Methionine is an essential proteogenic amino acid. In addition, it is a methyl donor for DNA and protein methylation and a propylamine donor for polyamine biosyn-thesis. Both the methyl and propylamine donation pathways involve metabolic cycles, and methods are needed to quantitate these cycles. Here, we describe an analytical approach for quantifying methionine metabolic fluxes that accounts for the mixing of intracellular and extracellular methionine pools. We observe that such mixing prevents isotope tracing experiments from reaching the steady state due to the large size of the media pools and hence precludes the use of standard stationary metabolic flux analysis. Our approach is based on feeding cells with 13C methionine and measuring the isotope-labeling kinetics of both intracellular and extracellular methionine by liquid chromatography−mass spectrometry (LC-MS). We apply this method to quantify methionine metabolism in a human fibrosarcoma cell line and study how methionine salvage pathway enzyme methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP), frequently deleted in cancer, affects methionine metabolism. We find that both transmethylation and propylamine transfer fluxes amount to roughly 15% of the net methionine uptake, with no major changes due to MTAP deletion. Our method further enables the quantification of flux through the pro-tumorigenic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase, and this flux increases 2-fold following MTAP deletion. The analytical approach used to quantify methionine metabolic fluxes is applicable for other metabolic systems affected by mixing of intracellular and extracellular metabolite pools.
MAVEN is an open-source software program for interactive processing of LC-MS-based metabolomics data. MAVEN enables rapid and reliable metabolite quantitation from multiple reaction monitoring data or high-resolution full-scan mass spectrometry data. It automatically detects and reports peak intensities for isotope-labeled metabolites. Menu-driven, click-based navigation allows visualization of raw and analyzed data. Here we provide a User Guide for MAVEN. Step-by-step instructions are provided for data import, peak alignment across samples, identification of metabolites that differ strongly between biological conditions, quantitation and visualization of isotope-labeling patterns, and export of tables of metabolite-specific peak intensities. Together, these instructions describe a workflow that allows efficient processing of raw LC-MS data into a form ready for biological analysis.
metabolomics; liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; pathway visualization and mapping; stable isotope labeling; metabolic flux analysis; kinetic flux profiling
Current approaches for identifying synergistic targets use cell culture models with combinations of clinically available drugs to see if the combined effect of the combination is better than predicted by their individual efficacy. New techniques are needed to systematically and rationally identify targets and pathways that have a high potential as synergistic targets. In this study, we create a tool to screen and identify molecular targets that may synergize with new inhibitors of TOR (Target of Rapamycin), a conserved protein that is a major integrator of cell proliferation signals in the nutrient-signaling pathway. While clinical results from TORC1 inhibition using rapamycin analogs (that only inhibit TORC1) have been disappointing, trials using inhibitors that also target TORC2 have been promising. To understand the molecular basis for this increased therapeutic efficacy and to discover secondary targets that may have potential in targeted combination therapy, we engineered TOR2 in S. cerevisiae to accept an orthogonal inhibitor in order to create the first chemical tool to selectively inhibit TORC2. We used this tool to create a Chemical Epistasis Mini-Array Profile, or ChE-MAP, by measuring interactions between the chemically inhibited TOR2 kinase and a diverse library of deletion mutants. The ChE-MAP identified known TOR components and distinguished between TORC1 (assessed using rapamycin) and TORC2 dependent functions. Results showed a novel TORC2-specific interaction with the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). We used global metabolic profiling to show that that TORC2 inhibition led to decreases in metabolites specific to the PPP and confirmed that TOR2 was regulating this process using metabolic flux analysis. Regulation of the PPP is a previously unappreciated role for TORC2 that may suggest a role for the complex in balancing the high energy demand required for ribosome biogenesis.
