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author:("samaj, josef")
1.  Vesicular trafficking and stress response coupled to PI3K inhibition by LY294002 as revealed by proteomic and cell biological analysis 
Journal of proteome research  2013;12(10):4435-4448.
LY294002 is a synthetic quercetin-like compound which, unlike wortmannin, is an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). It inhibits endocytosis and vacuolar transport. We report here on the proteome-wide effects of LY294002 on Arabidopsis roots focusing on proteins involved in vesicular trafficking and stress response. At the subcellular level, LY294002 caused swelling and clustering of late endosomes leading to inhibition of vacuolar transport. At the proteome level, this compound caused changes in abundances of proteins categorized to 10 functional classes. Among proteins involved in vesicular trafficking, a small GTPase ARFA1f was more abundant, indicating its possible contribution to the aggregation and fusion of late endosomes triggered by LY294002. Our study provides new information on storage proteins and vacuolar hydrolases in vegetative tissues treated by LY294002. Vacuolar hydrolases were downregulated while storage proteins were more abundant, suggesting that storage proteins were protected from degradation in swollen multivesicular bodies upon LY294002 treatment. Upregulation of 2S albumin was validated by immunoblotting and immunolabelling analyses. Our study also pointed to the control of antioxidant enzyme machinery by PI3K because LY294002 downregulated two isozymes of superoxide dismutase. This most likely occurred via PI3K–mediated downregulation of protein AtDJ1A. Finally, we discuss specificity differences of LY294002 and wortmannin against PI3K which are reflected at the proteome level. Compared to wortmannin, LY294002 showed more narrow and perhaps also more specific effects on proteins as suggested by gene ontology functional annotation.
PMCID: PMC3917326  PMID: 23931732
LY294002; proteomics; storage proteins; Arabidopsis; roots; antioxidant enzymes; vesicular trafficking
2.  Trans-Golgi network localized small GTPase RabA1d is involved in cell plate formation and oscillatory root hair growth 
BMC Plant Biology  2014;14(1):252.
Small Rab GTPases are important regulators of vesicular trafficking in plants. AtRabA1d, a member of the RabA1 subfamily of small GTPases, was previously found in the vesicle-rich apical dome of growing root hairs suggesting a role during tip growth; however, its specific intracellular localization and role in plants has not been well described.
The transient expression of 35S::GFP:RabA1d construct in Allium porrum and Nicotiana benthamiana revealed vesicular structures, which were further corroborated in stable transformed Arabidopsis thaliana plants. GFP-RabA1d colocalized with the trans-Golgi network marker mCherry-VTI12 and with early FM4-64-labeled endosomal compartments. Late endosomes and endoplasmic reticulum labeled with FYVE-DsRed and ER-DsRed, respectively, were devoid of GFP-RabA1d. The accumulation of GFP-RabA1d in the core of brefeldin A (BFA)-induced-compartments and the quantitative upregulation of RabA1d protein levels after BFA treatment confirmed the association of RabA1d with early endosomes/TGN and its role in vesicle trafficking. Light-sheet microscopy revealed involvement of RabA1d in root development. In root cells, GFP-RabA1d followed cell plate expansion consistently with cytokinesis-related vesicular trafficking and membrane recycling. GFP-RabA1d accumulated in disc-like structures of nascent cell plates, which progressively evolved to marginal ring-like structures of the growing cell plates. During root hair growth and development, GFP-RabA1d was enriched at root hair bulges and at the apical dome of vigorously elongating root hairs. Importantly, GFP-RabA1d signal intensity exhibited an oscillatory behavior in-phase with tip growth. Progressively, this tip localization dissapeared in mature root hairs suggesting a link between tip localization of RabA1d and root hair elongation. Our results support a RabA1d role in events that require vigorous membrane trafficking.
RabA1d is located in early endosomes/TGN and is involved in vesicle trafficking. RabA1d participates in both cell plate formation and root hair oscillatory tip growth. The specific GFP-RabA1d subcellular localization confirms a correlation between its specific spatio-temporal accumulation and local vesicle trafficking requirements during cell plate and root hair formation.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12870-014-0252-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4180857  PMID: 25260869
Arabidopsis; Cell plate; Cytokinesis; Rab GTPase; Localization; RabA1d; Root hair; Trans-Golgi network; Vesicle
3.  Salt-induced subcellular kinase relocation and seedling susceptibility caused by overexpression of Medicago SIMKK in Arabidopsis  
Journal of Experimental Botany  2014;65(9):2335-2350.
