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1.  Research START: A Multi-Method Study of Barriers and Accelerators of Recruiting Research Participants 
Under-recruitment into clinical trials is a common and costly problem that undermines medical research. To better understand barriers to recruitment into clinical trials in our region, we conducted a multi-method descriptive study. We initially surveyed investigators who had conducted or were currently conducting studies that utilized an adult or pediatric clinical research center (n = 92). We then conducted focus groups and key informant interviews with investigators, coordinators, and other stakeholders in clinical and translational research (n = 32 individuals). Only 41% of respondents reported that they had or were successfully meeting recruitment goals and 24% of the closed studies actually met their targeted recruitment goals. Varied reasons were identified for poor recruitment but there was not a single investigator or study “phenotype” that predicted enrollment outcome. Investigators commonly recruited from their own practice or clinic, and 29% used a manual electronic medical record search. The majority of investigators would utilize a service that provides recruitment advice, including feasibility assessment and consultation, easier access to the electronic health record and assistance with institutional review board and other regulatory requirements. Our findings suggest potential benefits providing assistance across a range of services that can be individualized to the varied needs of clinical and translational investigators.
doi:10.1111/cts.12351
PMCID: PMC4753776  PMID: 26643413
2.  31st Annual Meeting and Associated Programs of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2016): part one 
Lundqvist, Andreas | van Hoef, Vincent | Zhang, Xiaonan | Wennerberg, Erik | Lorent, Julie | Witt, Kristina | Sanz, Laia Masvidal | Liang, Shuo | Murray, Shannon | Larsson, Ola | Kiessling, Rolf | Mao, Yumeng | Sidhom, John-William | Bessell, Catherine A. | Havel, Jonathan | Schneck, Jonathan | Chan, Timothy A. | Sachsenmeier, Eliot | Woods, David | Berglund, Anders | Ramakrishnan, Rupal | Sodre, Andressa | Weber, Jeffrey | Zappasodi, Roberta | Li, Yanyun | Qi, Jingjing | Wong, Philip | Sirard, Cynthia | Postow, Michael | Newman, Walter | Koon, Henry | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Callahan, Margaret K. | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Merghoub, Taha | Lum, Lawrence G. | Choi, Minsig | Thakur, Archana | Deol, Abhinav | Dyson, Gregory | Shields, Anthony | Haymaker, Cara | Uemura, Marc | Murthy, Ravi | James, Marihella | Wang, Daqing | Brevard, Julie | Monaghan, Catherine | Swann, Suzanne | Geib, James | Cornfeld, Mark | Chunduru, Srinivas | Agrawal, Sudhir | Yee, Cassian | Wargo, Jennifer | Patel, Sapna P. | Amaria, Rodabe | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Woodman, Scott | Hwu, Wen-Jen | Davies, Michael A. | Hwu, Patrick | Overwijk, Willem W. | Bernatchez, Chantale | Diab, Adi | Massarelli, Erminia | Segal, Neil H. | Ribrag, Vincent | Melero, Ignacio | Gangadhar, Tara C. | Urba, Walter | Schadendorf, Dirk | Ferris, Robert L. | Houot, Roch | Morschhauser, Franck | Logan, Theodore | Luke, Jason J. | Sharfman, William | Barlesi, Fabrice | Ott, Patrick A. | Mansi, Laura | Kummar, Shivaani | Salles, Gilles | Carpio, Cecilia | Meier, Roland | Krishnan, Suba | McDonald, Dan | Maurer, Matthew | Gu, Xuemin | Neely, Jaclyn | Suryawanshi, Satyendra | Levy, Ronald | Khushalani, Nikhil | Wu, Jennifer | Zhang, Jinyu | Basher, Fahmin | Rubinstein, Mark | Bucsek, Mark | Qiao, Guanxi | MacDonald, Cameron | Hylander, Bonnie | Repasky, Elizabeth | Chatterjee, Shilpak | Daenthanasanmak, Anusara | Chakraborty, Paramita | Toth, Kyle | Meek, Megan | Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth | Nishimura, Michael | Paulos, Chrystal | Beeson, Craig | Yu, Xuezhong | Mehrotra, Shikhar | Zhao, Fei | Evans, Kathy | Xiao, Christine | Holtzhausen, Alisha | Hanks, Brent A. | Scharping, Nicole | Menk, Ashley V. | Moreci, Rebecca | Whetstone, Ryan | Dadey, Rebekah | Watkins, Simon | Ferris, Robert | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Peled, Jonathan | Devlin, Sean | Staffas, Anna | Lumish, Melissa | Rodriguez, Kori Porosnicu | Ahr, Katya | Perales, Miguel | Giralt, Sergio | Taur, Ying | Pamer, Eric | van den Brink, Marcel R. M. | Jenq, Robert | Annels, Nicola | Pandha, Hardev | Simpson, Guy | Mostafid, Hugh | Harrington, Kevin | Melcher, Alan | Grose, Mark | Davies, Bronwyn | Au, Gough | Karpathy, Roberta | Shafren, Darren | Ricca, Jacob | Merghoub, Taha | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Zamarin, Dmitriy | Batista, Luciana | Marliot, Florence | Vasaturo, Angela | Carpentier, Sabrina | Poggionovo, Cécile | Frayssinet, Véronique | Fieschi, Jacques | Van den Eynde, Marc | Pagès, Franck | Galon, Jérôme | Hermitte, Fabienne | Smith, Sean G. | Nguyen, Khue | Ravindranathan, Sruthi | Koppolu, Bhanu | Zaharoff, David | Schvartsman, Gustavo | Bassett, Roland | McQuade, Jennifer L. | Haydu, Lauren E. | Davies, Michael A. | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Kline, Douglas | Chen, Xiufen | Fosco, Dominick | Kline, Justin | Overacre, Abigail | Chikina, Maria | Brunazzi, Erin | Shayan, Gulidanna | Horne, William | Kolls, Jay | Ferris, Robert L. | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Bruno, Tullia C. | Workman, Creg | Vignali, Dario | Adusumilli, Prasad S. | Ansa-Addo, Ephraim A | Li, Zihai | Gerry, Andrew | Sanderson, Joseph P. | Howe, Karen | Docta, Roslin | Gao, Qian | Bagg, Eleanor A. L. | Tribble, Nicholas | Maroto, Miguel | Betts, Gareth | Bath, Natalie | Melchiori, Luca | Lowther, Daniel E. | Ramachandran, Indu | Kari, Gabor | Basu, Samik | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Chagin, Karen | Pandite, Lini | Holdich, Tom | Amado, Rafael | Zhang, Hua | Glod, John | Bernstein, Donna | Jakobsen, Bent | Mackall, Crystal | Wong, Ryan | Silk, Jonathan D. | Adams, Katherine | Hamilton, Garth | Bennett, Alan D. | Brett, Sara | Jing, Junping | Quattrini, Adriano | Saini, Manoj | Wiedermann, Guy | Gerry, Andrew | Jakobsen, Bent | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Brewer, Joanna | Duong, MyLinh | Lu, An | Chang, Peter | Mahendravada, Aruna | Shinners, Nicholas | Slawin, Kevin | Spencer, David M. | Foster, Aaron E. | Bayle, J. Henri | Bergamaschi, Cristina | Ng, Sinnie Sin Man | Nagy, Bethany | Jensen, Shawn | Hu, Xintao | Alicea, Candido | Fox, Bernard | Felber, Barbara | Pavlakis, George | Chacon, Jessica | Yamamoto, Tori | Garrabrant, Thomas | Cortina, Luis | Powell, Daniel J. | Donia, Marco | Kjeldsen, Julie Westerlin | Andersen, Rikke | Westergaard, Marie Christine Wulff | Bianchi, Valentina | Legut, Mateusz | Attaf, Meriem | Dolton, Garry | Szomolay, Barbara | Ott, Sascha | Lyngaa, Rikke | Hadrup, Sine Reker | Sewell, Andrew Kelvin | Svane, Inge Marie | Fan, Aaron | Kumai, Takumi | Celis, Esteban | Frank, Ian | Stramer, Amanda | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wardell, Seth | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Goff, Stephanie L. | Zacharakis, Nikolaos | Assadipour, Yasmine | Prickett, Todd D. | Gartner, Jared J. | Somerville, Robert | Black, Mary | Xu, Hui | Chinnasamy, Harshini | Kriley, Isaac | Lu, Lily | Wunderlich, John | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven | Feldman, Steven A. | Trebska-McGowan, Kasia | Kriley, Isaac | Malekzadeh, Parisa | Payabyab, Eden | Sherry, Richard | Rosenberg, Steven | Goff, Stephanie L. | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Kopits, Charlene | Rabinovich, Brian | Lotze, Michael T. | Green, Daniel S. | Kamenyeva, Olena | Zoon, Kathryn C. | Annunziata, Christina M. | Hammill, Joanne | Helsen, Christopher | Aarts, Craig | Bramson, Jonathan | Harada, Yui | Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu | Helsen, Christopher | Hammill, Joanne | Mwawasi, Kenneth | Denisova, Galina | Bramson, Jonathan | Giri, Rajanish | Jin, Benjamin | Campbell, Tracy | Draper, Lindsey M. | Stevanovic, Sanja | Yu, Zhiya | Weissbrich, Bianca | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Trimble, Cornelia L. | Rosenberg, Steven | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Tsang, Kwong | Fantini, Massimo | Hodge, James W. | Fujii, Rika | Fernando, Ingrid | Jochems, Caroline | Heery, Christopher | Gulley, James | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Schlom, Jeffrey | Jing, Weiqing | Gershan, Jill | Blitzer, Grace | Weber, James | McOlash, Laura | Johnson, Bryon D. | Kiany, Simin | Gangxiong, Huang | Kleinerman, Eugenie S. | Klichinsky, Michael | Ruella, Marco | Shestova, Olga | Kenderian, Saad | Kim, Miriam | Scholler, John | June, Carl H. | Gill, Saar | Moogk, Duane | Zhong, Shi | Yu, Zhiya | Liadi, Ivan | Rittase, William | Fang, Victoria | Dougherty, Janna | Perez-Garcia, Arianne | Osman, Iman | Zhu, Cheng | Varadarajan, Navin | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Frey, Alan | Krogsgaard, Michelle | Landi, Daniel | Fousek, Kristen | Mukherjee, Malini | Shree, Ankita | Joseph, Sujith | Bielamowicz, Kevin | Byrd, Tiara | Ahmed, Nabil | Hegde, Meenakshi | Lee, Sylvia | Byrd, David | Thompson, John | Bhatia, Shailender | Tykodi, Scott | Delismon, Judy | Chu, Liz | Abdul-Alim, Siddiq | Ohanian, Arpy | DeVito, Anna Marie | Riddell, Stanley | Margolin, Kim | Magalhaes, Isabelle | Mattsson, Jonas | Uhlin, Michael | Nemoto, Satoshi | Villarroel, Patricio Pérez | Nakagawa, Ryosuke | Mule, James J. | Mailloux, Adam W. | Mata, Melinda | Nguyen, Phuong | Gerken, Claudia | DeRenzo, Christopher | Spencer, David M. | Gottschalk, Stephen | Mathieu, Mélissa | Pelletier, Sandy | Stagg, John | Turcotte, Simon | Minutolo, Nicholas | Sharma, Prannda | Tsourkas, Andrew | Powell, Daniel J. | Mockel-Tenbrinck, Nadine | Mauer, Daniela | Drechsel, Katharina | Barth, Carola | Freese, Katharina | Kolrep, Ulrike | Schult, Silke | Assenmacher, Mario | Kaiser, Andrew | Mullinax, John | Hall, MacLean | Le, Julie | Kodumudi, Krithika | Royster, Erica | Richards, Allison | Gonzalez, Ricardo | Sarnaik, Amod | Pilon-Thomas, Shari | Nielsen, Morten | Krarup-Hansen, Anders | Hovgaard, Dorrit | Petersen, Michael Mørk | Loya, Anand Chainsukh | Junker, Niels | Svane, Inge Marie | Rivas, Charlotte | Parihar, Robin | Gottschalk, Stephen | Rooney, Cliona M. | Qin, Haiying | Nguyen, Sang | Su, Paul | Burk, Chad | Duncan, Brynn | Kim, Bong-Hyun | Kohler, M. Eric | Fry, Terry | Rao, Arjun A. | Teyssier, Noam | Pfeil, Jacob | Sgourakis, Nikolaos | Salama, Sofie | Haussler, David | Richman, Sarah A. | Nunez-Cruz, Selene | Gershenson, Zack | Mourelatos, Zissimos | Barrett, David | Grupp, Stephan | Milone, Michael | Rodriguez-Garcia, Alba | Robinson, Matthew K. | Adams, Gregory P. | Powell, Daniel J. | Santos, João | Havunen, Riikka | Siurala, Mikko | Cervera-Carrascón, Víctor | Parviainen, Suvi | Antilla, Marjukka | Hemminki, Akseli | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Santiago, Laurelis | Chen, Jie Qing | Dai, Zhimin | Wardell, Seth | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Sha, Huizi | Su, Shu | Ding, Naiqing | Liu, Baorui | Stevanovic, Sanja | Pasetto, Anna | Helman, Sarah R. | Gartner, Jared J. | Prickett, Todd D. | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Bhatia, Shailender | Burgess, Melissa | Zhang, Hui | Lee, Tien | Klingemann, Hans | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Nghiem, Paul | Kirkwood, John M. | Rossi, John M. | Sherman, Marika | Xue, Allen | Shen, Yueh-wei | Navale, Lynn | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Kochenderfer, James N. | Bot, Adrian | Veerapathran, Anandaraman | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Stramer, Amanda | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wiener, Doris | Frank, Ian | Santiago, Laurelis | Rabinovich, Brian | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Waller, Edmund K. | Li, Jian-Ming | Petersen, Christopher | Blazar, Bruce R. | Li, Jingxia | Giver, Cynthia R. | Wang, Ziming | Grossenbacher, Steven K. | Sturgill, Ian | Canter, Robert J. | Murphy, William J. | Zhang, Congcong | Burger, Michael C. | Jennewein, Lukas | Waldmann, Anja | Mittelbronn, Michel | Tonn, Torsten | Steinbach, Joachim P. | Wels, Winfried S. | Williams, Jason B. | Zha, Yuanyuan | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Williams, LaTerrica C. | Krenciute, Giedre | Kalra, Mamta | Louis, Chrystal | Gottschalk, Stephen | Xin, Gang | Schauder, David | Jiang, Aimin | Joshi, Nikhil | Cui, Weiguo | Zeng, Xue | Menk, Ashley V. | Scharping, Nicole | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Zhao, Zeguo | Hamieh, Mohamad | Eyquem, Justin | Gunset, Gertrude | Bander, Neil | Sadelain, Michel | Askmyr, David | Abolhalaj, Milad | Lundberg, Kristina | Greiff, Lennart | Lindstedt, Malin | Angell, Helen K. | Kim, Kyoung-Mee | Kim, Seung-Tae | Kim, Sung | Sharpe, Alan D. | Ogden, Julia | Davenport, Anna | Hodgson, Darren R. | Barrett, Carl | Lee, Jeeyun | Kilgour, Elaine | Hanson, Jodi | Caspell, Richard | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ansari, Tameem | Schiller, Annemarie | Sundararaman, Srividya | Lehmann, Paul | Hanson, Jodi | Roen, Diana | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ayers, Mark | Levitan, Diane | Arreaza, Gladys | Liu, Fang | Mogg, Robin | Bang, Yung-Jue | O’Neil, Bert | Cristescu, Razvan | Friedlander, Philip | Wassman, Karl | Kyi, Chrisann | Oh, William | Bhardwaj, Nina | Bornschlegl, Svetlana | Gustafson, Michael P. | Gastineau, Dennis A. | Parney, Ian F. | Dietz, Allan B. | Carvajal-Hausdorf, Daniel | Mani, Nikita | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Schalper, Kurt | Rimm, David | Chang, Serena | Levy, Ronald | Kurland, John | Krishnan, Suba | Ahlers, Christoph Matthias | Jure-Kunkel, Maria | Cohen, Lewis | Maecker, Holden | Kohrt, Holbrook | Chen, Shuming | Crabill, George | Pritchard, Theresa | McMiller, Tracee | Pardoll, Drew | Pan, Fan | Topalian, Suzanne | Danaher, Patrick | Warren, Sarah | Dennis, Lucas | White, Andrew M. | D’Amico, Leonard | Geller, Melissa | Disis, Mary L. | Beechem, Joseph | Odunsi, Kunle | Fling, Steven | Derakhshandeh, Roshanak | Webb, Tonya J. | Dubois, Sigrid | Conlon, Kevin | Bryant, Bonita | Hsu, Jennifer | Beltran, Nancy | Müller, Jürgen | Waldmann, Thomas | Duhen, Rebekka | Duhen, Thomas | Thompson, Lucas | Montler, Ryan | Weinberg, Andrew | Kates, Max | Early, Brandon | Yusko, Erik | Schreiber, Taylor H. | Bivalacqua, Trinity J. | Ayers, Mark | Lunceford, Jared | Nebozhyn, Michael | Murphy, Erin | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Albright, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Kang, S. Peter | Shankaran, Veena | Piha-Paul, Sarina A. | Yearley, Jennifer | Seiwert, Tanguy | Ribas, Antoni | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Cristescu, Razvan | Mogg, Robin | Ayers, Mark | Albright, Andrew | Murphy, Erin | Yearley, Jennifer | Sher, Xinwei | Liu, Xiao Qiao | Nebozhyn, Michael | Lunceford, Jared | Joe, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Plimack, Elizabeth | Ott, Patrick A. | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Forrest-Hay, Alex | Guyre, Cheryl A. | Narumiya, Kohei | Delcommenne, Marc | Hirsch, Heather A. | Deshpande, Amit | Reeves, Jason | Shu, Jenny | Zi, Tong | Michaelson, Jennifer | Law, Debbie | Trehu, Elizabeth | Sathyanaryanan, Sriram | Hodkinson, Brendan P. | Hutnick, Natalie A. | Schaffer, Michael E. | Gormley, Michael | Hulett, Tyler | Jensen, Shawn | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Dubay, Christopher | Afentoulis, Michael | Reddy, Ashok | David, Larry | Fox, Bernard | Jayant, Kumar | Agrawal, Swati | Agrawal, Rajendra | Jeyakumar, Ghayathri | Kim, Seongho | Kim, Heejin | Silski, Cynthia | Suisham, Stacey | Heath, Elisabeth | Vaishampayan, Ulka | Vandeven, Natalie | Viller, Natasja Nielsen | O’Connor, Alison | Chen, Hui | Bossen, Bolette | Sievers, Eric | Uger, Robert | Nghiem, Paul | Johnson, Lisa | Kao, Hsiang-Fong | Hsiao, Chin-Fu | Lai, Shu-Chuan | Wang, Chun-Wei | Ko, Jenq-Yuh | Lou, Pei-Jen | Lee, Tsai-Jan | Liu, Tsang-Wu | Hong, Ruey-Long | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Landis, Benjamin J. | Koegler, Sally | Hirsch, Brooke | Gianani, Roberto | Kim, Jeffrey | He, Ming-Xiao | Zhang, Bingqing | Su, Nan | Luo, Yuling | Ma, Xiao-Jun | Park, Emily | Kim, Dae Won | Copploa, Domenico | Kothari, Nishi | doo Chang, Young | Kim, Richard | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Knaus, Hanna A. | Berglund, Sofia | Hackl, Hubert | Karp, Judith E. | Gojo, Ivana | Luznik, Leo | Hong, Henoch S. | Koch, Sven D. | Scheel, Birgit | Gnad-Vogt, Ulrike | Kallen, Karl-Josef | Wiegand, Volker | Backert, Linus | Kohlbacher, Oliver | Hoerr, Ingmar | Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola | Billingsley, James M. | Koguchi, Yoshinobu | Conrad, Valerie | Miller, William | Gonzalez, Iliana | Poplonski, Tomasz | Meeuwsen, Tanisha | Howells-Ferreira, Ana | Rattray, Rogan | Campbell, Mary | Bifulco, Carlo | Dubay, Christopher | Bahjat, Keith | Curti, Brendan | Urba, Walter | Vetsika, E-K | Kallergi, G. | Aggouraki, Despoina | Lyristi, Z. | Katsarlinos, P. | Koinis, Filippos | Georgoulias, V. | Kotsakis, Athanasios | Martin, Nathan T. | Aeffner, Famke | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Cerkovnik, Logan | Pratte, Luke | Kim, Rebecca | Hirsch, Brooke | Krueger, Joseph | Gianani, Roberto | Martínez-Usatorre, Amaia | Jandus, Camilla | Donda, Alena | Carretero-Iglesia, Laura | Speiser, Daniel E. | Zehn, Dietmar | Rufer, Nathalie | Romero, Pedro | Panda, Anshuman | Mehnert, Janice | Hirshfield, Kim M. | Riedlinger, Greg | Damare, Sherri | Saunders, Tracie | Sokol, Levi | Stein, Mark | Poplin, Elizabeth | Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna | Silk, Ann | Chan, Nancy | Frankel, Melissa | Kane, Michael | Malhotra, Jyoti | Aisner, Joseph | Kaufman, Howard L. | Ali, Siraj | Ross, Jeffrey | White, Eileen | Bhanot, Gyan | Ganesan, Shridar | Monette, Anne | Bergeron, Derek | Amor, Amira Ben | Meunier, Liliane | Caron, Christine | Morou, Antigoni | Kaufmann, Daniel | Liberman, Moishe | Jurisica, Igor | Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie | Hamzaoui, Kamel | Lapointe, Rejean | Mongan, Ann | Ku, Yuan-Chieh | Tom, Warren | Sun, Yongming | Pankov, Alex | Looney, Tim | Au-Young, Janice | Hyland, Fiona | Conroy, Jeff | Morrison, Carl | Glenn, Sean | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Gardner, Mark | Mongan, Ann | Omilian, Angela R. | Conroy, Jeff | Bshara, Wiam | Angela, Omilian | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Glenn, Sean | Morrison, Carl | Mongan, Ann | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Smolkin, Mark E. | Deacon, Donna H. | Patterson, James W. | Chen, Lieping | Bullock, Timothy N. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Deacon, Donna H. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Bullock, Timothy N. | Loffredo, John T. | Vuyyuru, Raja | Beyer, Sophie | Spires, Vanessa M. | Fox, Maxine | Ehrmann, Jon M. | Taylor, Katrina A. | Korman, Alan J. | Graziano, Robert F. | Page, David | Sanchez, Katherine | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Martel, Maritza | Bifulco, Carlo | Urba, Walter | Fox, Bernard | Patel, Sapna P. | De Macedo, Mariana Petaccia | Qin, Yong | Reuben, Alex | Spencer, Christine | Guindani, Michele | Bassett, Roland | Wargo, Jennifer | Racolta, Adriana | Kelly, Brian | Jones, Tobin | Polaske, Nathan | Theiss, Noah | Robida, Mark | Meridew, Jeffrey | Habensus, Iva | Zhang, Liping | Pestic-Dragovich, Lidija | Tang, Lei | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Logan, Theodore | Khushalani, Nikhil | Margolin, Kim | Koon, Henry | Olencki, Thomas | Hutson, Thomas | Curti, Brendan | Roder, Joanna | Blackmon, Shauna | Roder, Heinrich | Stewart, John | Amin, Asim | Ernstoff, Marc S. | Clark, Joseph I. | Atkins, Michael B. | Kaufman, Howard L. | Sosman, Jeffrey | Weber, Jeffrey | McDermott, David F. | Weber, Jeffrey | Kluger, Harriet | Halaban, Ruth | Snzol, Mario | Roder, Heinrich | Roder, Joanna | Asmellash, Senait | Steingrimsson, Arni | Blackmon, Shauna | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Wang, Chichung | Roman, Kristin | Clement, Amanda | Downing, Sean | Hoyt, Clifford | Harder, Nathalie | Schmidt, Guenter | Schoenmeyer, Ralf | Brieu, Nicolas | Yigitsoy, Mehmet | Madonna, Gabriele | Botti, Gerardo | Grimaldi, Antonio | Ascierto, Paolo A. | Huss, Ralf | Athelogou, Maria | Hessel, Harald | Harder, Nathalie | Buchner, Alexander | Schmidt, Guenter | Stief, Christian | Huss, Ralf | Binnig, Gerd | Kirchner, Thomas | Sellappan, Shankar | Thyparambil, Sheeno | Schwartz, Sarit | Cecchi, Fabiola | Nguyen, Andrew | Vaske, Charles | Hembrough, Todd
Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer  2016;4(Suppl 1):1-106.