Metabolism, the conversion of nutrients into usable energy and biochemical building blocks, is an essential feature of all cells. The genetic factors responsible for inter-individual metabolic variability remain poorly understood. To investigate genetic causes of metabolome variation, we measured the concentrations of 74 metabolites across 100 segregants from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cross by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We found 52 quantitative trait loci for 34 metabolites. These included linkages due to overt changes in metabolic genes, e.g., linking pyrimidine intermediates to the deletion of ura3. They also included linkages not directly related to metabolic enzymes, such as those for five central carbon metabolites to ira2, a Ras/PKA pathway regulator, and for the metabolites, S-adenosyl-methionine and S-adenosyl-homocysteine to slt2, a MAP kinase involved in cell wall integrity. The variant of ira2 that elevates metabolite levels also increases glucose uptake and ethanol secretion. These results highlight specific examples of genetic variability, including in genes without prior known metabolic regulatory function, that impact yeast metabolism.
Many traits, from human height to E. coli growth rate, quantitatively vary across members of a species. Among the most medically and agriculturally important traits are levels of cellular metabolites, such as cholesterol levels in humans or starch in food crops. Metabolic variation in yeast also holds practical importance with some Saccharomyces strains better suited to making ethanol for biofuel and others tailored to making flavorful wine. This metabolic heterogeneity can be used to gain insight into general principles of metabolic regulation which effect metabolite abundance in eukaryotes. To this end, we examined inter-strain differences in metabolism in over 100 closely related S. cerevisiae strains. We identified over 50 genetic loci that control the levels of specific metabolites, including not only loci that encode metabolic enzymes, but also those that encode global cellular regulators. For example, differences in the sequence of ira2, an inhibitor of Ras, lead to differences in central carbon metabolite levels, and polymorphisms in slt2, a poorly characterized MAP kinase, alter levels of sulfur-containing metabolites. These findings provide insights into the mechanisms cells use to control metabolite concentrations.
We present a liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for long-chain and very-long-chain fatty acid analysis, and its application to 13C-tracer studies of fatty acid metabolism. Fatty acids containing 14 to 36 carbon atoms are separated by C8 reversed-phase chromatography using a water-methanol gradient with tributylamine as ion pairing agent, ionized by electrospray, and analyzed by a stand-alone orbitrap mass spectrometer. The median limit of detection is 5 ng/ml with a linear dynamic range of 100-fold. Ratios of unlabeled to 13C-labeled species are quantitated precisely and accurately (average relative standard deviation 3.2% and deviation from expectation 2.3%). In samples consisting of fatty acids saponified from cultured mammalian cells, 45 species are quantified, with average intraday relative standard deviations for independent biological replicates of 11%. The method enables quantitation of molecular ion peaks for all labeled forms of each fatty acid. Different degrees of 13C-labeling from glucose and glutamine correspond to fatty acid uptake from media, de novo synthesis, and elongation. To exemplify the utility of the method, we examined isogenic cell lines with and without activated Ras oncogene expression. Ras increases the abundance and alters the labeling patterns of saturated and monounsaturated very-long-chain fatty acids, with the observed pattern consistent with Ras leading to enhanced activity of ELOVL4 or an enzyme with similar catalytic activity. This LC-MS method and associated isotope tracer techniques should be broadly applicable to investigating fatty acid metabolism.
elongase; exactive; fatty acids; high resolution mass spectrometry; lipids; liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; mass isotopomer distribution analysis; tracer studies; very-long-chain fatty acids
The impact of oncogene activation and hypoxia on energy metabolism is analyzed by integrating quantitative measurements into a redox-balanced metabolic flux model. Glutamine-driven oxidative phosphorylation is found to be a major ATP source even in oncogene-expressing or hypoxic cells.
The integration of oxygen uptake measurements and LC-MS-based isotope tracer analyses in a redox-balanced metabolic flux model enabled quantitative determination of energy generation pathways in cultured cells.In transformed mammalian cells, even in hypoxia (1% oxygen), oxidative phosphorylation produces the majority of ATP.The oncogene Ras simultaneously increases glycolysis and decreases oxidative phosphorylation, thus resulting in no net increase in ATP production.Glutamine is the major source of high-energy electrons for oxidative phosphorylation, especially upon Ras activation.
