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1.  Synthesis and biological evaluation of Combretastatin A-4 derivatives containing a 3’-O-substituted carbonic ether moiety as potential antitumor agents 
Background
Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4), which is an excellent antineoplastic agent, was isolated from Combretum caffrum. To date, structural modification studies of CA-4 have focused predominantly on the construction of new therapeutic agents for drug discovery. As a part of our ongoing work towards the modification of natural products, we have focused on the 3’-O-substituent groups in the B-ring of CA-4 under the hypothesis that these novel derivatives will possess good bioactivities and behave as effective antiproliferative pro-drugs.
Results
A series of novel CA-4 derivatives, which contained a 3’-O-substituted carbonic ether moiety, were synthesized and evaluated for their antitumor activities against four tumor cell lines, including MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, K562 and A549 cells. These derivatives exhibited clear antitumor activities, and CA-4E, in particular, showed the highest bioactivity of all of the derivatives tested against all four tumor cell lines, with IC50 values in the range of 1 to 180 nM. Based on its high bioactivity, CA-4E was subsequently selected to investigate the antitumor mechanism of these synthetic compounds. The cell cycle results demonstrated that CA-4E induced time- and dose-dependent G2/M arrest in a similar manner to CA-4, although its effect was more powerful than that of CA-4, and the apoptosis data showed that CA-4E induced cellular apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner.
Conclusions
The newly synthesized CA-4 derivatives exhibited good antitumor activities in vitro, with CA-4E, in particular, showing the highest bioactivity of all of the compounds tested. Furthermore, CA-4E induced time- and dose-dependent G2/M arrest and cellular apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that CA-4E should be subjected to further investigation as a potential anticancer drug candidate.
doi:10.1186/1752-153X-7-179
PMCID: PMC3878987  PMID: 24304592
Combretastatin A-4; Synthesis; Antitumor activity; WST-1; Cell cycle arrest; Apoptosis
2.  Riccardin D Exerts Its Antitumor Activity by Inducing DNA Damage in PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e74387.
We recently reported that Riccardin D (RD) was able to induce apoptosis by targeting Topo II. Here, we found that RD induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase in PC-3 cells, and caused remarkable DNA damage as evidenced by induction of γH2AX foci, micronuclei, and DNA fragmentation in Comet assay. Time kinetic and dose-dependent studies showed that ATM/Chk2 and ATR/Chk1 signaling pathways were sequentially activated in response to RD. Blockage of ATM/ATR signaling led to the attenuation of RD-induced γH2AX, and to the partial recovery of cell proliferation. Furthermore, RD exposure resulted in the inactivation of BRCA1, suppression of HR and NHEJ repair activity, and downregulation of the expressions and DNA-end binding activities of Ku70/86. Consistent with the observations, microarray data displayed that RD triggered the changes in genes responsible for cell proliferation, cell cycle, DNA damage and repair, and apoptosis. Administration of RD to xenograft mice reduced tumor growth, and coordinately caused alterations in the expression of genes involved in DNA damage and repair, along with cell apoptosis. Thus, this finding identified a novel mechanism by which RD affects DNA repair and acts as a DNA damage agent in prostate cancer.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074387
PMCID: PMC3775815  PMID: 24069304
3.  Retigeric Acid B Attenuates the Virulence of Candida albicans via Inhibiting Adenylyl Cyclase Activity Targeted by Enhanced Farnesol Production 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e41624.
