Rice stripe virus (RSV), a tenuivirus, is transmitted by small brown planthopper (SBPH) in a persistent-propagative manner. In this study, sequential infection of RSV in the internal organs of SBPH after ingestion of virus indicated that RSV initially infected the midgut epithelium, and then progressed to the visceral muscle tissues, through which RSV spread to the entire alimentary canal. Finally, RSV spread into the salivary glands and reproductive system. During viral infection, the nonstructural protein NS4 of RSV formed cytoplasmic inclusions in various tissues of viruliferous SBPH. We demonstrated that the ribonucleoprotein particles of RSV were closely associated with NS4-specific inclusions in the body of viruliferous SBPH through a direct interaction between NS4 and nucleoprotein of RSV. Moreover, the knockdown of NS4 expression due to RNA interference induced by dsRNA from NS4 gene significantly prevented the spread of RSV in the bodies of SBPHs without a significant effect on viral replication in continuous cell culture derived from SBPH. All these results suggest that the nonstructural protein NS4 of RSV plays a critical role in viral spread by the vector insects.
Transporters in the choroid plexus (CP) regulate transport of numerous compounds of physiological and therapeutic interest between blood and CSF and thus likely play a key role in determining CNS levels of drugs, toxins and metabolites. Here, high CP expression was noted for the organic anion transporters, Oat1 (SLC22A6 or NKT) and Oat3 (SLC22A8) which are also the principal Oats in the renal proximal tubule, as well as SLC22A17, believed to be involved in iron transport. Because Oat1 and Oat3 have overlapping substrate specificity, ex vivo preparations of CP from Oat1(−/−) and Oat3(−/−) mice were used to isolate the individual transport function of each, respectively. Tissue from either knockout mouse mediated the probenecid-inhibitable transport of the Oat substrate, 6-carboxyfluorescein (6CF), confirming the presence of Oat1 and Oat3 function. Because many antiviral medications are Oat substrates, including those crucial in the treatment of HIV infections, the interaction of the antivirals zidovudine, acyclovir, tenofovir, lamivudine, and stavudine, with Oat1 and Oat3 in CP, was investigated by determining the inhibition of 6CF uptake. All the antivirals tested manifested significant interaction with both Oat1 and Oat3, with the exception of stavudine which did not significantly affect Oat1 function. These results could have important implications for antiretroviral (and other drugs) penetration into or retention within the CNS, a major reservoir for virus during HIV infection. Apart from any effect at the blood brain barrier (BBB), designing specific inhibitors of Oat1 and Oat3 may be helpful in altering CNS drug levels by blocking organic anion transporters in the CP. The ability of Oats to regulate the movement of small molecules across the BBB, CP, proximal tubule and other tissues may also be important for their hypothesized role in remote sensing and signaling (Ahn and Nigam, 2009; Wu et al., 2011).
organic anion transporter 1/NKT/Slc22a6; Choroid plexus; Probenecid; Cerebrospinal fluid; Blood brain barrier; Antivirals; Remote sensing and signaling hypothesis
LSD2/AOF1/KDM1b catalyzes demethylation of mono- and di-methylated H3K4 and plays an important role in transcriptional regulation and genomic imprinting. Here, we report the high-resolution crystal structures of apo-LSD2 and LSD2 in complex with a peptide that mimics H3K4me2. Three structural domains of LSD2, namely, the novel N-terminal zinc finger, the centrally located SWIRM domain, and the C-terminal oxidase domain, closely pack together to form a boot-shaped structure. The active site cavity in the oxidase domain is large enough to accommodate several residues of the histone H3 tail and cannot discriminate between the different states of H3K4 methylation. The N-terminal zinc-finger domain, composed of a novel C4H2C2-type zinc finger and a specific CW-type zinc finger, is required for demethylase activity and, surprisingly, the binding of cofactor flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). In fact, a relay of extensive interactions through the zinc finger-SWIRM-oxidase domains is required for LSD2 demethylase activity and the binding of FAD. These results reveal a novel mechanism for the zinc finger and SWIRM domains in controlling LSD2 demethylase activity and provide a framework for elucidating the regulation and function of LSD2.
