Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the differences in thyroid hormone, intelligence, attention, and quality of life (QoL) of children with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) before and after endoscopic adenoidectomy. Method. A total of 35 OSAHS children (21 males and 14 females with a mean age of 6.81 ± 1.08 years) were included in this study for analyzing the levels of thyroid hormone, intelligence, attention, and QoL. There were 22 children underwent endoscopic adenoidectomy with bilateral tonsillectomy (BT), while the other 13 children who underwent endoscopic adenoidectomy without bilateral tonsillectomy without BT. Results. Our results revealed no significant difference in serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in OSAHS children before and after endoscopic adenoidectomy (all P > 0.05). However, there were significant differences in full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ) (92.45 ± 5.88 versus 106.23 ± 7.39, P < 0.001), verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ) (94.17 ± 15.01 versus 103.91 ± 9.74, P = 0.006), and performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) (94.12 ± 11.04 versus 104.31 ± 10.05, P = 0.001), attention (98.48 ± 8.74 versus 106.87 ± 8.58, P < 0.001), and total OSA-18 scores (87.62 ± 17.15 versus 46.61 ± 10.15, P < 0.001) between before and after endoscopic adenoidectomy in OSAHS children. Conclusion. Our findings provided evidence that the intelligence, attention, and QoL of OSAHS children may be significantly improved after endoscopic adenoidectomy.
Our previous study has shown berberine prevents damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier during early phase of sepsis in rat through mechanisms independent of the NOD-like receptors signaling pathway. In this study, we explored the regulatory effects of berberine on Toll-like receptors during the intestinal mucosal damaging process in rats. Male Sprague-Dawlay (SD) rats were treated with berberine for 5 d before undergoing cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce polymicrobial sepsis. The expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR 2), TLR 4, TLR 9, the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), the levels of selected cytokines and chemokines, percentage of cell death in intestinal epithelial cells, and mucosal permeability were investigated at 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after CLP. Results showed that the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) level were significantly lower in berberine-treated rats compared to the control animals. Conversely, the expression level of tight junction proteins, percentage of cell death in intestinal epithelial cells and the mucosal permeability were significantly higher in berberine-treated rats. The mRNA expression of TLR 2, TLR 4, and TLR 9 were significantly affected by berberine treatment. Our results indicate that pretreatment with berberine attenuates tissue injury and protects the intestinal mucosal barrier in early phase of sepsis and this may possibly have been mediated through the TLRs pathway.
Berberine; Cecal ligation and puncture; Intestinal mucosal barrier; Intra-abdominal infections; Toll-like receptors
Long noncoding RNA Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) has been characterized as a negative prognostic factor in breast and colon cancer patients. The clinical significance and function of HOTAIR in glioma remains unclear.
We analyzed the clinical significance of HOTAIR in 3 different glioma cohorts with gene expression data, including correlation with tumor grade, prognosis, and molecular subtype. The function of HOTAIR in glioma was explored by performing gene set enrichment analysis and in vitro and in vivo experiments.
HOTAIR expression was closely associated with glioma grade and poor prognosis. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that HOTAIR was an independent prognostic factor in glioblastoma multiforme patients. HOTAIR expression correlated with glioma molecular subtype, including those of The Cancer Genome Atlas. HOTAIR was preferentially expressed in the classical and mesenchymal subtypes compared with the neural and proneural subtypes. A gene set enrichment analysis designed to show gene set differences between patients with high and low HOTAIR expression indicated that HOTAIR expression was associated with gene sets involved in cell cycle progression. HOTAIR reduction induced colony formation suppression, cell cycle G0/G1 arrest, and orthotopic tumor growth inhibition.
Our data establish that HOTAIR is an important long noncoding RNA that primarily serves as a prognostic factor for glioma patient survival, as well as a biomarker for identifying glioma molecular subtypes, a critical regulator of cell cycle progression.