Candida albicans, the most prevalent fungal pathogen, undergoes yeast-to-hyphal switch which has long been identified as a key fungal virulence factor. We showed here that the lichen-derived small molecule retigeric acid B (RAB) acted as an inhibitor that significantly inhibited the filamentation of C. albicans, leading to the prolonged survival of nematodes infected by C. albicans. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis and intracellular cAMP measurement revealed RAB regulated the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway by reducing cAMP level to inhibit the hyphae formation. Confocal microscopic observation showed RAB induced the expression of Dpp3, synthesizing more farnesol, which was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy detection. An adenylyl cyclase activity assay demonstrated RAB could repress the activity of Cdc35 through stimulating farnesol synthesis, thus causing a decrease in cAMP synthesis, leading to retarded yeast-to-hyphal transition. Moreover, reduced levels of intracellular cAMP resulted in the inhibition of downstream adhesins. Together, these findings indicate that RAB stimulates farnesol production that directly inhibits the Cdc35 activity, reducing the synthesis of cAMP and thereby causing the disruption of the morphologic transition and attenuating the virulence of C. albicans. Our work illustrates the underlying mechanism of RAB-dependent inhibition of the yeast-to-hyphal switch and provides a potential application in treating the infection of C. albicans.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041624
PMCID: PMC3406657  PMID: 22848547
4.  In Vivo Inhibitory Effect on the Biofilm Formation of Candida albicans by Liverwort Derived Riccardin D 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(4):e35543.
Riccardin D, a macrocyclic bisbibenzyl isolated from Chinese liverwort Dumortiera hirsute, has been proved to have inhibitory effect on biofilms formation of Candida albicans in in vitro study. Our present study aims to investigate the in vivo effect and mechanisms of riccardin D against C. albicans biofilms when used alone or in combination with clinical using antifungal agent fluconazole. XTT reduction assay revealed riccardin D had both prophylactic and therapeutic effect against C. albicans biofilms formation in a dose-dependent manner when using a central venous catheter related infective animal model. Scanning electron microscope and laser confocal scanning microscope showed that the morphology of biofilms was altered remarkably after riccardin D treatment, especially hypha growth inhibition. To uncover the underlying molecular mechanisms, quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed to observe the variation of related genes. The downregulation of hypha-specific genes such as ALS1, ALS3, ECE1, EFG1, HWP1 and CDC35 following riccardin D treatment suggested riccardin D inhibited the Ras-cAMP-Efg pathway to retard the hypha formation, then leading to the defect of biofilms maturation. Moreover, riccardin D displayed an increased antifungal activity when administered in combination with fluconazole. Our study provides a potential clinical application to eliminate the biofilms of relevant pathogens.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035543
PMCID: PMC3335839  PMID: 22545115
5.  Bisbibenzyls, a New Type of Antifungal Agent, Inhibit Morphogenesis Switch and Biofilm Formation through Upregulation of DPP3 in Candida albicans 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(12):e28953.
The yeast-to-hypha transition plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of C. albicans. Farnesol, a quorum sensing molecule (QSM) secreted by the fungal itself, could prevent the formation of hyphae and subsequently lead to the defect of biofilm formation. The DPP3, encoding phosphatase, is a key gene in regulating farnesol synthesis. In this study, we screened 24 bisbibenzyls and 2 bibenzyls that were isolated from bryophytes or chemically synthesized by using CLSI method for antifungal effect. Seven bisbibenzyls were found to have antifungal effects with IC80 less than 32 µg/ml, and among them, plagiochin F, isoriccardin C and BS-34 were found to inhibit the hyphae and biofilm formation of C. albicans in a dose-dependent manner. To uncover the underlying relationship between morphogenesis switch and QSM formation, we measured the farnesol production by HPLC-MS and quantified Dpp3 expression by detecting the fluorescent intensity of green fluorescent protein tagged strain using Confocal Laser Scanning microscopy and Multifunction Microplate Reader. The DPP3 transcripts were determined by real-time PCR. The data indicated that the bisbibenzyls exerted antifungal effects through stimulating the synthesis of farnesol via upregulation of Dpp3, suggesting a potential antifungal application of bisbibenzyls. In addition, our assay provides a novel, visual and convenient method to measure active compounds against morphogenesis switch.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028953
PMCID: PMC3236236  PMID: 22174935
6.  In Vitro Activities of Retigeric Acid B Alone and in Combination with Azole Antifungal Agents against Candida albicans▿  
The vitro antifungal activity of retigeric acid B (RAB), a pentacyclic triterpenoid from the lichen species Lobaria kurokawae, was evaluated alone and in combination with fluconazole, ketoconazole, and itraconazole against Candida albicans using checkerboard microdilution and time-killing tests. The MICs for RAB against 10 different C. albicans isolates ranged from 8 to 16 μg/ml. A synergistic action of RAB and azole was observed in azole-resistant strains, whereas synergistic or indifferent effects were observed in azole-sensitive strains when interpreted by a separate approach of the fractional inhibitory concentration index and ΔE model (the difference between the predicted and measured fungal growth percentages). In time-killing tests, we used both colony counts and a colorimetric assay to evaluate the combinational antifungal effects of RAB and azoles, which further confirmed their synergistic interactions. These findings suggest that the natural product RAB may play a certain role in increasing the susceptibilities of azole-resistant C. albicans strains.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00940-08
PMCID: PMC2663064  PMID: 19171796
7.  Oridonin Confers Protection against Arsenic-Induced Toxicity through Activation of the Nrf2-Mediated Defensive Response 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2008;116(9):1154-1161.