LSD2; complex structures; C4H2C2 zinc finger; CW zinc finger; SWIRM; FAD; amine oxidase
Previous studies on the association of X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) Arg194Trp, Arg399Gln, and Arg280His polymorphisms with head and neck cancer (HNC) have produced inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of these three polymorphic variants on HNC risk.
The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for genetic association studies on the XRCC1 Arg194Trp, Arg399Gln, and Arg280His polymorphisms and HNC risk. (The most recent search was conducted on 20 August, 2013.) Twenty-six studies were identified and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between the polymorphism and HNC by calculating combined odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals.
No significant association was found under the allelic, homozygous, heterozygote, and dominant genetic models in the overall comparison. Further, no significant association between the XRCC1 Arg399Gln and Arg280His polymorphisms and HNC risk was detected under the four genetic models in subgroup analyses based on ethnicity, cancer site, and whether or not the studies had been adjusted for cigarette smoking and alcohol. However, in stratified analyses based on cancer site, a significant association was found between the XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism and oral cancer under the allelic, heterozygote, and dominant models. The XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism was significantly associated with HNC risk in studies that were adjusted for smoking and alcohol under the homozygous and heterozygote models.
The meta-analysis results suggest that the XRCC1 Arg399Gln and Arg280His polymorphisms are probably not associated with the risk of HNC, but the XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism was associated with increased risk of HNC in the subgroup analysis of studies adjusted for smoking and alcohol and with increased risk of oral cancer in the stratified analyses based on cancer site. Further studies with larger samples are needed to confirm these findings.
The continuing urbanization in China has resulted in a loss of land and rights among farmers. The social security of landless farmers has attracted considerable research attention. However, only few studies measure the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of landless farmers by employing scientific standardized scales. By using five-dimensional European quality of life (EQ-5D) scales, this study measures the HRQOL of landless farmers from a new perspective and examines how the social security policies affect their HRQOL.
This study is based on a 2013 household survey that has been conducted among 1,500 landless famers who are residing in six resettlement areas in three cities within the Yangtze River Delta region, namely, Nanjing, Hangzhou, and Yangzhou. This study adopts EQ-5D scales to measure the HRQOL of these farmers. More than 50% of the respondents are in poor or non-serious health conditions, and over 50% are not satisfied with their current social security policies. The health conditions and social security policies are analyzed by multinomial regression analysis and the relationship between these two factors are analyzed via structural equation modeling (SEM).
First, the descriptive statistical analysis shows that more than 50% of the respondents are in poor or non-serious health conditions, and that the largest proportion of these farmers are suffering from anxiety or depression, which is the most serious of the five dimensions. Second, multinomial regression analysis shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies improves their living conditions, particularly in their capacity for self-care, in their ability to perform daily activities, and in the reduction of pain, anxiety, and depression. Third, SEM model analysis shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies positively influences their HRQOL. Among the five dimensions of EQ-5D, daily activities produce the greatest influence on the HRQOL of landless farmers. As regards social security policies, the land acquisition compensation policy and the employment security policy produce the greatest and weakest influences on the HRQOL of landless farmers, respectively.
The rapid urbanization in China has deprived many farmers of their lands and of the benefits of urbanization. These farmers are often in a disadvantaged position in the land acquisition process. Statistic analysis in this paper shows that the satisfaction of landless farmers with their social security policies positively influences their HRQOL. The implementation and improvement of social security policies is very important for the long-term and sustainable development of these landless farmers.