This study revealed activation-dependent and coordinated relocation of Medicago sativa SIMKK and SIMK after salt stress. Arabidopsis seedlings stably overexpressing YFP-tagged SIMKK showed altered salt sensitivity and proteome changes.
Dual-specificity mitogen-activated protein kinases kinases (MAPKKs) are the immediate upstream activators of MAPKs. They simultaneously phosphorylate the TXY motif within the activation loop of MAPKs, allowing them to interact with and regulate multiple substrates. Often, the activation of MAPKs triggers their nuclear translocation. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics and the physiological consequences of the activation of MAPKs, particularly in plants, are still poorly understood. Here, we studied the activation and localization of the Medicago sativa stress-induced MAPKK (SIMKK)–SIMK module after salt stress. In the inactive state, SIMKK and SIMK co-localized in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Upon salt stress, however, a substantial part of the nuclear pool of both SIMKK and SIMK relocated to cytoplasmic compartments. The course of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SIMK correlated temporally with the dual phosphorylation of the pTEpY motif. SIMKK function was further studied in Arabidopsis plants overexpressing SIMKK–yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fusions. SIMKK–YFP plants showed enhanced activation of Arabidopsis MPK3 and MPK6 kinases upon salt treatment and exhibited high sensitivity against salt stress at the seedling stage, although they were salt insensitive during seed germination. Proteomic analysis of SIMKK–YFP overexpressors indicated the differential regulation of proteins directly or indirectly involved in salt stress responses. These proteins included catalase, peroxiredoxin, glutathione S-transferase, nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1, endoplasmic reticulum luminal-binding protein 2, and finally plasma membrane aquaporins. In conclusion, Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing SIMKK–YFP exhibited higher salt sensitivity consistent with their proteome composition and with the presumptive MPK3/MPK6 hijacking of the salt response pathway.
PMCID: PMC4036504  PMID: 24648569
Arabidopsis; MAPK; Medicago; proteomics; salt stress; SIMK; SIMKK; subcellular relocation.
4.  Wound-induced pectin methylesterases enhance banana (Musa spp. AAA) susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense  
Journal of Experimental Botany  2013;64(8):2219-2229.
Recent studies suggest that plant pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are directly involved in plant defence besides their roles in plant development. However, the molecular mechanisms of PME action on pectins are not well understood. In order to understand how PMEs modify pectins during banana (Musa spp.)–Fusarium interaction, the expression and enzyme activities of PMEs in two banana cultivars, highly resistant or susceptible to Fusarium, were compared with each other. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of PMEs and their effect on pectin methylesterification of 10 individual homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes with different degrees of methylesterification (DMs) were also examined. The results showed that, before pathogen treatment, the resistant cultivar displayed higher PME activity than the susceptible cultivar, corresponding well to the lower level of pectin DM. A significant increase in PME expression and activity and a decrease in pectin DM were observed in the susceptible cultivar but not in the resistant cultivar when plants were wounded, which was necessary for successful infection. With the increase of PME in the wounded susceptible cultivar, the JIM5 antigen (low methyestrified HGs) increased. Forty-eight hours after pathogen infection, the PME activity and expression in the susceptible cultivar were higher than those in the resistant cultivar, while the DM was lower. In conclusion, the resistant and the susceptible cultivars differ significantly in their response to wounding. Increased PMEs and thereafter decreased DMs acompanied by increased low methylesterified HGs in the root vascular cylinder appear to play a key role in determination of banana susceptibility to Fusarium.
PMCID: PMC3654420  PMID: 23580752
Banana (Musa spp.); degree of pectin methylesterification; Fusarium wilt; host–; pathogen interaction; pectin methylesterases; wound induced.
5.  Developmental Localization and Methylesterification of Pectin Epitopes during Somatic Embryogenesis of Banana (Musa spp. AAA) 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(8):e22992.