Background
Groundwater contaminated with arsenic imposes a big challenge to human health worldwide. Using natural compounds to subvert the detrimental effects of arsenic represents an attractive strategy. The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a critical regulator of the cellular antioxidant response and xenobiotic metabolism. Recently, activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway has been reported to confer protection against arsenic-induced toxicity in a cell culture model.
Objectives
The goal of the present work was to identify a potent Nrf2 activator from plants as a chemopreventive compound and to demonstrate the efficacy of the compound in battling arsenic-induced toxicity.
Results
Oridonin activated the Nrf2 signaling pathway at a low subtoxic dose and was able to stabilize Nrf2 by blocking Nrf2 ubiquitination and degradation, leading to accumulation of the Nrf2 protein and activation of the Nrf2-dependent cytoprotective response. Pretreatment of UROtsa cells with 1.4 μM oridonin significantly enhanced the cellular redox capacity, reduced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and improved cell survival after arsenic challenge.
Conclusions
We identified oridonin as representing a novel class of Nrf2 activators and illustrated the mechanism by which the Nrf2 pathway is activated. Furthermore, we demonstrated the feasibility of using natural compounds targeting Nrf2 as a therapeutic approach to protect humans from various environmental insults that may occur daily.
doi:10.1289/ehp.11464
PMCID: PMC2535615  PMID: 18795156
antioxidant responsive element; antitumor; ARE; arsenic; chemoprevention; diterpenoid; Keap1; Nrf2; oridonin; oxidative stress; rubescensin
8.  Dietary Polyphenols and Their Biological Significance 
Dietary polyphenols represent a wide variety of compounds that occur in fruits, vegetables, wine, tea, extra virgin olive oil, chocolate and other cocoa products. They are mostly derivatives and/or isomers of flavones, isoflavones, flavonols, catechins and phenolic acids, and possess diverse biological properties such as antioxidant, antiapoptosis, anti-aging, anticarcinogen, anti-inflammation, anti-atherosclerosis, cardiovascular protection, improvement of the endothelial function, as well as inhibition of angiogenesis and cell proliferation activity. Most of these biological actions have been attributed to their intrinsic reducing capabilities. They may also offer indirect protection by activating endogenous defense systems and by modulating cellular signaling processes such as nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation, activator protein-1(AP-1) DNA binding, glutathione biosynthesis, phosphoinositide 3 (PI3)-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) proteins [extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and P38 ] activation, and the translocation into the nucleus of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2). This paper covers the most recent literature on the subject, and describes the biological mechanisms of action and protective effects of dietary polyphenols.
PMCID: PMC3871896
Polyphenols; antioxidant; anticarcinogen; antiapoptosis; cardiovascular protection; Nrf2; NF-κB; biological properties

Results 1-8 (8)