobial sepsis in splenectomized mice, indicating that the spleen is critical to the protective response of the cholinergic pathway. These results reveal a specific, physiological connection between the nervous and innate immune systems that may be exploited through either electrical vagus nerve stimulation or administration of α7 agonists to inhibit proinflammatory cytokine production during infection and tissue injury.