The plant cell walls play an important role in somatic embryogenesis and plant development. Pectins are major chemical components of primary cell walls while homogalacturonan (HG) is the most abundant pectin polysaccharide. Developmental regulation of HG methyl-esterification degree is important for cell adhesion, division and expansion, and in general for proper organ and plant development.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Developmental localization of pectic homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes and the (1→4)-β-D-galactan epitope of rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) and degree of pectin methyl-esterification (DM) were studied during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa spp. AAA). Histological analysis documented all major developmental stages including embryogenic cells (ECs), pre-globular, globular, pear-shaped and cotyledonary somatic embryos. Histochemical staining of extracellularly secreted pectins with ruthenium red showed the most intense staining at the surface of pre-globular, globular and pear-shaped somatic embryos. Biochemical analysis revealed developmental regulation of galacturonic acid content and DM in diverse embryogenic stages. Immunodots and immunolabeling on tissue sections revealed developmental regulation of highly methyl-esterified HG epitopes recognized by JIM7 and LM20 antibodies during somatic embryogenesis. Cell walls of pre-globular/globular and late-stage embryos contained both low methyl-esterified HG epitopes as well as partially and highly methyl-esterified ones. Extracellular matrix which covered surface of early developing embryos contained pectin epitopes recognized by 2F4, LM18, JIM5, JIM7 and LM5 antibodies. De-esterification of cell wall pectins by NaOH caused a decrease or an elimination of immunolabeling in the case of highly methyl-esterified HG epitopes. However, immunolabeling of some low methyl-esterified epitopes appeared stronger after this base treatment.
These data suggest that both low- and highly-methyl-esterified HG epitopes are developmentally regulated in diverse embryogenic stages during somatic embryogenesis. This study provides new information about pectin composition, HG methyl-esterification and developmental localization of pectin epitopes during somatic embryogenesis of banana.
PMCID: PMC3149637  PMID: 21826225
6.  Developmental localization and the role of hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa spp. AAA) 
BMC Plant Biology  2011;11:38.
Hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) are implicated to have a role in many aspects of plant growth and development but there is limited knowledge about their localization and function during somatic embryogenesis of higher plants. In this study, the localization and function of hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins in embryogenic cells (ECs) and somatic embryos of banana were investigated by using immunobloting and immunocytochemistry with monoclonal JIM11 and JIM20 antibodies as well as by treatment with 3,4-dehydro-L-proline (3,4-DHP, an inhibitor of extensin biosynthesis), and by immunomodulation with the JIM11 antibody.
Immunofluorescence labelling of JIM11 and JIM20 hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein epitopes was relatively weak in non-embryogenic cells (NECs), mainly on the edge of small cell aggregates. On the other hand, hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein epitopes were found to be enriched in early embryogenic cells as well as in various developmental stages of somatic embryos. Embryogenic cells (ECs), proembryos and globular embryos showed strong labelling of hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein epitopes, especially in their cell walls and outer surface layer, so-called extracellular matrix (ECM). This hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein signal at embryo surfaces decreased and/or fully disappeared during later developmental stages (e.g. pear-shaped and cotyledonary stages) of embryos. In these later developmental embryogenic stages, however, new prominent hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein labelling appeared in tri-cellular junctions among parenchymatic cells inside these embryos. Overall immunofluorescence labelling of late stage embryos with JIM20 antibody was weaker than that of JIM11. Western blot analysis supported the above immunolocalization data. The treatment with 3,4-DHP inhibited the development of embryogenic cells and decreased the rate of embryo germination. Embryo-like structures, which developed after 3,4-DHP treatment showed aberrant non-compact epidermis with discontinuous ECM at the outer surface as well as much less immunolabelling with the JIM11 antibody. This treatment also decreased the plant regeneration capacity in embryogenic banana cultures. Finally, immunomodulation of surface hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins by co-culture of embryos with the JIM11 antibody resulted in a much lower germination capacity of these embryos.
These results suggest that hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins play an important developmental role, especially in the process of regeneration and germination of embryos during plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis. Proper content and localization of hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins seem to be essential for the formation and regeneration of banana somatic embryos.
PMCID: PMC3048498  PMID: 21349190
7.  Disruption of actin filaments induces mitochondrial Ca2+ release to the cytoplasm and [Ca2+]c changes in Arabidopsis root hairs 
BMC Plant Biology  2010;10:53.