Chinese landless farmers; Social security policy; HRQOL EQ-5D; SEM; Multinomial regression
The human body plays host to a vast array of bacteria, found in oral cavities, skin, gastrointestinal tract and the vagina. Some bacteria are harmful while others are beneficial to the host. Despite the availability of many methods to identify bacteria, most of them are only applicable to specific and cultivable bacteria and are also tedious. Based on high throughput sequencing technology, this work derives 16S rRNA sequences of bacteria and analyzes probiotics and pathogens species.
We constructed a database that recorded the species of probiotics and pathogens from literature, along with a modified Smith-Waterman algorithm for assigning the taxonomy of the sequenced 16S rRNA sequences. We also constructed a bacteria disease risk model for seven diseases based on 98 samples. Applicability of the proposed platform is demonstrated by collecting the microbiome in human gut of 13 samples.
The proposed platform provides a relatively easy means of identifying a certain amount of bacteria and their species (including uncultivable pathogens) for clinical microbiology applications. That is, detecting how probiotics and pathogens inhabit humans and how affect their health can significantly contribute to develop a diagnosis and treatment method.
Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurement is a useful diagnostic test of airway inflammation. However, there have been few studies of FENO in workers exposed to nanomaterials. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of nanoparticle (NP) exposure on FENO and to assess whether the FENO is increased in workers exposed to nanomaterials (NM). In this study, both exposed workers and non-exposed controls were recruited from NM handling plants in Taiwan. A total of 437 subjects (exposed group = 241, non-exposed group = 196) completed the FENO and spirometric measurements from 2009–2011. The authors used a control-banding (CB) matrix to categorize the risk level of each participant. In a multivariate linear regression analysis, this study found a significant association between risk level 2 of NP exposure and FENO. Furthermore, asthma, allergic rhinitis, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and NF-κB were also significantly associated with FENO. When the multivariate logistic regression model was adjusted for confounders, nano-TiO2 in all of the NM exposed categories had a significantly increased risk in FENO > 35 ppb. This study found associations between the risk level of NP exposure and FENO (particularly noteworthy for Nano-TiO2). Monitoring FENO in the lung could open up a window into the role nitric oxide (NO) may play in pathogenesis.
nanoparticles; nanomaterials; workers’s respiratory health; airway inflammation; Fractional exhaled nitric oxide; occupational epidemiology
A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) of subjects from Japan and South Korea reported a novel association between the TP63 locus on chromosome 3q28 and risk of lung adenocarcinoma (p = 7.3 × 10−12); however, this association did not achieve genome-wide significance (p < 10−7) among never-smoking males or females. To determine if this association with lung cancer risk is independent of tobacco use, we genotyped the TP63 SNPs reported by the previous GWAS (rs10937405 and rs4488809) in 3,467 never-smoking female lung cancer cases and 3,787 never-smoking female controls from 10 studies conducted in Taiwan, Mainland China, South Korea, and Singapore. Genetic variation in rs10937405 was associated with risk of lung adenocarcinoma [n = 2,529 cases; p = 7.1 × 10−8; allelic risk = 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.74–0.87]. There was also evidence of association with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (n = 302 cases; p = 0.037; allelic risk = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.67–0.99). Our findings provide strong evidence that genetic variation in TP63 is associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma among Asian females in the absence of tobacco smoking.