doi:10.1186/s40425-016-0172-7
PMCID: PMC5123387
3.  A National Multicenter Phase 2 Study of Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Pox Virus Vaccine with Sequential Androgen Ablation Therapy in Patients with PSA Progression: ECOG 9802 
European urology  2014;68(3):365-371.
Background
E9802 was a phase 2 multi-institution study conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of vaccinia and fowlpox prostate-specific antigen (PSA) vaccine (step 1) followed by combination with androgen ablation therapy (step 2) in patients with PSA progression without visible metastasis.
Objective
To test the hypothesis that vaccine therapy in this early disease setting will be safe and have a biochemical effect that would support future studies of immunotherapy in patients with minimal disease burden.
Design, setting, and participants
Patients had PSA progression following local therapy were treated with PROSTVAC-V (vaccinia)/TRICOM on cycle 1 followed by PROSTVAC-F (fowlpox)/TRICOM for subsequent cycles in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (step 1). Androgen ablation was added on progression (step 2).
Outcome measurements and statistical analysis
Step 1 primary end points included progression at 6 mo and characterization of change in PSA velocity pretreatment to post-treatment. Step 2 end points included PSA response with combined vaccine and androgen ablation.
Results and limitations
In step 1, 25 of 40 eligible patients (63%) were progression free at 6 mo after registration (90% confidence interval [CI], 48–75). The median pretreatment PSA velocity was 0.13 log(PSA)/mo, in contrast to median postregistration velocity of 0.09 log(PSA)/mo (p = 0.02), which is an increase in median PSA doubling time from 5.3 mo to 7.7 mo. No grade ≥4 treatment-related toxicity was observed. In the 27 patients eligible and treated for step 2, 20 patients achieved a complete response (CR) at 7 mo (CR rate: 74%; 90% CI, 57–87). Although supportive of larger studies in the cooperative group setting, this study is limited by the small number of patients and the absence of a control group as in a phase 3 study.
Conclusions
A viral PSA vaccine can be administered safely in the multi-institutional cooperative group setting to patients with minimal disease volume alone and combined with androgen ablation, supporting the feasibility of future phase 3 studies in this population.
Patient summary
These data support consideration of vaccine therapy earlier in the course of prostate cancer progression with minimal disease burden in clinical practice and future studies of vaccine approaches in earlier stages of disease.
doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2014.12.010
PMCID: PMC4472612  PMID: 25533418
Prostate cancer; Pox virus; Vaccine; PSA
4.  Immune activation and response to pembrolizumab in POLE-mutant endometrial cancer 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  null;126(6):2334-2340.
Antibodies that target the immune checkpoint receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) have resulted in prolonged and beneficial responses toward a variety of human cancers. However, anti–PD-1 therapy in some patients provides no benefit and/or results in adverse side effects. The factors that determine whether patients will be drug sensitive or resistant are not fully understood; therefore, genomic assessment of exceptional responders can provide important insight into patient response. Here, we identified a patient with endometrial cancer who had an exceptional response to the anti–PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab. Clinical grade targeted genomic profiling of a pretreatment tumor sample from this individual identified a mutation in DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE) that associated with an ultramutator phenotype. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) revealed that the presence of POLE mutation associates with high mutational burden and elevated expression of several immune checkpoint genes. Together, these data suggest that cancers harboring POLE mutations are good candidates for immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy.
doi:10.1172/JCI84940
PMCID: PMC4887167  PMID: 27159395
5.  Efficacy, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics of a Novel Human Immune Globulin Subcutaneous, 20 % in Patients with Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases in North America 
Journal of Clinical Immunology  2016;36(7):700-712.
Patients with primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD) typically require life-long intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) immunoglobulin (Ig) replacement therapy to prevent recurrent infections. The efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of a highly concentrated (20 %) Ig preparation for SC administration (IGSC 20 %) were evaluated in a prospective trial in patients with PIDD. A total of 74 patients (aged 3–83 years) received 4327 IGSC 20 % infusions over a median of 380.5 days. The rate of validated serious bacterial infections was 0.012 event/patient-year (p < 0.0001 compared with the historical control), and the annualized rate of infection was 2.41 events/patient. Median IgG trough levels were >14.5 g/l. The median maximum infusion rate was 60 ml/h/site (range 4.4–180), resulting in a median infusion duration of 0.95 h. A volume ≥30 ml was infused per site in 74.8 % of IGSC 20 % infusions. Most (84.9 %) infusions were administered using ≤2 infusion sites; for 99.8 % of infusions, there was no need to interrupt/stop administration or reduce the infusion rate. No related serious adverse event (AE) occurred during IGSC 20 % treatment; related non-serious AEs occurred at a rate of 0.036 event/infusion. The incidence of related local AEs was 0.015 event/infusion and of related systemic AEs was 0.021 event/infusion; most were mild in severity, none severe. Increased infusion rates or volumes were not associated with higher AE rates. The investigated IGSC 20 % treatment was shown to be effective and safe, enabling higher infusion rates and volumes per site compared to conventional SC treatments, resulting in fewer infusion sites and shorter infusion durations.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10875-016-0327-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s10875-016-0327-9
PMCID: PMC5018260  PMID: 27582171
Primary immunodeficiency diseases; Immunoglobulin replacement therapy; Subcutaneous administration; 20 % immunoglobulin; Pharmacokinetics
6.  Feedback associated with expectation for larger-reward improves visuospatial working memory performances in children with ADHD 
We tested the interactive effect of feedback and reward on visuospatial working memory in children with ADHD. Seventeen boys with ADHD and 17 Normal Control (NC) boys underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing four visuospatial 2-back tasks that required monitoring the spatial location of letters presented on a display. Tasks varied in reward size (large; small) and feedback availability (no-feedback; feedback). While the performance of NC boys was high in all conditions, boys with ADHD exhibited higher performance (similar to those of NC boys) only when they received feedback associated with large-reward. Performance pattern in both groups was mirrored by neural activity in an executive function neural network comprised of few distinct frontal brain regions. Specifically, neural activity in the left and right middle frontal gyri of boys with ADHD became normal-like only when feedback was available, mainly when feedback was associated with large-reward. When feedback was associated with small-reward, or when large-reward was expected but feedback was not available, boys with ADHD exhibited altered neural activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula. This suggests that contextual support normalizes activity in executive brain regions in children with ADHD, which results in improved working memory.
doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2015.06.002
PMCID: PMC4536089  PMID: 26142072
ADHD; Executive functions; Feedback processing; Reward processing; Working Memory
7.  Personalized Treatment of Mothers with ADHD and Their Young At-Risk Children: A SMART Pilot 
Rationale
Young children of mothers with adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for ADHD by virtue of genetics and environmental factors. Moreover, parent ADHD is associated with maladaptive parenting and poor child behavioral treatment response. Thus, a combined approach consisting of behavioral parent training (BPT) and maternal stimulant medication (MSM) may be needed to effectively treat ADHD within families. However, providing combined BPT+MSM initially to all families may be unnecessarily burdensome since not all families likely need combined treatment. The purpose of this study is to examine how to combine, sequence, and personalize treatment for these multiplex families in order to yield benefits to both the parent and child, thereby impacting the course of child ADHD and disruptive behavior symptoms.
Study Design and Preliminary Experiences
This paper presents our rationale for, design of, and preliminary experiences (based on N = 26 participants) with an ongoing pilot Sequential Multiple Assessment Randomized Trial (SMART) designed to answer questions regarding the feasibility and acceptability of study protocols and interventions. This manuscript also describes how the subsequent full-scale SMART might change based on what is learned in the SMART pilot, and illustrates how the full-scale SMART could be used to inform clinical decision making about how to combine, sequence, and personalize treatment for complex children and families in which a parent has ADHD.
doi:10.1080/15374416.2015.1102069
PMCID: PMC4930389  PMID: 26799502
adaptive interventions; parent ADHD; parent training
8.  Efficacy, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics of a New 10 % Liquid Intravenous Immunoglobulin Containing High Titer Neutralizing Antibody to RSV and Other Respiratory Viruses in Subjects with Primary Immunodeficiency Disease 
Purpose
Immune globulins for IgG supplementation have been produced for over 35 years with essentially no differentiating features regarding their specific antibody composition. Furthermore, the compositions of plasma donor pools used for IG manufacturing are not standardized. While all immune globulin products meet the specifications set by the US FDA for antibodies to pathogens like measles and polio, they have variable levels of antibodies to other important viruses and infectious pathogens, particularly respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).
Methods
An IVIG was developed that satisfies the requirements for treating patients with primary immune deficiency disease (PIDD) and also has standardized elevated levels of RSV neutralizing antibodies (RI-002). Plasma donors who have naturally occurring high circulating levels of neutralizing anti-RSV antibody were selected as the source for manufacturing IVIG to treat patients with PIDD to prevent serious bacterial infections. While the introduction of the monoclonal antibody Palivizumab has had a dramatic impact in diminishing the burden of RSV disease in the pediatric population, it does not meet the standards for replacing the deficient immune compartments of patients with PIDD.
Results
Fifty-nine patients with PIDD at 9 different sites across the US were enrolled in this study and received regular infusions of RI-002 over the course of 1 year.
Conclusions
There were zero serious bacterial infections, thus meeting the primary endpoint for this trial. The secondary endpoints including days missed from work due to infection, unscheduled visits to the physician, and days of hospitalization due to infection compared favorably to published reports of other IVIG products.
doi:10.1007/s10875-016-0308-z
PMCID: PMC4940435  PMID: 27324887
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG); primary immunodeficiency (PIDD); clinical trial; safety; efficacy; pharmacokinetics
9.  Long-Term Tolerability, Safety, and Efficacy of Recombinant Human Hyaluronidase-Facilitated Subcutaneous Infusion of Human Immunoglobulin for Primary Immunodeficiency 
Purpose
Treatment of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD) with subcutaneous (SC) infusions of IgG preceded by injection of recombinant human hyaluronidase (rHuPH20) (IGHy) to increase SC tissue permeability was evaluated in two consecutive, prospective, non-controlled, multi-center studies.
Methods
Subjects >4 years of age received SC IgG replacement at a weekly dose equivalent of 108 % of their previous intravenous (IV) dose, facilitated by prior injection of 75 U/g IgG of rHuPH20. Starting with weekly SC infusions, the interval was increased (ramped-up) to a 3- or 4-week schedule.
Results
Eighty-three subjects (24 < 18 years; 59 ≥ 18 years) received 2729 infusions (excluding ramp-up) at a mean dose of 0.155 g/kg/week in the pivotal and 0.156 g/kg/week in the extension study. IGHy exposure exceeded 30 months in 48 subjects.
During 187.7 subject-years of IGHy exposure, 2005 adverse events (AEs) (10.68 per subject-year) occurred. The rate of related systemic AEs during consecutive 1-year periods remained low; the rate of related local AEs decreased from 3.68/subject-year in months 1–12 to approximately 1.50/subject-year after 30 months of treatment. Fifteen subjects transiently developed anti-rHuPH20 binding antibody. There was no difference in AE rates in these subjects before and after the first titer increase to ≥1:160.
The rate of infections during IGHy exposure was 2.99 per subject-year and did not increase during the studies. Annual infection rates were 3.02 in subjects <18 years and 2.98 in subjects ≥18 years.
Conclusions
Long-term replacement therapy with IGHy was safe and effective in 83 pediatric and adult subjects with PIDD.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10875-016-0298-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s10875-016-0298-x
PMCID: PMC4940441  PMID: 27220317
Subcutaneous IgG replacement; recombinant human hyaluronidase; primary immunodeficiency; efficacy; tolerability
10.  Phase I Study of the Prolactin Receptor Antagonist LFA102 in Metastatic Breast and Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer 
The Oncologist  2016;21(5):535-536.
Lessons Learned
Despite evidence for a role for prolactin signaling in breast and prostate tumorigenesis, a prolactin receptor-binding monoclonal antibody has not produced clinical efficacy.
Increased serum prolactin levels may be a biomarker for prolactin receptor inhibition.
Results from the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics (PD) studies suggest that inappropriately long dosing intervals and insufficient exposure to LFA102 may have resulted in lack of antitumor efficacy.
Based on preclinical data, combination therapy of LFA102 with those novel agents targeting hormonal pathways in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and metastatic breast cancer is promising.
Given the PD evidence of prolactin receptor blockade by LFA102, this drug has the potential to be used in conditions such as hyperprolactinemia that are associated with high prolactin levels.
Background.
Prolactin receptor (PRLR) signaling is implicated in breast and prostate cancer. LFA102, a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) that binds to and inhibits the PRLR, has exhibited promising preclinical antitumor activity.
Methods.
Patients with PRLR-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) or metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) received doses of LFA102 at 3–60 mg/kg intravenously once every 4 weeks. Objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and/or recommended dose for expansion (RDE) to investigate the safety/tolerability of LFA102 and to assess pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and antitumor activity.
Results.
A total of 73 patients were enrolled at 5 dose levels. The MTD was not reached because of lack of dose-limiting toxicities. The RDE was established at 60 mg/kg based on PK and PD analysis and safety data. The most common all-cause adverse events (AEs) were fatigue (44%) and nausea (33%) regardless of relationship. Grade 3/4 AEs reported to be related to LFA102 occurred in 4% of patients. LFA102 exposure increased approximately dose proportionally across the doses tested. Serum prolactin levels increased in response to LFA102 administration, suggesting its potential as a biomarker for PRLR inhibition. No antitumor activity was detected.
Conclusion.