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that move along actin filaments, and serve as calcium stores in plant cells. The positioning and dynamics of mitochondria depend on membrane-cytoskeleton interactions, but it is not clear whether microfilament cytoskeleton has a direct effect on mitochondrial function and Ca2+ storage. Therefore, we designed a series of experiments to clarify the effects of actin filaments on mitochondrial Ca2+ storage, cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c), and the interaction between mitochondrial Ca2+ and cytoplasmic Ca2+ in Arabidopsis root hairs.
In this study, we found that treatments with latrunculin B (Lat-B) and jasplakinolide (Jas), which depolymerize and polymerize actin filaments respectively, decreased membrane potential and Ca2+ stores in the mitochondria of Arabidopsis root hairs. Simultaneously, these treatments induced an instantaneous increase of cytoplasmic Ca2+, followed by a continuous decrease. All of these effects were inhibited by pretreatment with cyclosporin A (Cs A), a representative blocker of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Moreover, we found there was a Ca2+ concentration gradient in mitochondria from the tip to the base of the root hair, and this gradient could be disrupted by actin-acting drugs.
Based on these results, we concluded that the disruption of actin filaments caused by Lat-B or Jas promoted irreversible opening of the mPTP, resulting in mitochondrial Ca2+ release into the cytoplasm, and consequent changes in [Ca2+]c. We suggest that normal polymerization and depolymerization of actin filaments are essential for mitochondrial Ca2+ storage in root hairs.
PMCID: PMC2923527  PMID: 20334630
8.  Actin Turnover Is Required for Myosin-Dependent Mitochondrial Movements in Arabidopsis Root Hairs 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(6):e5961.
Previous studies have shown that plant mitochondrial movements are myosin-based along actin filaments, which undergo continuous turnover by the exchange of actin subunits from existing filaments. Although earlier studies revealed that actin filament dynamics are essential for many functions of the actin cytoskeleton, there are little data connecting actin dynamics and mitochondrial movements.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We addressed the role of actin filament dynamics in the control of mitochondrial movements by treating cells with various pharmaceuticals that affect actin filament assembly and disassembly. Confocal microscopy of Arabidopsis thaliana root hairs expressing GFP-FABD2 as an actin filament reporter showed that mitochondrial distribution was in agreement with the arrangement of actin filaments in root hairs at different developmental stages. Analyses of mitochondrial trajectories and instantaneous velocities immediately following pharmacological perturbation of the cytoskeleton using variable-angle evanescent wave microscopy and/or spinning disk confocal microscopy revealed that mitochondrial velocities were regulated by myosin activity and actin filament dynamics. Furthermore, simultaneous visualization of mitochondria and actin filaments suggested that mitochondrial positioning might involve depolymerization of actin filaments on the surface of mitochondria.
Base on these results we propose a mechanism for the regulation of mitochondrial speed of movements, positioning, and direction of movements that combines the coordinated activity of myosin and the rate of actin turnover, together with microtubule dynamics, which directs the positioning of actin polymerization events.
PMCID: PMC2694364  PMID: 19536333
9.  A plastid-localized glycogen synthase kinase 3 modulates stress tolerance and carbohydrate metabolism 
The Plant Journal   2007;49(6):1076-1090.
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) was originally identified as a regulator of glycogen synthesis in mammals. Like starch in plants, glycogen is a polymer of glucose, and serves as an energy and carbon store. Starch is the main carbohydrate store in plants. Regulation of starch metabolism, in particular in response to environmental cues, is of primary importance for carbon and energy flow in plants but is still obscure. Here, we provide evidence that MsK4, a novel Medicago sativa GSK-3-like kinase, connects stress signalling with carbon metabolism. MsK4 was found to be a plastid-localized protein kinase that is associated with starch granules. High-salt stress rapidly induced the in vivo kinase activity of MsK4. Metabolic profiling of MsK4 over-expressor lines revealed changes in sugar metabolism, including increased amounts of maltose, the main degradation product of starch in leaves. Plants over-expressing MsK4 showed improved tolerance to salt stress. Moreover, under high-salinity conditions, MsK4-over-expressing plants accumulated significantly more starch and showed modified carbohydrate content compared with wild-type plants. Overall, these data indicate that MsK4 is an important regulator that adjusts carbohydrate metabolism to environmental stress.
PMCID: PMC1865003  PMID: 17319843
signal transduction; protein phosphorylation; starch

Results 1-9 (9)