Mammalian cells can generate ATP via glycolysis or mitochondrial respiration. Oncogene activation and hypoxia promote glycolysis and lactate secretion. The significance of these metabolic changes to ATP production remains however ill defined. Here, we integrate LC-MS-based isotope tracer studies with oxygen uptake measurements in a quantitative redox-balanced metabolic flux model of mammalian cellular metabolism. We then apply this approach to assess the impact of Ras and Akt activation and hypoxia on energy metabolism. Both oncogene activation and hypoxia induce roughly a twofold increase in glycolytic flux. Ras activation and hypoxia also strongly decrease glucose oxidation. Oxidative phosphorylation, powered substantially by glutamine-driven TCA turning, however, persists and accounts for the majority of ATP production. Consistent with this, in all cases, pharmacological inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation markedly reduces energy charge, and glutamine but not glucose removal markedly lowers oxygen uptake. Thus, glutamine-driven oxidative phosphorylation is a major means of ATP production even in hypoxic cancer cells.
cancer bioenergetics; isotope tracing; metabolic flux analysis
A strain of Halomonas bacteria, GFAJ-1, has been reported to be able to use arsenate as a nutrient when phosphate is limiting, and to specifically incorporate arsenic into its DNA in place of phosphorus. However, we have found that arsenate does not contribute to growth of GFAJ-1 when phosphate is limiting and that DNA purified from cells grown with limiting phosphate and abundant arsenate does not exhibit the spontaneous hydrolysis expected of arsenate ester bonds. Furthermore, mass spectrometry showed that this DNA contains only trace amounts of free arsenate and no detectable covalently bound arsenate.
Macropinocytosis is a highly conserved endocytic process by which extracellular fluid and its contents are internalized into cells via large, heterogeneous vesicles known as macropinosomes. Oncogenic Ras proteins have been shown to stimulate macropinocytosis but the functional contribution of this uptake mechanism to the transformed phenotype remains unknown1-3. Here we show that Ras-transformed cells utilize macropinocytosis to transport extracellular protein into the cell. The internalized protein undergoes proteolytic degradation, yielding amino acids including glutamine that can enter central carbon metabolism. Accordingly, the dependence of Ras-transformed cells on free extracellular glutamine for growth can be suppressed by the macropinocytic uptake of protein. Consistent with macropinocytosis representing an important route of tumor nutrient uptake, its pharmacological inhibition compromised the growth of Ras-transformed pancreatic tumor xenografts. These results identify macropinocytosis as a mechanism by which cancer cells support their unique metabolic needs and point to the possible exploitation of this process in the design of anti-cancer therapies.
Maf (for multicopy associated filamentation) proteins represent a large family of conserved proteins implicated in cell division arrest but whose biochemical activity remains unknown. Here, we show that the prokaryotic and eukaryotic Maf proteins exhibit nucleotide pyrophosphatase activity against 5-methyl-UTP, pseudo-UTP, 5-methyl-CTP, and 7-methyl-GTP, which represent the most abundant modified bases in all organisms, as well as against canonical nucleotides dTTP, UTP, and CTP. Overexpression of the Maf protein YhdE in E. coli cells increased intracellular levels of dTMP and UMP, confirming that dTTP and UTP are the in vivo substrates of this protein. Crystal structures and site-directed mutagenesis of Maf proteins revealed the determinants of their activity and substrate specificity. Thus, pyrophosphatase activity of Maf proteins toward canonical and modified nucleotides might provide the molecular mechanism for a dual role of these proteins in cell division arrest and house cleaning.
•Maf proteins represent a family of nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphatases•Maf proteins hydrolyze the canonical nucleotides dTTP, UTP, and CTP•Maf proteins are also active against m5UTP, m5CTP, pseudo-UTP, and m7GTP•Maf structures reveal the molecular mechanisms of their substrate selectivity
Tchigvintsev et al. show that Maf proteins are a family of nucleotide pyrophosphatases active against both canonical and modified nucleotides. This suggests that Mafs might have a dual role in cell division and in the prevention of the incorporation of modified nucleotides into cellular nucleic acids.