Treatment with LFA102 was safe and well tolerated, but did not show antitumor activity as monotherapy at the doses tested.
doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2015-0502
PMCID: PMC4861370  PMID: 27091421
11.  Differential impact of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on sustained attention in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 
Background
This study examined the effects of atomoxetine (ATX) and OROS methylphenidate (MPH) on laboratory measures of inhibitory control and attention in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It was hypothesized that performance would be improved by both treatments, but response profiles would differ because the medications work via different mechanisms.
Methods
102 youth (77 male; mean age = 10.5 +/− 2.7 years) with ADHD received ATX (1.4 +/− 0.5 mg/kg) and MPH (52.4 +/− 16.6 mg) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. Medication was titrated in 4–6-week blocks separated by a 2-week placebo washout. Inhibitory control and attention measures were obtained at baseline, following washout, and at the end of each treatment using Conners’ Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II), which provided age-adjusted T-scores for reaction time (RT), reaction time variability (RT variability), and errors. Repeated measures analyses of variance were performed, with Time (pre-medication, post-medication) and Treatment type (ATX, MPH) entered as within-subject factors. Data from the two treatment blocks were checked for order effects and combined if order effects were not present.
Clinical trial registration
Clinicaltrials.gov:NCT00183391
Results
Main effects for Time on RT (p = 0.03), RTSD (p = 0.001) and omission errors (p = 0.01) were significant. A significant Drug × Time interaction indicated that MPH improved RT, RTSD and omission errors more than ATX (p <0.05). Changes in performance with treatment did not correlate with changes in ADHD symptoms.
Conclusions
MPH has greater effects than ATX on CPT measures of sustained attention in youth with ADHD. However, the dissociation of cognitive and behavioral change with treatment indicates that CPT measures cannot be considered proxies for symptomatic improvement. Further research on the dissociation of cognitive and behavioral endpoints for ADHD is indicated.
doi:10.1111/jcpp.12272
PMCID: PMC4272337  PMID: 24942409
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; Atomoxetine; Methylphenidate; Attention; Vigilance
12.  Does Guanfacine Extended Release Impact Functional Impairment in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder? Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial 
CNS Drugs  2015;29(11):953-962.
Background
In clinical trials of medications to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, effects on functional impairment have been less well-studied than changes in ADHD symptoms.
Objective
Data regarding functional impairment were analyzed from a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of guanfacine extended release (GXR) in children with ADHD, using the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale–Parent Report (WFIRS-P). The correspondence of changes in WFIRS-P scores with symptomatic and global response to GXR treatment was also examined, with treatment response defined by scores on both the ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) and the Clinical Global Impressions–Improvement Scale (CGI-I).
Methods
In this 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose optimization study at 47 sites across the USA and Canada, children aged 6–12 years with a diagnosis of ADHD [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria, and an ADHD-RS-IV score ≥28 and CGI–Severity of Illness Scale score ≥4 at baseline], were randomized 1:1:1 into three groups: GXR am [GXR (1–4 mg/day) in the morning, placebo in the evening], GXR pm [placebo in the morning, GXR (1–4 mg/day) in the evening], or twice-daily placebo. Parents rated their children on the WFIRS-P at screening, baseline, the end of dose optimization, and at the final on-treatment assessment.
Results
The efficacy population was composed of 333 subjects (GXR am: n = 107; GXR pm: n = 114; placebo: n = 112). At the final on-treatment assessment, there were significant improvements from baseline in the placebo-adjusted difference in least-squares (LS) mean (95 % confidence interval) WFIRS-P Total scores for both GXR treatment groups combined [GXR all-active: −0.16 (−0.25, −0.07), effect size (ES) = 0.448, P <0.001] and separately [GXR am: −0.15 (−0.26, −0.05), ES = 0.417, P = 0.004; GXR pm: −0.18 (−0.28, −0.07), ES = 0.478, P = 0.001]. Significant improvements in WFIRS-P domain scores for Family, Learning and School (including Academic Performance and Behavior in School), Social, and Risky Behavior were found for both GXR cohorts compared with placebo. However, the Life Skills and Self-Concept domain scores of the WFIRS-P did not improve with GXR treatment. Post hoc stratification by responder status revealed that significant (P <0.001) improvements in WFIRS-P Total and all domain scores were associated with symptomatic treatment response in the GXR all-active group.
Conclusions
GXR treatment in children with ADHD was associated with reductions in WFIRS-P functional impairment scores compared with placebo, regardless of time of GXR administration. Changes in WFIRS-P scores were congruent with clinical response, as determined by both ADHD symptom reduction and CGI-I scores.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier
NCT00997984.
doi:10.1007/s40263-015-0291-6
PMCID: PMC4653245  PMID: 26547425
15.  Ropivacaine 0.025% mixed with fentanyl 3.0 μg/ml and epinephrine 0.5 μg/ml is effective for epidural patient-controlled analgesia after cesarean section 
Background and Aims:
We aimed to determine the ropivacaine concentration that provided adequate analgesia with early ambulation and minimal urinary retention or other side-effects when used with fentanyl and epinephrine for patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) after elective cesarean section.
Material and Methods:
Forty-eight patients were randomized to four groups in a double-blinded fashion. All groups received an initial 10 ml/h of epidural study solution for 24 h. The solution contained: 0.2, 0.1, 0.05, or 0.025% ropivacaine for Groups I-IV, respectively, with fentanyl 3.0 μg/ml and epinephrine 0.5 μg/ml. Patients could administer additional PCEA doses of 4 ml of their study solution with a lock-out time of 10 min. Overall satisfaction, side-effects, motor block, neurologic function, and pain using Visual Analog Scale were assessed.
Results:
Patients in all groups showed no difference in sedation, pruritus, nausea, vomiting, and uterine cramps. Pain scores at rest were lower for Group IV than Groups I-III (P < 0.001). Twelve, five, one, and zero patients could not ambulate in Groups I-IV, respectively. Nine, nine, two, and zero (III
Conclusion:
0.025% ropivacaine PCEA combined with fentanyl and epinephrine provided effective pain relief after cesarean section with early ambulation and without sensory loss, urinary retention, or increase of side-effects.
doi:10.4103/0970-9185.169065
PMCID: PMC4676235  PMID: 26702203
Cesarean section; epidural; fentanyl; patient-controlled; ropivacaine
NeuroImage : Clinical  2015;9:244-252.
Finding neurobiological markers for neurodevelopmental disorders, such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is a major objective of clinicians and neuroscientists. We examined if functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data from a few distinct visuospatial working memory (VSWM) tasks enables accurately detecting cases with ADHD. We tested 20 boys with ADHD combined type and 20 typically developed (TD) boys in four VSWM tasks that differed in feedback availability (feedback, no-feedback) and reward size (large, small). We used a multimodal analysis based on brain activity in 16 regions of interest, significantly activated or deactivated in the four VSWM tasks (based on the entire participants' sample). Dimensionality of the data was reduced into 10 principal components that were used as the input variables to a logistic regression classifier. fMRI data from the four VSWM tasks enabled a classification accuracy of 92.5%, with high predicted ADHD probability values for most clinical cases, and low predicted ADHD probabilities for most TDs. This accuracy level was higher than those achieved by using the fMRI data of any single task, or the respective behavioral data. This indicates that task-based fMRI data acquired while participants perform a few distinct VSWM tasks enables improved detection of clinical cases.
Graphical abstract
fMRI data from four visuospatial working memory tasks enabled an ADHD classification accuracy of 92.5%, with high predicted ADHD probability values for most clinical cases, and low predicted ADHD probabilities for most typically developed cases. This accuracy level was higher than those achieved by using the fMRI data of any single task.
Highlights
•fMRI data from four distinct working memory tasks was used for ADHD diagnosis.•A logistic regression was used for ADHD classification.•Highest classification accuracy was achieved by using data from all four tasks.•Classification accuracies based on any single task were moderate.•Behavioral data had no impact in further improving ADHD classification.
doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2015.08.015
PMCID: PMC4576365  PMID: 26509111
ADHD diagnosis; Neurobiological marker; Visuospatial working memory; Reward processing; Feedback processing
Biomedical chromatography : BMC  2011;26(5):650-654.
