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author:("Li, shugan")
1.  Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes Relevant to Variegation in Peach Flowers 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e90842.
Background
Variegation in flower color is commonly observed in many plant species and also occurs on ornamental peaches (Prunus persica f. versicolor [Sieb.] Voss). Variegated plants are highly valuable in the floricultural market. To gain a global perspective on genes differentially expressed in variegated peach flowers, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of white and red petals separately collected from a variegated peach tree.
Results
A total of 1,556,597 high-quality reads were obtained, with an average read length of 445 bp. The ESTs were assembled into 16,530 contigs and 42,050 singletons. The resulting unigenes covered about 60% of total predicted genes in the peach genome. These unigenes were further subjected to functional annotation and biochemical pathway analysis. Digital expression analysis identified a total of 514 genes differentially expressed between red and white flower petals. Since peach flower coloration is determined by the expression and regulation of structural genes relevant to flavonoid biosynthesis, a detailed examination detected four key structural genes, including C4H, CHS, CHI and F3H, expressed at a significantly higher level in red than in white petal. Except for the structural genes, we also detected 11 differentially expressed regulatory genes relating to flavonoid biosynthesis. Using the differentially expressed structural genes as the test objects, we validated the digital expression results by using quantitative real-time PCR, and the differential expression of C4H, CHS and F3H were confirmed.
Conclusion
In this study, we generated a large EST collection from flower petals of a variegated peach. By digital expression analysis, we identified an informative list of candidate genes associated with variegation in peach flowers, which offered a unique opportunity to uncover the genetic mechanisms underlying flower color variegation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090842
PMCID: PMC3948169  PMID: 24603808
2.  Global secretome characterization of A549 human alveolar epithelial carcinoma cells during Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection 
BMC Microbiology  2014;14:27.
Background
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is one of the major etiological agents for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in all age groups. The early host response to M. pneumoniae infection relies on the concerted release of proteins with various biological activities. However, no comprehensive analysis of the secretory proteins has been conducted to date regarding the host response upon M. pneumoniae infection.
Results
We employed the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based label-free quantitative proteomic technology to identify and characterize the members of the human alveolar epithelial carcinoma A549 cell secretome during M. pneumoniae infection. A total of 256 proteins were identified, with 113 being differentially expressed (>1.5-fold change), among which 9 were only expressed in control cells, 10 only in M. pneumoniae-treated cells, while 55 were up-regulated and 39 down-regulated by M. pneumoniae. The changed expression of some of the identified proteins was validated by RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis. Cellular localization analysis of the secretome data revealed 59.38% of the proteins were considered as “putative secretory proteins”. Functional analysis revealed that the proteins affected upon M. pneumoniae infection were mainly related to metabolic process, stress response, and immune response. We further examined the level of one up-regulated protein, IL-33, in clinical samples. The result showed that IL-33 levels were significantly higher in the plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of M. pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) patients.
Conclusions
The present study provided systematic information about the changes in the expression of secretory proteins during M. pneumoniae infection, which is useful for the discovery of specific biomarkers and targets for pharmacological intervention.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-14-27
PMCID: PMC3922035  PMID: 24507763
Mycoplasma pneumoniae; Secretome; IL-33; Biological pathway
3.  Analysis of Phakopsora pachyrhizi transcript abundance in critical pathways at four time-points during infection of a susceptible soybean cultivar using deep sequencing 
BMC Genomics  2013;14:614.
Background
Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal agent responsible for soybean rust, is among the top hundred most virulent plant pathogens and can cause soybean yield losses of up to 80% when appropriate conditions are met. We used mRNA-Seq by Illumina to analyze pathogen transcript abundance at 15 seconds (s), 7 hours (h), 48 h, and 10 days (d) after inoculation (ai) of susceptible soybean leaves with P. pachyrhizi to gain new insights into transcript abundance in soybean and the pathogen at specific time-points during the infection including the uredinial stage.
Results
Over three million five hundred thousand sequences were obtained for each time-point. Energy, nucleotide metabolism, and protein synthesis are major priorities for the fungus during infection and development as indicated by our transcript abundance studies. At all time-points, energy production is a necessity for P. pachyrhizi, as indicated by expression of many transcripts encoding enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation and carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate, pentose phosphate, pyruvate). However, at 15 sai, transcripts encoding enzymes involved in ATP production were highly abundant in order to provide enough energy for the spore to germinate, as observed by the expression of many transcripts encoding proteins involved in electron transport. At this early time-point, transcripts encoding proteins involved in RNA synthesis were also highly abundant, more so than transcripts encoding genes involved in DNA and protein synthesis. At 7 hai, shortly after germination during tube elongation and penetration, transcripts encoding enzymes involved in deoxyribonucleotide and DNA synthesis were highly abundant. At 48 hai, transcripts encoding enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism were highly abundant to provide for increased protein synthesis during haustoria maturation. During sporulation at 10 dai, the fungus still required carbohydrate metabolism, but there also was increased expression of transcripts encoding enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism.