Metabolic aberrations affecting protein and DNA methylation are a potential source of cancer. A new study shows that the metabolic enzyme nicotinamide N-methyl-transferase, which is overexpressed in several types of tumors, can enhance cancer aggressiveness by draining methyl groups from S-adenosyl-methionine.
Allostery and covalent modification are major means of fast-acting metabolic regulation. Their relative roles in responding to environmental changes remain, however, unclear. Here we examine this issue, using as a case study the rapid decrease in pyruvate kinase flux in yeast upon glucose removal. The main pyruvate kinase isozyme (Cdc19) is phosphorylated in response to environmental cues. It also exhibits positively-cooperative (ultrasensitive) allosteric activation by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP). Glucose removal causes accumulation of Cdc19’s substrate, phosphoenolpyruvate. This response is retained in strains with altered protein-kinase-A or AMP-activated-protein-kinase activity or with CDC19 carrying mutated phosphorylation sites. In contrast, yeast engineered with a CDC19 point mutation that ablates FBP-based regulation fail to accumulate phosphoenolpyruvate. They also fail to grow on ethanol and slowly resume growth upon glucose upshift. Thus, while yeast pyruvate kinase is covalently modified in response to glucose availability, its activity is controlled almost exclusively by ultrasensitive allostery.
We present a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method that capitalizes on the mass-resolving power of the orbitrap to enable sensitive and specific measurement of known and unanticipated metabolites in parallel, with a focus on water soluble species involved in core metabolism. The reversed phase LC method, with a cycle time 25 min, involves a water-methanol gradient on a C18 column with tributylamine as the ion pairing agent. The MS portion involves full scans from 85 – 800 m/z at 1 Hz and 100,000 resolution in negative ion mode on a stand alone orbitrap (“Exactive”). The median limit of detection, across 80 metabolite standards, was 5 ng/mL with linear range typically ≥ 100-fold. For both standards and a cellular extract from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker’s yeast), the median inter-run relative standard deviation in peak intensity was 8%. In yeast exact, we detected 137 known compounds, whose 13C-labeling patterns could also be tracked to probe metabolic flux. In yeast engineered to lack a gene of unknown function (YKL215C), we observed accumulation of an ion of m/z 128.0351, which we subsequently confirmed to be oxoproline, resulting in annotation of YKL215C as an oxoprolinase. These examples demonstrate the suitability of the present method for quantitative metabolomics, fluxomics, and discovery metabolite profiling.
We find that the metabolome of nutrient-limited yeast varies dramatically with the limiting nutrient's identity. Low glutamine is a hallmark of nitrogen limitation, ATP of phosphorus limitation, and pyruvate of carbon limitation. The availability of these metabolites can quantitatively account for the nutrient-limited yeast's growth rate.
Microbes tailor their growth rate to nutrient availability. Here, we measured, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, >100 intracellular metabolites in steady-state cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing at five different rates and in each of five different limiting nutrients. In contrast to gene transcripts, where ∼25% correlated with growth rate irrespective of the nature of the limiting nutrient, metabolite concentrations were highly sensitive to the limiting nutrient's identity. Nitrogen (ammonium) and carbon (glucose) limitation were characterized by low intracellular amino acid and high nucleotide levels, whereas phosphorus (phosphate) limitation resulted in the converse. Low adenylate energy charge was found selectively in phosphorus limitation, suggesting the energy charge may actually measure phosphorus availability. Particularly strong concentration responses occurred in metabolites closely linked to the limiting nutrient, e.g., glutamine in nitrogen limitation, ATP in phosphorus limitation, and pyruvate in carbon limitation. A simple but physically realistic model involving the availability of these metabolites was adequate to account for cellular growth rate. The complete data can be accessed at the interactive website http://growthrate.princeton.edu/metabolome.