2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), an analog of glucose, is widely used to interfere with the glycolysis in tumor cells and studied as a therapeutic approach in clinical trials. To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of 2-DG, we describe the development and validation of a sensitive HPLC fluorescent method for the quantitation of 2-DG in plasma. Plasma samples were deproteinized with methanol and the supernatant was dried at 45°C. The residues were dissolved in methanolic sodium acetate/boric acid solution. 2-DG and other monosaccharides were derivatized to 2-aminobenzoic acid derivatives in a single step in the presence of sodium cyanoborohydride at 80°C for 45min. The analytes were separated on a YMC ODS C18 reversed-phase column using gradient elution. The excitation and emission wavelengths were set at 360 and 425nm. The 2-DG calibration curves were linear over the range of 0.63 to 300μg/mL with the limit of detection of 0.5μg/mL. The assay provided satisfactory intra-day and inter-day precision with RSD less than 9.8% and the accuracy ranged from 86.8% to 110.0%. The HPLC method is reproducible and suitable for the quantitation of 2-DG in plasma. The method was successfully applied to characterize the pharmacokinetics profile of 2-DG in patients with advanced solid tumors.
doi:10.1002/bmc.1710
PMCID: PMC4522920  PMID: 21932382
2-Deoxyglucose; HPLC; Fluorescence derivatization; Pharmacokinetics
Oncotarget  2015;6(17):15321-15331.
Recent epidemiological studies showed that metformin, a widely used anti-diabetic drug might prevent certain cancers. Metformin also has an anti-proliferative effect in preclinical studies of both hematologic malignancies as well as solid cancers and clinical studies testing metformin as an anti-cancer drug are in progress. However, all cancer types do not respond to metformin with the same effectiveness or acquire resistance. To understand the mechanism of acquired resistance and possibly its mechanism of action as an anti-proliferative agent, we developed metformin resistant LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Metformin resistant LNCaP cells had an increased proliferation rate, increased migration and invasion ability as compared to the parental cells, and expressed markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). A detailed gene expression microarray comparing the resistant cells to the wild type cells revealed that Edil2, Ereg, Axl, Anax2, CD44 and Anax3 were the top up-regulated genes and calbindin 2 and TPTE (transmembrane phosphatase with tensin homology) and IGF1R were down regulated. We focused on Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase that has been shown to be up regulated in several drug resistance cancers. Here, we show that the metformin resistant cell line as well as castrate resistant cell lines that over express Axl were more resistant to metformin, as well as to taxotere compared to androgen sensitive LNCaP and CWR22 cells that do not overexpress Axl. Forced overexpression of Axl in LNCaP cells decreased metformin and taxotere sensitivity and knockdown of Axl in resistant cells increased sensitivity to these drugs. Inhibition of Axl activity by R428, a small molecule Axl kinase inhibitor, sensitized metformin resistant cells that overexpressed Axl to metformin. Inhibitors of Axl may enhance tumor responses to metformin and other chemotherapy in cancers that over express Axl.
PMCID: PMC4558154  PMID: 26036314
Axl receptor tyrosine kinase; metformin; prostate cancer; Axl and drug resistance
Abstract
Objectives: This study seeks to determine if variation in the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3/DAT1) moderates the dose-response effects of long-acting dexmethylphenidate (D-MPH) and mixed amphetamine salts (MAS) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Methods: Fifty-six children and adolescents (mean age=11.7±2.2) participated in a double-blind, two period crossover, dose-response study with a randomized placebo week in each 4 week drug period. Each period consisted of sequential week-long exposures to three dose levels (10, 20, 25–30 mg, depending upon weight) of D-MPH or MAS.
Results: Doses of 10–20 mg of either D-MPH or MAS had little to no effect on hyperactivity-impulsivity and total ADHD symptom scores in subjects with the 9/9 genotype; this was in contrast to the dose-response curves of subjects with either the 10/10 or 10/9 genotype.
Conclusions: ADHD youth with the 9/9 genotype may require higher stimulant doses to achieve adequate symptom control.
doi:10.1089/cap.2013.0102
PMCID: PMC4064733  PMID: 24813374
European urology  2013;65(4):693-700.
Background
Data regarding the difference in the clinical course from metastasis to prostate cancer–specific mortality (PCSM) following radical prostatectomy (RP) compared with radiation therapy (RT) are lacking.
Objective
To examine the association between primary treatment modality and prostate cancer– specific survival (PCSS) after metastasis.
Design, setting, and participants
We used the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results– Medicare linked database from 1994 to 2007 for patients diagnosed with localized prostate cancer (PCa). We used cancer stage and Gleason score to stratify patients into low and intermediate–high risks.
Intervention
Radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy.
Outcome measurements and statistical analysis
Our outcome is time from onset of metastases to PCSM. Propensity score matching and Cox regression were used to analyze the PCSM hazard for the RP group compared with the RT group.
Results and limitations
Our study consisted of 66 492 men diagnosed with PCa, 51 337 men receiving RT, and 15 155 men undergoing RP within 1 yr of cancer diagnosis. During the study period, 2802 men were diagnosed as having metastatic disease. A total of 916 men with metastases were included in the propensity-matched cohort; of these men, 186 died from PCa. During the follow-up, for the low-risk patients, the adjusted PCSS after metastasis was 86.2% and 79.3% in the RP and RT groups, respectively; for the intermediate–high-risk patients, the PCSS after metastasis was 76.3% and 63.3% in the RP and RT groups, respectively. The hazard ratios estimating the risk of PCSM between the RP and RT groups were 0.68 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38–1.22) and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.36–0.73) for the low- and intermediate–high-risk groups, respectively. Because of the nature of observational studies, the results may be affected by residual confounders and treatment indication.
Conclusions
Following the development of metastases, men who received primary RP have a longer PCSS than men who received primary RT. Our results may have implications for the timing and nature of local PCa treatment.
doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2013.05.023
PMCID: PMC3825778  PMID: 23759328
Prostate cancer; Neoplasm metastasis; Radiation therapy; Prostatectomy
Brain and Behavior  2015;5(4):e00330.
Background
This study is the first to evaluate an assessment aid for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) according to both Class-I evidence standards of American Academy of Neurology and De Novo requirements of US Food and Drug Administration. The assessment aid involves a method to integrate an electroencephalographic (EEG) biomarker, theta/beta ratio (TBR), with a clinician's ADHD evaluation. The integration method is intended as a step to help improve certainty with criterion E (i.e., whether symptoms are better explained by another condition).
Methods
To evaluate the assessment aid, investigators conducted a prospective, triple-blinded, 13-site, clinical cohort study. Comprehensive clinical evaluation data were obtained from 275 children and adolescents presenting with attentional and behavioral concerns. A qualified clinician at each site performed differential diagnosis. EEG was collected by separate teams. The reference standard was consensus diagnosis by an independent, multidisciplinary team (psychiatrist, psychologist, and neurodevelopmental pediatrician), which is well-suited to evaluate criterion E in a complex clinical population.
Results
Of 209 patients meeting ADHD criteria per a site clinician's judgment, 93 were separately found by the multidisciplinary team to be less likely to meet criterion E, implying possible overdiagnosis by clinicians in 34% of the total clinical sample (93/275). Of those 93, 91% were also identified by EEG, showing a relatively lower TBR (85/93). Further, the integration method was in 97% agreement with the multidisciplinary team in the resolution of a clinician's uncertain cases (35/36). TBR showed statistical power specific to supporting certainty of criterion E per the multidisciplinary team (Cohen's d, 1.53). Patients with relatively lower TBR were more likely to have other conditions that could affect criterion E certainty (10 significant results; P ≤ 0.05). Integration of this information with a clinician's ADHD evaluation could help improve diagnostic accuracy from 61% to 88%.
