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author:("Hao, shuiqing")
1.  2, 6-dichlorobenzonitrile Causes Multiple Effects on Pollen Tube Growth beyond Altering Cellulose Synthesis in Pinus bungeana Zucc 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e76660.
Cellulose is an important component of cell wall, yet its location and function in pollen tubes remain speculative. In this paper, we studied the role of cellulose synthesis in pollen tube elongation in Pinus bungeana Zucc. by using the specific inhibitor, 2, 6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB). In the presence of DCB, the growth rate and morphology of pollen tubes were distinctly changed. The organization of cytoskeleton and vesicle trafficking were also disturbed. Ultrastructure of pollen tubes treated with DCB was characterized by the loose tube wall and damaged organelles. DCB treatment induced distinct changes in tube wall components. Fluorescence labeling results showed that callose, and acidic pectin accumulated in the tip regions, whereas there was less cellulose when treated with DCB. These results were confirmed by FTIR microspectroscopic analysis. In summary, our findings showed that inhibition of cellulose synthesis by DCB affected the organization of cytoskeleton and vesicle trafficking in pollen tubes, and induced changes in the tube wall chemical composition in a dose-dependent manner. These results confirm that cellulose is involved in the establishment of growth direction of pollen tubes, and plays important role in the cell wall construction during pollen tube development despite its lower quantity.
PMCID: PMC3795706  PMID: 24146903
2.  Mutation in SUMO E3 ligase, SIZ1, Disrupts the Mature Female Gametophyte in Arabidopsis 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(1):e29470.
Female gametophyte is the multicellular haploid structure that can produce embryo and endosperm after fertilization, which has become an attractive model system for investigating molecular mechanisms in nuclei migration, cell specification, cell-to-cell communication and many other processes. Previous reports found that the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase, SIZ1, participated in many processes depending on particular target substrates and suppression of salicylic acid (SA) accumulation. Here, we report that SIZ1 mediates the reproductive process. SIZ1 showed enhanced expression in female organs, but was not detected in the anther or pollen. A defect in the siz1-2 maternal source resulted in reduced seed-set regardless of high SA concentration within the plant. Moreover, aniline blue staining and scanning electron microscopy revealed that funicular and micropylar pollen tube guidance was arrested in siz1-2 plants. Some of the embryo sacs of ovules in siz1-2 were also disrupted quickly after stage FG7. There was no significant affects of the siz1-2 mutation on expression of genes involved in female gametophyte development- or pollen tube guidance in ovaries. Together, our results suggest that SIZ1 sustains the stability and normal function of the mature female gametophyte which is necessary for pollen tube guidance.
PMCID: PMC3253799  PMID: 22253727
3.  Arabidopsis R-SNARE Proteins VAMP721 and VAMP722 Are Required for Cell Plate Formation 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(10):e26129.
Cell plate formation during plant cytokinesis is facilitated by SNARE complex-mediated vesicle fusion at the cell-division plane. However, our knowledge regarding R-SNARE components of membrane fusion machinery for cell plate formation remains quite limited.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We report the in vivo function of Arabidopsis VAMP721 and VAMP722, two closely sequence-related R-SNAREs, in cell plate formation. Double homozygous vamp721vamp722 mutant seedlings showed lethal dwarf phenotypes and were characterized by rudimentary roots, cotyledons and hypocotyls. Furthermore, cell wall stubs and incomplete cytokinesis were frequently observed in vamp721vamp722 seedlings. Confocal images revealed that green fluorescent protein-tagged VAMP721 and VAMP722 were preferentially localized to the expanding cell plates in dividing cells. Drug treatments and co-localization analyses demonstrated that punctuate organelles labeled with VAMP721 and VAMP722 represented early endosomes overlapped with VHA-a1-labeled TGN, which were distinct from Golgi stacks and prevacuolar compartments. In addition, protein traffic to the plasma membrane, but not to the vacuole, was severely disrupted in vamp721vamp722 seedlings by subcellular localization of marker proteins.
These observations suggest that VAMP721 and VAMP722 are involved in secretory trafficking to the plasma membrane via TGN/early endosomal compartment, which contributes substantially to cell plate formation during plant cytokinesis.
PMCID: PMC3191180  PMID: 22022536
4.  No Detectable Maternal Effects of Elevated CO2 on Arabidopsis thaliana Over 15 Generations 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(6):e6035.
Maternal environment has been demonstrated to produce considerable impact on offspring growth. However, few studies have been carried out to investigate multi-generational maternal effects of elevated CO2 on plant growth and development. Here we present the first report on the responses of plant reproductive, photosynthetic, and cellular characteristics to elevated CO2 over 15 generations using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system. We found that within an individual generation, elevated CO2 significantly advanced plant flowering, increased photosynthetic rate, increased the size and number of starch grains per chloroplast, reduced stomatal density, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate, and resulted in a higher reproductive mass. Elevated CO2 did not significantly influence silique length and number of seeds per silique. Across 15 generations grown at elevated CO2 concentrations, however, there were no significant differences in these traits. In addition, a reciprocal sowing experiment demonstrated that elevated CO2 did not produce detectable maternal effects on the offspring after fifteen generations. Taken together, these results suggested that the maternal effects of elevated CO2 failed to extend to the offspring due to the potential lack of genetic variation for CO2 responsiveness, and future plants may not evolve specific adaptations to elevated CO2 concentrations.
PMCID: PMC2698214  PMID: 19557175

Results 1-4 (4)