Transcription factor binding site (TFBS) identification plays an important role in deciphering gene regulatory codes. With comprehensive knowledge of TFBSs, one can understand molecular mechanisms of gene regulation. In the recent decades, various computational approaches have been proposed to predict TFBSs in the genome. The TFBS dataset of a TF generated by each algorithm is a ranked list of predicted TFBSs of that TF, where top ranked TFBSs are statistically significant ones. However, whether these statistically significant TFBSs are functional (i.e. biologically relevant) is still unknown. Here we develop a post-processor, called the functional propensity calculator (FPC), to assign a functional propensity to each TFBS in the existing computationally predicted TFBS datasets. It is known that functional TFBSs reveal strong positional preference towards the transcriptional start site (TSS). This motivates us to take TFBS position relative to the TSS as the key idea in building our FPC. Based on our calculated functional propensities, the TFBSs of a TF in the original TFBS dataset could be reordered, where top ranked TFBSs are now the ones with high functional propensities. To validate the biological significance of our results, we perform three published statistical tests to assess the enrichment of Gene Ontology (GO) terms, the enrichment of physical protein-protein interactions, and the tendency of being co-expressed. The top ranked TFBSs in our reordered TFBS dataset outperform the top ranked TFBSs in the original TFBS dataset, justifying the effectiveness of our post-processor in extracting functional TFBSs from the original TFBS dataset. More importantly, assigning functional propensities to putative TFBSs enables biologists to easily identify which TFBSs in the promoter of interest are likely to be biologically relevant and are good candidates to do further detailed experimental investigation. The FPC is implemented as a web tool at http://santiago.ee.ncku.edu.tw/FPC/.
During the development of the vertebrate nervous system, neural progenitors divide, generate progeny that exit mitosis, and then migrate to sites where they elaborate specific morphologies and synaptic connections. Mitotic exit in neurons is accompanied by an essential switch in ATP-dependent chromatin regulatory complexes from the neural progenitor Brg/Brm-associated factor (npBAF) to neuron-specific nBAF complexes that is in part driven by miR-9/9* and miR-124. Recapitulating this microRNA/chromatin switch in fibroblasts leads to their direct conversion to neurons. We have defined the kinetics of neuron-specific BAF complex assembly in the formation of induced neurons from mouse embryonic stem cells, human fibroblasts, and normal mouse neural differentiation and, using proteomic analysis, found that this switch also includes the removal of SS18 and its replacement by CREST at mitotic exit. We found that switching of chromatin remodeling mechanisms is highly correlated with a broad switch in the use of neurogenic transcription factors. Knock-down of SS18 in neural stem cells causes cell-cycle exit and failure to self-renew, whereas continued expression of SS18 in neurons blocks dendritic outgrowth, underlining the importance of subunit switching. Because dominant mutations in BAF subunits underlie widely different human neurologic diseases arising in different neuronal types, our studies suggest that the characteristics of these diseases must be interpreted in the context of the different BAF assemblies in neurons rather than a singular mammalian SWItch/sucrose nonfermentable (mSWI/SNF) complex.
Signaling by transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β) is critical for various developmental processes and culminates in the activation of the transcription factors Smad2 and Smad3. MAN1, an integral protein of the inner nuclear membrane, inhibits TGF-β signalling by binding to Smad2 and Smad3. Depletion of the gene LEMD3 encoding MAN1 leads to developmental anomalies in mice, and heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in LEMD3 in humans cause sclerosing bone dysplasia. We modeled the three-dimensional structure of the MAN1-Smad2 complex from nuclear magnetic resonance and small angle x-ray scattering data. As predicted by this model, we found that MAN1 competed in vitro and in cells with the transcription factor FAST1 (forkhead activin signal transducer 1) for binding to Smad2. The model further predicted that MAN1 bound to activated Smad2-Smad4 or Smad3-Smad4 complexes, which was confirmed by in vitro experiments; however, in cells, MAN1 bound only to Smad2 and Smad3, and not to the Smad4-containing complexes. Overexpression of MAN1 led to dephosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3, thus hindering their recognition by Smad4, and MAN1 bound directly in vitro to the phosphatase PPM1A, which catalyzes the dephosphorylation of Smad2/3. These results demonstrate a nuclear envelope-localized mechanism of inactivating TGF-β signaling in which MAN1 competes with transcription factors for binding to Smad2 and Smad3 and facilitates their dephosphorylation by PPM1A.