Conclusion
This information provides insight into molecular events and their timing throughout the life cycle of the P. pachyrhizi, and it may be useful in the development of new methods of broadening resistance of soybean to soybean rust.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-614
PMCID: PMC3847679  PMID: 24025037
Deep sequencing; Transcript abundance; Phakopsora pachyrhizi; Plant-pathogen interaction; Soybean; Soybean rust
4.  Percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration and short time insemination in the treatment of men with obstructive azoospermia 
Objective
To study the efficacy of percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) in combination with short time insemination to treat infertile men with obstructive azoospermia (OA).
Design
Paired randomized controlled trial in which each couple’s cohort of oocytes was divided into two equal groups.
Setting
Center for reproductive care.
Patients
Twenty men with OA.
Interventions
Motile spermatozoa were collected using PESA. Half of the oocytes were used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The rest were inseminated briefly with PESA sperm in vitro fertilization (IVF). After 4–5 h, the remaining cumulus cells were removed mechanically for second polar body observation to decide whether to apply “rescue” ICSI (RE-ICSI).
Main outcome measures
Rates of oocyte maturation, fertilization, cleavage, and good quality embryos. Numbers of available embryos and good quality embryos were compared between PESA-IVF (using a short incubation protocol + rescue ICSI) group and PESA-ICSI group.
Results
In the short time insemination group, cumulus cells were dispersed by PESA spermatozoa. No second polar bodies were found, so RE-ICSI was done. PESA-IVF + RE-ICSI and PESA-ICSI outcomes were comparable in terms of fertilization rates, 2PN cleavage rate and good quality embryo rates with no statistically significant differences.
Conclusions
PESA sperm without centrifugation could disperse the cumulus cells but were infertile and therefore could substitute for synthetic hyaluronidase. The outcomes of PESA-IVF with rescue ICSI were equivalent to PESA-ICSI. Using spermatozoa obtained by PESA and IVF before RE-ICIS is a viable treatment for men with OA.
doi:10.1007/s10815-013-0075-1
PMCID: PMC3800539  PMID: 23989999
Percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration; Obstructive azoospermia; Short time insemination; Rescue ICSI; Hyaluronidase; Male infertility
5.  Co-Inoculation with Rhizobia and AMF Inhibited Soybean Red Crown Rot: From Field Study to Plant Defense-Related Gene Expression Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(3):e33977.
Background
Soybean red crown rot is a major soil-borne disease all over the world, which severely affects soybean production. Efficient and sustainable methods are strongly desired to control the soil-borne diseases.
Principal Findings
We firstly investigated the disease incidence and index of soybean red crown rot under different phosphorus (P) additions in field and found that the natural inoculation of rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could affect soybean red crown rot, particularly without P addition. Further studies in sand culture experiments showed that inoculation with rhizobia or AMF significantly decreased severity and incidence of soybean red crown rot, especially for co-inoculation with rhizobia and AMF at low P. The root colony forming unit (CFU) decreased over 50% when inoculated by rhizobia and/or AMF at low P. However, P addition only enhanced CFU when inoculated with AMF. Furthermore, root exudates of soybean inoculated with rhizobia and/or AMF significantly inhibited pathogen growth and reproduction. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that the transcripts of the most tested pathogen defense-related (PR) genes in roots were significantly increased by rhizobium and/or AMF inoculation. Among them, PR2, PR3, PR4 and PR10 reached the highest level with co-inoculation of rhizobium and AMF.
Conclusions
Our results indicated that inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could directly inhibit pathogen growth and reproduction, and activate the plant overall defense system through increasing PR gene expressions. Combined with optimal P fertilization, inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could be considered as an efficient method to control soybean red crown rot in acid soils.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033977
PMCID: PMC3307780  PMID: 22442737
6.  Potential chromosomal introgression barriers revealed by linkage analysis in a hybrid of Pinus massoniana and P. hwangshanensis 
BMC Plant Biology  2010;10:37.
Background
Exploring the genetic mechanisms underlying speciation is a hot topic in modern genetics and evolutionary studies. Distortion of marker transmission ratio is frequently ascribed to selection against alleles that cause hybrid incompatibility. The natural introgression between P. massoniana and P. hwangshanensis and their distribution ranges lead to the emergence of the two species as desirable organisms to study the genetic mechanisms for speciation.
Results
Using seeds sampled from trees at different elevations, we consistently detected sharp decreases in seed germination rates of trees in the hybrid zone, which might be due largely to the hybrid incompatibility. A genetic map was established using 192 megagametophytes from a single tree in the hybrid zone of the two species. Segregation distortion analysis revealed that the percentage of significant-segregation-distortion (SSD) markers was extremely high, accounting for more than 25% of the segregating markers. The extension range, the distortion direction, and the distortion intensity of SSD markers also varied dramatically on different linkage groups.
Conclusions
In this study, we display the potential chromosomal introgression barriers between P. massoniana and P. hwangshanensis. Our study provides a valuable platform for conducting genome-wide association of hybrid incompatible QTLs and/or candidate genes with marker transmission ratio distortion in the hybrid.
doi:10.1186/1471-2229-10-37
PMCID: PMC2844070  PMID: 20181290

Results 1-6 (6)