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1.  An improved 2b-RAD approach (I2b-RAD) offering genotyping tested by a rice (Oryza sativa L.) F2 population 
BMC Genomics  2014;15(1):956.
Background
2b-RAD (type IIB endonucleases restriction-site associated DNA) approach was invented by Wang in 2012 and proven as a simple and flexible method for genome-wide genotyping. However, there is still plenty of room for improvement for the existent 2b-RAD approach. Firstly, it doesn’t include the samples pooling in library preparation as other reduced representation libraries. Secondly, the information of 2b-RAD tags, such as tags numbers and distributions, in most of species are unknown. The purposes of the research are to improve a new 2b-RAD approach which possesses samples pooling, moreover to figure out the characteristic and application potentiality of 2b-RAD tags by bioinformatics analysis.
Results
Twelve adapter1 and an adapter2 were designed. A library approach comprising digestion, ligation, pooling, PCR and size selection were established. For saving costs, we used non-phosphorylated adapters and indexed PCR primers. A F2 population of rice (Oryza sativa .L) was genotyped to validate the new approach. On average, 2000332 high quality reads of each sample were obtained with high evenness. Totally 3598 markers containing 3804 SNPs were discovered and the missing rate was 18.9%. A genetic linkage map of 1385 markers was constructed and 92% of the markers’ orders in the genetic map were in accordance with the orders in chromosomes. Meanwhile, the bioinformatics simulation in 20 species showed that the BsaXI had the most widespread recognition sites, indicating that 2b-RAD tags had a powerful application potentiality for high density genetic map. Using modified adapters with a fix base in 3′end, 2b-RAD was also fit for QTL studies with low costs.
Conclusions
An improved 2b-RAD genotyping approach was established in this research and named as I2b-RAD. The method was a simple, fast, cost-effective and multiplex sequencing library approach. It could be adjusted by selecting different enzymes and adapters to fit for alternative uses including chromosomes assembly, QTL fine mapping and even natural population analysis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-956) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-956
PMCID: PMC4236440  PMID: 25373334
2b-RAD; Genotyping; Genetic linkage map
2.  The draft genomes of soft–shell turtle and green sea turtle yield insights into the development and evolution of the turtle–specific body plan 
Nature genetics  2013;45(6):701-706.
The unique anatomical features of turtles have raised unanswered questions about the origin of their unique body plan. We generated and analyzed draft genomes of the soft-shell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) and the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas); our results indicated the close relationship of the turtles to the bird-crocodilian lineage, from which they split ~267.9–248.3 million years ago (Upper Permian to Triassic). We also found extensive expansion of olfactory receptor genes in these turtles. Embryonic gene expression analysis identified an hourglass-like divergence of turtle and chicken embryogenesis, with maximal conservation around the vertebrate phylotypic period, rather than at later stages that show the amniote-common pattern. Wnt5a expression was found in the growth zone of the dorsal shell, supporting the possible co-option of limb-associated Wnt signaling in the acquisition of this turtle-specific novelty. Our results suggest that turtle evolution was accompanied by an unexpectedly conservative vertebrate phylotypic period, followed by turtle-specific repatterning of development to yield the novel structure of the shell.
doi:10.1038/ng.2615
PMCID: PMC4000948  PMID: 23624526
3.  Humidity-Induced Charge Leakage and Field Attenuation in Electric Field Microsensors 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2012;12(4):5105-5115.
The steady-state zero output of static electric field measuring systems often fluctuates, which is caused mainly by the finite leakage resistance of the water film on the surface of the electric field microsensor package. The water adsorption has been calculated using the Boltzmann distribution equation at various relative humidities for borosilicate glass and polytetrafluoroethylene surfaces. At various humidities, water film thickness has been calculated, and the induced charge leakage and field attenuation have been theoretically investigated. Experiments have been performed with microsensors to verify the theoretical predictions and the results are in good agreement.
doi:10.3390/s120405105
PMCID: PMC3355460  PMID: 22666077
electric field sensor; charge leakage; electric field attenuation; water film thickness; MEMS
4.  A Wireless Magnetic Resonance Energy Transfer System for Micro Implantable Medical Sensors 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2012;12(8):10292-10308.
Based on the magnetic resonance coupling principle, in this paper a wireless energy transfer system is designed and implemented for the power supply of micro-implantable medical sensors. The entire system is composed of the in vitro part, including the energy transmitting circuit and resonant transmitter coils, and in vivo part, including the micro resonant receiver coils and signal shaping chip which includes the rectifier module and LDO voltage regulator module. Transmitter and receiver coils are wound by Litz wire, and the diameter of the receiver coils is just 1.9 cm. The energy transfer efficiency of the four-coil system is greatly improved compared to the conventional two-coil system. When the distance between the transmitter coils and the receiver coils is 1.5 cm, the transfer efficiency is 85% at the frequency of 742 kHz. The power transfer efficiency can be optimized by adding magnetic enhanced resonators. The receiving voltage signal is converted to a stable output voltage of 3.3 V and a current of 10 mA at the distance of 2 cm. In addition, the output current varies with changes in the distance. The whole implanted part is packaged with PDMS of excellent biocompatibility and the volume of it is about 1 cm3.
doi:10.3390/s120810292
PMCID: PMC3472828  PMID: 23112600
wireless energy transfer system; transfer efficiency; Class-E amplifier; CMOS rectifier; LDO; micro-implantable medical sensors

Results 1-4 (4)