The P2X7 receptor regulates cell growth through mediation of apoptosis. Low level expression of P2X7 has been linked to cancer development because tumor cells harboring a defective P2X7 mechanism can escape P2X7 pro-apoptotic control. microRNAs (miRNAs) function as negative regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression, playing major roles in cellular differentiation, proliferation, and metastasis. In this study, we found that miR-150 was over-expressed in breast cancer cell lines and tissues. In these breast cancer cell lines, blocking the action of miR-150 with inhibitors leads to cell death, while ectopic expression of the miR-150 results in increased cell proliferation. We deploy a microRNA sponge strategy to inhibit miR-150 in vitro, and the result demonstrates that the 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR) of P2X7 receptor contains a highly conserved miR-150-binding motif and its direct interaction with miR-150 down-regulates endogenous P2X7 protein levels. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that miR-150 over-expression promotes growth, clonogenicity and reduces apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Meanwhile, these findings can be decapitated in nude mice with breast cancer xenografts. Finally, these observations strengthen our working hypothesis that up-regulation of miR-150 in breast cancer is inversely associated with P2X7 receptor expression level. Together, these findings establish miR-150 as a novel regulator of P2X7 and a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel bunyavirus (SFTSV). Lack of vaccines and inadequate therapeutic treatments have made the spread of the virus a global concern. Viral nucleocapsid protein (N) is essential for its transcription and replication. Here, we present the crystal structures of N from SFTSV and its homologs from Buenaventura (BUE) and Granada (GRA) viruses. The structures reveal that phleboviral N folds into a compact core domain and an extended N-terminal arm that mediates oligomerization, such as tetramer, pentamer, and hexamer of N assemblies. Structural superimposition indicates that phleboviral N adopts a conserved architecture and uses a similar RNA encapsidation strategy as that of RVFV-N. The RNA binding cavity runs along the inner edge of the ring-like assembly. A triple mutant of SFTSV-N, R64D/K67D/K74D, almost lost its ability to bind RNA in vitro, is deficient in its ability to transcribe and replicate. Structural studies of the mutant reveal that both alterations in quaternary assembly and the charge distribution contribute to the loss of RNA binding. In the screening of inhibitors Suramin was identified to bind phleboviral N specifically. The complex crystal structure of SFTSV-N with Suramin was refined to a 2.30-Å resolution. Suramin was found sitting in the putative RNA binding cavity of SFTSV-N. The inhibitory effect of Suramin on SFTSV replication was confirmed in Vero cells. Therefore, a common Suramin-based therapeutic approach targeting SFTSV-N and its homologs could be developed for containing phleboviral outbreaks.
Chitosan oligomers (COS) were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis and H2O2 oxidative treatment, and then separated into different fractions using ultra-filtration membranes. Each COSM fraction prepared using enzymatic hydrolysis retained its structure, especially the reduced end residue (−NH2 group), and had a peak for molecular weight. On the other hand, each COSH fraction prepared by oxidative treatment had partly damaged −NH2 groups and two peaks for molecular weight. These results indicate that the same COS fractions prepared by the two methods differ in their amino groups and in their molecular weights, though they can both pass through the same size ultra-filtration membrane. The effect of COS on the retrogradation of intermediate amylose rice starch (IA-RS) was also investigated. The 5 k < COSM < 10 k fraction had the best anti-retrogradation ability; the retrogradation ratio of IA-RS with this fraction was reduced by 14.5%, compared to the control, and its relative crystallinity was only 59.69%. 10 k < COSM < 30 k fraction was second best, while the COSM < 5 k fraction had no effect. Therefore, the molecular size of COS determined its anti-retrogradation capability. All COSH fractions from oxidative treatment had no effect on the retrogradation.
Intermediate amylose rice starch (IA-RS); Retrogradation; Chitosan oligomers (COS); Enzymatic hydrolysis; H2O2 oxidative treatment
Oligozoospermia is one of the severe forms of idiopathic male infertility. However, its pathology is largely unknown, and few genetic factors have been defined. Our previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) has identified four risk loci for non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA).