Absolute metabolite concentrations are critical to a quantitative understanding of cellular metabolism, as concentrations impact both the free energies and rates of metabolic reactions. Here we use liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to quantify more than 100 metabolite concentrations in aerobic, exponentially growing E. coli with glucose, glycerol, or acetate as the carbon source. The total observed intracellular metabolite pool is approximately 300 mM. A small number of metabolites dominate the metabolome on a molar basis, with glutamate most abundant. Metabolite concentration exceeds Km for most substrate-enzyme pairs. An exception is lower glycolysis, where concentrations of intermediates are near the Km of their consuming enzymes and all reactions are near equilibrium. This may facilitate efficient flux reversibility given thermodynamic and osmotic constraints. The data and analyses presented here highlight the ability to identify organizing metabolic principles from systems-level absolute metabolite concentration data.
Human cytomegalovirus hijacks host cell metabolism, increasing the flux of carbon from glucose to malonyl-CoA, the committed precursor to fatty acid synthesis and elongation. Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase blocks the production of progeny virus. To probe further the role of fatty acid metabolism during infection, we performed an siRNA screen to identify host cell metabolic enzymes needed for the production of infectious cytomegalovirus progeny. The screen predicted that multiple long chain acyl-CoA synthetases and fatty acid elongases are needed during infection, and the levels of RNAs encoding several of these enzymes were upregulated by the virus. Roles for acyl-CoA synthetases and elongases during infection were confirmed by using small molecule antagonists. Consistent with a role for these enzymes, mass spectrometry-based fatty acid analysis with13C-labeling revealed that malonyl-CoA is consumed by elongases to produce very long chain fatty acids, generating an approximately 8-fold increase in C26-C34 fatty acid tails in infected cells. The virion envelope was yet further enriched in C26-C34 saturated fatty acids, and elongase inhibitors caused the production of virions with lower levels of these fatty acids and markedly reduced infectivity. These results reveal a dependence of cytomegalovirus on very long chain fatty acid metabolism.
Herpes viruses modulate cellular pathways to generate the building blocks that are necessary for their replication. Human cytomegalovirus alters metabolism of infected cells and causes a dramatic increase in lipid biosynthesis. We have investigated the role of lipid pathways in the viral life cycle and discovered that the virus requires several host enzymes that are responsible for the synthesis of very long chain fatty acids. Interestingly, very long chain fatty acids are substantially increased in the lipids of infected cells and saturated forms of these fatty acids are selectively incorporated into the envelope of the virus. Drugs that inhibit the synthesis of very long chain fatty acids generate virus particles with reduced infectivity. The discovery that human cytomegalovirus depends on the production of particular fatty acids furthers our understanding of virus-host cell interaction and suggests potential novel strategies for antiviral therapies.
Metabolomics, genetics and biochemistry were combined to obtain the first complete map of the nucleotide degradation and ribose salvage pathway in yeast. This pathway promotes yeast survival in starvation and oxidative stress.
During carbon starvation, ribose salvage from nucleotides promotes yeast survival.The salvage pathway requires the previously misannotated nucleotidase Phm8.Ribose-derived carbon accumulates as sedoheptulose-7-phosphate.This carbon reserve enables rapid NADPH production in oxidative stress.
Nucleotide degradation is a universal metabolic capability. Here we combine metabolomics, genetics and biochemistry to characterize the yeast pathway. Nutrient starvation, via PKA, AMPK/SNF1, and TOR, triggers autophagic breakdown of ribosomes into nucleotides. A protein not previously associated with nucleotide degradation, Phm8, converts nucleotide monophosphates into nucleosides. Downstream steps, which involve the purine nucleoside phosphorylase, Pnp1, and pyrimidine nucleoside hydrolase, Urh1, funnel ribose into the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway. During carbon starvation, the ribose-derived carbon accumulates as sedoheptulose-7-phosphate, whose consumption by transaldolase is impaired due to depletion of transaldolase's other substrate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Oxidative stress increases glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, resulting in rapid consumption of sedoheptulose-7-phosphate to make NADPH for antioxidant defense. Ablation of Phm8 or double deletion of Pnp1 and Urh1 prevent effective nucleotide salvage, resulting in metabolite depletion and impaired survival of starving yeast. Thus, ribose salvage provides means of surviving nutrient starvation and oxidative stress.