Conclusions
The EEG-based assessment aid may help improve accuracy of ADHD diagnosis by supporting greater criterion E certainty.
doi:10.1002/brb3.330
PMCID: PMC4356845  PMID: 25798338
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; biomarkers; comorbidity; electroencephalography; multidisciplinary; sensitivity; specificity
Scientific Reports  2015;5:9257.
CYP2D6 contributes to the metabolism of many clinically used drugs and is increasingly tested to individualize drug therapy. The CYP2D6 gene is challenging to genotype due to the highly complex nature of its gene locus. TaqMan® technology is widely used in the clinical and research settings for genotype analysis due to assay reliability, low cost, and the availability of commercially available assays. The assay identifying 1023C>T (rs28371706) defining a reduced function (CYP2D6*17) and several nonfunctional alleles, produced a small number of unexpected diplotype calls in three independent sets of samples, i.e. calls suggested the presence of a CYP2D6*4 subvariant containing 1023C>T. Gene resequencing did not reveal any unknown SNPs in the primer or probe binding sites in any of the samples, but all affected samples featured a trio of SNPs on their CYP2D6*4 allele between one of the PCR primer and probe binding sites. While the phenomenon was ultimately overcome by an alternate assay utilizing a PCR primer excluding the SNP trio, the mechanism causing this phenomenon remains elusive. This rare and unexpected event underscores the importance of assay validation in samples representing a variety of genotypes, but also vigilance of assay performance in highly polymorphic genes such as CYP2D6.
doi:10.1038/srep09257
PMCID: PMC4365394  PMID: 25788121
Brain and Behavior  2015;e00330.
Abstract
Background
This study is the first to evaluate an assessment aid for attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) according to both Class‐I evidence standards of American Academy of Neurology and De Novo requirements of US Food and Drug Administration. The assessment aid involves a method to integrate an electroencephalographic (EEG) biomarker, theta/beta ratio (TBR), with a clinician's ADHD evaluation. The integration method is intended as a step to help improve certainty with criterion E (i.e., whether symptoms are better explained by another condition).
Methods
To evaluate the assessment aid, investigators conducted a prospective, triple‐blinded, 13‐site, clinical cohort study. Comprehensive clinical evaluation data were obtained from 275 children and adolescents presenting with attentional and behavioral concerns. A qualified clinician at each site performed differential diagnosis. EEG was collected by separate teams. The reference standard was consensus diagnosis by an independent, multidisciplinary team (psychiatrist, psychologist, and neurodevelopmental pediatrician), which is well‐suited to evaluate criterion E in a complex clinical population.
Results
Of 209 patients meeting ADHD criteria per a site clinician's judgment, 93 were separately found by the multidisciplinary team to be less likely to meet criterion E, implying possible overdiagnosis by clinicians in 34% of the total clinical sample (93/275). Of those 93, 91% were also identified by EEG, showing a relatively lower TBR (85/93). Further, the integration method was in 97% agreement with the multidisciplinary team in the resolution of a clinician's uncertain cases (35/36). TBR showed statistical power specific to supporting certainty of criterion E per the multidisciplinary team (Cohen's d, 1.53). Patients with relatively lower TBR were more likely to have other conditions that could affect criterion E certainty (10 significant results; P ≤ 0.05). Integration of this information with a clinician's ADHD evaluation could help improve diagnostic accuracy from 61% to 88%.
Conclusions
The EEG‐based assessment aid may help improve accuracy of ADHD diagnosis by supporting greater criterion E certainty.
doi:10.1002/brb3.330
PMCID: PMC4356845  PMID: 25798338
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; biomarkers; comorbidity; electroencephalography; multidisciplinary; sensitivity; specificity
Background
Sunitinib treatment results in a compensatory increase in plasma VEGF levels. Acute withdrawal of sunitinib results in a proliferative withdrawal flare, primarily due to elevated VEGF levels. Concurrent sunitinib plus bevacizumab is poorly tolerated with high (37 %) incidence of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA). We evaluated a sequential design administering bevacizumab during the sunitinib treatment break to suppress the sunitinib withdrawal flare.
Methods
Patients with no prior VEGF treatment were enrolled in this study. All patients had target lesions amenable to serial FLT PET/CT imaging. Sunitinib 37.5 mg was given on days 1–28 every 6 weeks with bevacizumab 5 mg/kg on day 29. If safe and tolerable, sunitinib increased to 50 mg. FLT PET/CT scans would be obtained at baseline (D1), week 4, and week 6 to evaluate pharmacodynamics of the sequential combination. Sunitinib pharmacokinetics and total, free, and bound VEGF levels were obtained on each cycle at D1, pre-bevacizumab (D29), 4 h post-bevacizumab (D29H4), and day 42 (D42).
Results
Six patients enrolled in the safety cohort of sunitinib 37.5 mg plus bevacizumab (see Table). One patient experienced grade 1 MAHA, and after discussion with the Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP), the trial was closed to further accrual. No imaging scans were obtained due to early closure.
Total and free VEGF levels during cycle 1
Conclusions
Subclinical MAHA was seen despite using sequential sunitinib with low-dose bevacizumab, and this combination was not feasible for further development. As predicted, VEGF levels increased during sunitinib exposure followed by a rapid decline after bevacizumab. Due to the long half-life of bevacizumab, we expected VEGF ligand suppression through D42, but instead observed a complete rebound in total/free VEGF levels by D42. The increase in VEGF at D42 was unexpected based on sunitinib alone and contrary to the hypothesis that we would block VEGF flare with low-dose bevacizumab. VEGF ligand production may increase as a result of bevacizumab, implying a robust host compensatory mechanism to VEGF signaling pathway inhibition. A greater understanding of the compensatory mechanism would aid future sequencing strategies of new agents.
doi:10.1007/s00280-013-2373-9
PMCID: PMC4200479  PMID: 24414551
Pharmacodynamic; Phase I clinical trial; Sequential combination; Sunitinib; Bevacizumab
Background
Patients with immunodeficiency diseases require lifelong treatment with immunoglobulin (Ig), yet few studies have vetted dosing strategies and effectiveness of Ig in older patient populations. Patients requiring subcutaneous (SC) Ig (SCIG) typically start with intravenous dosing before transitioning to SCIG weekly maintenance. In this retrospective review, we investigated an alternate strategy with higher initial SC doses among an older patient population with antibody deficiency syndromes.
Findings
Records of 13 patients (mean age, 70 years) with antibody deficiencies who were naive to treatment with Ig were assessed. SCIG (Vivaglobin® [Immune Globulin Subcutaneous (Human), 16% Liquid] or Hizentra® [Immune Globulin Subcutaneous (Human), 20% Liquid]) was given twice weekly (100 mg/kg) for 2 weeks, followed by weekly (100 mg/kg) administration The mean pretreatment IgG level was 460 mg/dL; at 1, 3, and 6 months after SCIG initiation, mean IgG serum levels were 852, 907, and 943 mg/dL, respectively. Maintenance doses were unchanged during 6 months of follow-up. All patients remain on SCIG (median, 44 months). One patient developed sepsis/cholangitis unrelated to treatment 3 months after starting SCIG; no other serious bacterial infections were reported.
Conclusions
Initiation of SCIG by doubling the maintenance dose over 2 weeks may be a well-tolerated and effective option for patients with antibody deficiencies requiring Ig replacement, especially among older patients.
doi:10.1186/s13223-014-0063-8
PMCID: PMC4273447  PMID: 25535489
Globulins; Immune; Immunoglobulins; Subcutaneous; Immunoglobulins; Intravenous; Immunoglobulin therapy; Immunological deficiency syndromes

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