To investigate the potentially functional genetic variants (including not only common variants, but also less-common and rare variants) of these loci on spermatogenic impairment, especially oligozoospermia.
Design, Setting, and Participants
A total of 784 individuals with oligozoospermia and 592 healthy controls were recruited to this study from March 2004 and January 2011.
We conducted a two-stage study to explore the association between oligozoospermia and new makers near NOA risk loci. In the first stage, we used next generation sequencing (NGS) in 96 oligozoospermia cases and 96 healthy controls to screen oligozoospermia-susceptible genetic variants. Next, we validated these variants in a large cohort containing 688 cases and 496 controls by SNPscan for high-throughput Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) genotyping.
Results and Limitations
Totally, we observed seven oligozoospermia associated variants (rs3791185 and rs2232015 in PRMT6, rs146039840 and rs11046992 in Sox5, rs1129332 in PEX10, rs3197744 in SIRPA, rs1048055 in SIRPG) in the first stage. In the validation stage, rs3197744 in SIRPA and rs11046992 in Sox5 were associated with increased risk of oligozoospermia with an odds ratio (OR) of 4.62 (P = 0.005, 95%CI 1.58-13.4) and 1.82 (P = 0.005, 95%CI 1.01-1.64), respectively. Further investigation in larger populations and functional characterizations are needed to validate our findings.
Our study provides evidence of independent oligozoospermia risk alleles driven by variants in the potentially functional regions of genes discovered by GWAS. Our findings suggest that integrating sequence data with large-scale genotyping will serve as an effective strategy for discovering risk alleles in the future.
The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of dental caries in elderly population in northeast China.
A community-based, cross-sectional study among 2376 elderly subjects (age: 65–74 years) from nine urban areas and nine rural areas in three provinces of northeast China was conducted using multistage stratified random sampling per the World Health Organization oral health survey methodology. Decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed-filled teeth (DFT) indices were used to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries. Face-to-face questionnaire survey on oral health was performed in a randomly selected subset (n = 1197). T test and chi square test were employed to compare groups for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs).
67.5% of elderly subjects reported dental caries (average DFT = 2.68±3.40), and the prevalence was higher in urban areas (P<0.01). Missing teeth accounted for 80.72% of DMFT, and filled teeth due to caries accounted for 2.08% with a rate higher in urban areas (P<0.01). Logistic regression analysis indicated significant association among elderly population in urban areas (OR 1.713; 95% CI 1.337–2.195), smoking (OR 1.779; 95% CI 1.384–2.288), and individuals without dental insurance (OR 2.050; 95% CI 1.120–3.754) with dental caries.
The prevalence of dental caries in the elderly population in northeast China is high. The elderly from urban areas who smoke and who do not have a dental insurance are at a higher risk to develop dental caries.
Cholesterol is one of the major lipid components of the plasma membrane in mammalian cells and is involved in the regulation of a number of ion channels. The present study investigates how large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels are regulated by membrane cholesterol in BK-HEK 293 cells expressing both the α-subunit hKCa1.1 and the auxiliary β1-subunit or in hKCa1.1-HEK 293 cells expressing only the α-subunit hKCa1.1 using approaches of electrophysiology, molecular biology, and immunocytochemistry. Membrane cholesterol was depleted in these cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), and enriched with cholesterol-saturated MβCD (MβCD-cholesterol) or low-density lipoprotein (LDL). We found that BK current density was decreased by cholesterol enrichment in BK-HEK 293 cells, with a reduced expression of KCa1.1 protein, but not the β1-subunit protein. This effect was fully countered by the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin or the lysosome function inhibitor bafilomycin A1. Interestingly, in hKCa1.1-HEK 293 cells, the current density was not affected by cholesterol enrichment, but directly decreased by MβCD, suggesting that the down-regulation of BK channels by cholesterol depends on the auxiliary β1-subunit. The reduced KCa1.1 channel protein expression was also observed in cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells with cholesterol enrichment using MβCD-cholesterol or LDL. These results demonstrate the novel information that cholesterol down-regulates BK channels by reducing KCa1.1 protein expression via increasing the channel protein degradation, and the effect is dependent on the auxiliary β1-subunit.