autophagy; mass spectrometry; metabolism; nutrient starvation; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Recent advances in mass spectrometry are enabling improved analysis of endogenous metabolites. Here we discuss several issues relevant to developing liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry methods for targeted metabolomics (i.e., quantitative analysis of dozens to hundreds of specific metabolites). Sample preparation and liquid chromatography approaches are discussed, with an eye towards the challenge of dealing with a diversity of metabolite classes in parallel. Evidence is presented that heated electrospray ionization (ESI) generally gives improved signal compared to the more traditional unheated ESI. Applicability to targeted metabolomics of triple-quadruple mass spectrometry operating in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode and high mass-resolution full scan mass spectrometry (e.g., time-of-flight, Orbitrap) are described. We suggest that both are viable solutions, with MRM preferred when targeting a more limited number of analytes, and full scan preferred for its potential ability to bridge targeted and untargeted metabolomics.
Folate metabolism, which is responsible for one-carbon transfer reactions in critical cellular processes including thymidine biosynthesis, is among the most important targets of antibiotic and anticancer drugs. Analysis of intracellular folates is complicated by three different types of folate modification: oxidation/reduction, methylation, and polyglutamylation. Here we present a method for quantifying the full diversity of intracellular folates by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method begins with folate extraction using −75°C methanol:water, with ascorbic acid and ammonium acetate added to prevent folate interconversion. The extract is then separated using hydrophilic interaction chromatography with an amino column, ionized by positive mode electrospray, and analyzed on a triple quadrupole instrument using multiple reaction monitoring. The method has been used to profile the folate pools in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with absolute levels of selected folates in E. coli measured by spiking extracts of cells fed uniformly 13C-glucose with purified, unlabeled folate standards. An isotope-ratio-based approach has been applied to study the effects of trimethoprim, a clinically important antibiotic that blocks bacterial dihydrofolate reductase. In addition to causing the expected increase in oxidized and decrease in reduced folates, trimethoprim triggered a dramatic and previously unrecognized shift towards shorter polyglutamate chain lengths. This finding highlights the potential for analysis of the full spectrum of cellular folates by MS/MS to unveil novel biological phenomena.
Most methods of analyzing intracellular metabolites require extraction of metabolites from the cells. A concern in these methods is underestimation of metabolite levels due to incomplete extraction. In comparing extraction methods, it would accordingly seem that the best method for extracting a particular metabolite is the one giving the largest yield. In extracting Escherichia coli with different methanol:water mixtures, we observed that ≥ 50% water gave increased yield of nucleosides and bases compared to ≤ 20% water, as determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the resulting extracts. Spiking of the extracts with isotope-labeled nucleotides revealed, however, that the high yield of nucleosides and bases occurred due to decomposition of nucleotides in the water-rich condition, not good extraction. Spiking combined with isotope labeling provides a general approach to detecting decomposition products in extracts of cellular metabolites. For extraction of E. coli with methanol:water, cold temperature and a high methanol fraction minimizes artifacts due to metabolite decomposition.