Studies over the last decade using FM dyes to label vesicles at many terminals, including the calyx-type nerve terminal, led to a well-accepted ‘principle’ that only a small fraction of vesicles (~5-20%) participate in recycling under physiological conditions. This ‘principle’ imposes a large challenge in maintaining synaptic transmission during repetitive firing, because the small recycling pool may limit the number of available vesicles for release and nerve terminals would have to distinguish the recycling pool from the reserve pool and keep reserve pool vesicles from being used. By recording the presynaptic capacitance changes and the postsynaptic EPSC at rat calyx of Held synapses in the absence or presence of transmitter glutamate in nerve terminals, we developed a new method to count functional recycling vesicles. We found that essentially all vesicles in calyces participated in recycling, challenging the small-recycling-pool ‘principle’ established by FM dye labeling. Nerve terminals may utilize all available vesicles to maximize their ability in maintaining synaptic transmission during repetitive firing.
A critical element in theoretical characterization of the mechanism of proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions, including hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), is the formulation of the electron and proton localized diabatic states, based on which a More O’Ferrall-Jencks diagram can be represented to determine the step-wise and concerted nature of the reaction. Although the More O’Ferrall-Jencks diabatic states have often been used empirically to develop theoretical models for PCET reactions, the potential energy surfaces for these states have never been determined directly based on first principles calculations using electronic structure theory. The difficulty is due to a lack of practical method to constrain electron and proton localized diabatic states in wave function or density functional theory calculations. Employing a multistate density functional theory (MSDFT), in which the electron and proton localized diabatic configurations are constructed through block-localization of Kohn-Sham orbitals, we show that distinction between concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET) and HAT, which are not distinguishable experimentally from phenomenological kinetic data, can be made by examining the third dimension of a More O’Ferrall-Jencks diagram that includes both the ground and excited state potential surfaces. In addition, we formulate a pair of effective two-state valence bond models to represent the CPET and HAT mechanisms. We found that the lower energy of the CPET and HAT effective diabatic states at the intersection point can be used as an energetic criterion to distinguish the two mechanisms. In the isoelectronic series of hydrogen exchange reaction in (PhX)2H•, where X = O, NH, and CH2, there is a continuous transition from a CPET mechanism for the phenoxy radical-phenol pair to a HAT process for benzyl radical and toluene, while the reaction between PhNH2 and PhNH• has a mechanism intermediate of CPET and HAT. The electronically nonadiabatic nature of the CPET mechanism in the phenol system can be attributed to the overlap interactions between the ground and excited state surfaces, resulting in roughly orthogonal minimum energy paths on the adiabatic ground and excited state potential energy surfaces. On the other hand, the minimum energy path on the adiabatic ground state for the HAT mechanism coincides with that on the excited state, producing a large electronic coupling that separates the two surfaces by more than 120 kcal/mol.
Hepatocyte Annexin A2 (ANXA2) expression is associated with the progression and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Circulating ANXA2 levels in HCC patients are significantly higher compared with that of patients with benign liver disease. ANXA2 levels have been found to correlate with hepatitis B virus infection, extrahepatic metastasis and portal vein thrombus. By contrast, ANXA2 levels do not correlate with tumour size and AFP levels. However, the underlying mechanisms of ANXA2 remain obscure. The results of the current study identified that abnormalities in hepatic ANXA2 expression were localised to the cell membrane and cytoplasm of HCC tissues and mainly in the cytoplasm of para-cancerous tissues. ANXA2 was overexpressed in MHCC97-H cells which have high metastatic potential. Following specific ANXA2-small hairpin RNA (shRNA) transfection in vitro, ANXA-2 was effectively inhibited and the S phase ratio of cells was 27.76%, compared with 36.14% in mock-treated cells. In addition, the invading cell ratio was reduced in the shRNA-treated group (52.16%) compared with the mock-treated group (86.14%). The growth and volume of xenograft tumours in vivo was significantly suppressed (P<0.05) in the shRNA group compared with that of the mock group, indicating that ANXA2 may be a novel and useful target for elucidating molecular mechanisms involving the proliferation and metastasis of HCC.