Metabolomics; metabolism; extraction; bacteria; sampling; stability; LC-MS/MS; triple quadrupole; small molecule
Herpes simplex virus 1 infection triggers multiple changes in the metabolism of host cells, including a dramatic decrease in the levels of NAD+. In addition to its role as a cofactor in reduction-oxidation reactions, NAD+ is required for certain posttranslational modifications. Members of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family of enzymes are major consumers of NAD+, which they utilize to form poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) chains on protein substrates in response to DNA damage. PAR chains can subsequently be removed by the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). We report here that the HSV-1 infection-induced drop in NAD+ levels required viral DNA replication, was associated with an increase in protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), and was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of PARP-1/PARP-2 (PARP-1/2). Neither virus yield nor the cellular metabolic reprogramming observed during HSV-1 infection was altered by the rescue or further depletion of NAD+ levels. Expression of the viral protein ICP0, which possesses E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, was both necessary and sufficient for the degradation of the 111-kDa PARG isoform. This work demonstrates that HSV-1 infection results in changes to NAD+ metabolism by PARP-1/2 and PARG, and as PAR chain accumulation can induce caspase-independent apoptosis, we speculate that the decrease in PARG levels enhances the auto-PARylation-mediated inhibition of PARP, thereby avoiding premature death of the infected cell.
Anapleurosis is the filling of the TCA cycle with four-carbon units. The common substrate for both anapleurosis and glucose phosphorylation in bacteria is the terminal glycolytic metabolite, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). Here we show that E. coli quickly and almost completely turns off PEP consumption upon glucose removal. The resulting build-up of PEP is used to quickly import glucose if it becomes re-available. The switch-like termination of anapleurosis results from depletion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), an ultrasensitive allosteric activator of PEP carboxylase. E. coli expressing an FBP-insensitive point mutant of PEP carboxylase grow normally on steady glucose. However, they fail to build-up PEP upon glucose removal, grow poorly on oscillating glucose, and suffer from futile cycling at the PEP node on gluconeogenic substrates. Thus, bacterial central carbon metabolism is intrinsically programmed with ultrasensitive allosteric regulation to enable rapid adaptation to changing environmental conditions.
Itaconic acid, or methylenesuccinic acid, is not generally classified as a mammalian metabolite. Using NMR based metabolomics and 13C-labeling, we have detected itaconic acid in both macrophage-like VM-M3 and RAW 264.7 tumor cell lines as well as stimulated and unstimulated primary murine macrophages. Macrophage activation by addition of lipopolysaccharide and IFN-γ markedly increased itaconic acid production and secretion. Crude cell extracts synthesize itaconic acid via decarboxylation of cis-aconitate, indicative of a novel mammalian cis-aconitic decarboxylase activity. Our results highlight a previously unidentified biosynthetic pathway related to TCA cycle metabolism in mammalian cells and a novel metabolite that likely plays a role in macrophage-based immune response.
metabolomics; NMR; LC-MS; itaconic acid; tumor cells; macrophages
mTOR inhibitors are used clinically to treat renal cancer but are not curative. Here we show that autophagy is a resistance mechanism of human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines to mTOR inhibitors. RCC cell lines have high basal autophagy that is required for survival to mTOR inhibition. In RCC4 cells, inhibition of mTOR with CCI-779 stimulates autophagy and eliminates RIP kinases (RIPKs) and this is blocked by autophagy inhibition, which induces RIPK- and ROS-dependent necroptosis in vitro and suppresses xenograft growth. Autophagy of mitochondria is required for cell survival since mTOR inhibition turns off Nrf2 antioxidant defense. Thus, coordinate mTOR and autophagy inhibition leads to an imbalance between ROS production and defense, causing necroptosis that may enhance cancer treatment efficacy.
Gluconeogenesis converts three carbon units into glucose. Here we identify an analogous pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for converting three carbon units into ribose, a component of nucleic acids and nucleotides. This riboneogenic pathway involves the enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SHB17), whose activity was identified based on accumulation of sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate in the corresponding knockout strain. We determined the crystal structure of Shb17 in complex with sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate, and found that the sugar is bound in the closed furan form in the active site. Like fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate is produced by aldolase, in this case from erythrose 4-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Hydrolysis of sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphate by SHB17 provides an energetically favorable input to the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway to drive ribose production. Flux through SHB17 is enhanced under conditions when ribose demand is high relative to demand for NADPH, including during ribosome biogenesis in metabolically synchronized yeast cells. Thus, riboneogenesis provides a thermodynamically-driven route of ribose production uncoupled from formation of NADPH.