hepatocellular carcinoma; Annexin A2; upregulation; small hairpin RNA; hepatitis B virus; metastasis
Macrophages are rapidly conditioned by cognate and soluble signals to acquire phenotypes that deliver specific functions during inflammation, wound healing and angiogenesis. Whether inhibitory CD200R signaling regulates pro-angiogenic macrophage phenotypes with the potential to suppress ocular neovascularization is unknown. CD200R-deficient bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMΦ) were used to demonstrate that macrophages lacking this inhibitory receptor exhibit enhanced levels of Vegfa, Arg-1 and Il-1β when stimulated with PGE2 or RPE-conditioned (PGE2-enriched) media. Endothelial tube formation in HUVECs was increased when co-cultured with PGE2-conditioned CD200R−/− BMMΦ, and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization was enhanced in CD200R-deficient mice. In corroboration, signaling through CD200R results in the down-regulation of BMMΦ angiogenic and pro-inflammatory phenotypes. Translational potential of this pathway was investigated in the laser-induced model of choroidal neovascularization. Local delivery of a CD200R agonist mAb to target myeloid infiltrate alters macrophage phenotype and inhibits pro-angiogenic gene expression, which suppresses pathological angiogenesis and CNV development.
It was reported that IL-17 had been detected in the inflammatory infiltrates of patients with DM (dermatomyositis). In this study, we investigated the frequency of Th17 cells and the expression of microRNA-206 (miR-206) in DM patients. Firstly, we observed that the frequency of Th17 cells and the expression of transcription factors were increased significantly in the PBMCs of DM patients. Secondly, we found that there was a positive correlation between the percentages of Th17 cells and serum level of CK in DM patients. And the serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-1β, TGF-β, and IL-23, the important cytokines of Th17 differentiation, were increased in DM patients. It was predicted that Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is one of the multiple targets of miR-206. We detected the expression of miR-206 in DM patients, and it was decreased in the serum and PBMCs of DM patients. The augmented expression of KLF is accompanied by the attenuated expression of miR-206. Furthermore, a negative correlation between the percentages of Th17 cells and the expression of miR-206 in DM patients has been found. Taken together, these findings suggest the attenuated expression of miR-206, and the augmented frequency of Th17 cells in DM patients.
The grain weight of wheat is strongly influenced by filling. Polyamines (PA) are involved in regulating plant growth. However, the effects of PA on wheat grain filling and its mechanism of action are unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between PAs and hormones in the regulation of wheat grain filling. Three PAs, spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm), and putrescine (Put), were exogenously applied, and the grain filling characteristics and changes in endogenous PA and hormones, i.e., indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z) + zeatin riboside (ZR), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ETH) and gibberellin 1+4 (GAs), were quantified during wheat grain filling. Exogenous applications of Spd and Spm significantly increased the grain filling rate and weight, but exogenous Put had no significant effects on these measures. Exogenous Spd and Spm significantly increased the endogenous Spd, Spm, Z+ZR, ABA, and IAA contents and significantly decreased ETH evolution in grains. The endogenous Spd, Spm and Z+ZR contents were positively and significantly correlated with the grain filling rate and weight of wheat, and the endogenous ETH evolution was negatively and significantly correlated with the wheat grain filling rate and weight. Based upon these results, we concluded that PAs were involved in the balance of hormones that regulated the grain filling of wheat.