cell cycle; glioma; HOTAIR; molecular subtype; survival
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphism can affect APOE gene transcription, serum lipid levels and repair of tissue damage, which could place individuals at serious risk of cardiovascular disease or certain infectious diseases. Recently, high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was reported to be a simple, inexpensive, accurate and sensitive method for the genotyping or/and scanning of rare mutations. For this reason, an HRM analysis was used in the present study for APOE genotyping in the Southern Chinese Han and African Fang populations. A total of 100 healthy Southern Chinese Han and 175 healthy African Fang individuals attended the study. Polymerase chain reaction-DNA sequencing was used as a reference method for the genotyping of these samples. The six APOE genotypes could all be rapidly and efficiently identified by HRM analysis, and 100% concordance was found between the HRM analysis and the reference method. The allele frequencies of APOE in the Southern Chinese Han population were 7.0, 87.5 and 5.5% for ɛ2, ɛ3 and ɛ4, respectively. In the African Fang population, the allele frequencies of APOE were 24.3, 65.7 and 10.0% for ɛ2, ɛ3 and ɛ4, respectively. A statistically significant difference was found between the allele frequencies between the populations (P<0.05). In conclusion, the present study revealed the molecular characterization of APOE gene polymorphism in the Han population from the Chaozhou region of Southern China and the Fang population from Equatorial Guinea. The findings of the study indicated that HRM analysis could be used as an accurate and sensitive method for the rapid screening and identification of APOE genotypes in prospective clinical and population genetic analyses.
apolipoprotein E; genotype; high-resolution melting; Chinese Han; African Fang
Metal-on-metal resurfacing arthroplasty is an attractive alternative to conventional total hip arthroplasty in patients with osteoarthritis secondary to developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The purpose of this study was to assess the mid-term clinical outcome and mid-term survivorship of Metal-on-metal resurfacing arthroplasty in patients suffering from osteoarthritis secondary to DDH.
Between May 2003 and Dec. 2005, 15 operations using ASR™ and 19 using Corin were performed in 29 patients to treat advanced osteoarthritis secondary to DDHs. There were 6 males (20.7%) and 23 females (79.3%), with an average age of 47.2 years (range, 36–64 years). Clinical and radiographic results were observed. All patients were followed up at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 6th, and 12th months after surgery and annually thereafter.
The overall survival was 88.2% at a minimum follow-up of 8 years, but the survival was 91.2% after excluding the infections as the cause of component loosening and failure. The mean Harris hip score improved from 48.27±3.13 (range, 14–71) to 89.63±3.42 (range, 65–100) at latest follow-up. The flexion was from 75.14±8.05° to 107.21±9.34. Only 4 failed because of deep infection, femoral neck fracture, and aseptic loosening.
Metal-on-metal resurfacing arthroplasty showed perfect results at a minimum of 8-years of follow-up in our study, and may be a reasonable option for osteoarthritis secondary to developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH).
Follow-Up Studies; Hip Dislocation, Congenital; Hip Prosthesis; Osteoarthritis, Hip
The emerged human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in China since 2013 has aroused global concerns. There is great demand for simple and rapid diagnostic method for early detection of H7N9 to provide timely treatment and disease control. The aim of the current study was to develop a rapid, accurate and feasible reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for detection of H7N9 virus.
The detection limits of the H7- and N9-specific RT-LAMP assay were both approximately 0.2 PFU per reaction. No cross-reactivity was observed with other subtype of influenza viruses or common respiratory viral pathogens. The assay worked well with clinical specimens from patients and chickens, and exhibited high specificity and sensitivity.
The H7/N9 specific RT-LAMP assay was sensitive and accurate, which could be a useful alternative in clinical diagnostics of influenza A (H7N9) virus, especially in the hospitals and laboratories without sophisticated diagnostic systems.
Influenza virus; H7N9 subtype; Reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification; Molecular diagnosis
Altered expression of micro(mi)RNAs has been shown to be associated with tumorigenesis and tumor progression. The expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) plays an important role in glioma and is regarded as a prognostic marker of glioma patients. The goal of this study was to investigate the function of lethal (let)-7a miRNA in glioma cell lines with different PTEN phenotypes.
One hundred ninety-eight glioma tissues were used to profile miRNA expression.
Let-7a was shown to have lower expression in high-grade glioma than in low-grade glioma. Low expression of let-7a was correlated with poor prognosis of primary glioblastoma patients. We demonstrated that K-ras was a functional target for let-7a to induce cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and inhibition of cell migration and invasion in vitro. Our further results showed no difference in malignancy inhibition induced by let-7a in 4 glioma cells, including U87 (PTEN null), U251 (PTEN mutant), LN229 (PTEN wild type), and LN229 (PTEN small interfering RNA). The phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways were inhibited by let-7a, and the inhibition effects had no difference in 4 glioma cells. We demonstrated that let-7a could induce suppression of glioma in vivo by generating a glioma xenograft model.
Our results indicated that let-7a suppresses its target transcript K-ras and inhibits glioma malignancy independent of PTEN expression.
glioma; let-7a; K-ras; miRNA; PTEN
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is one of the most important zoonotic parasitic diseases worldwide and 10 genotypes (G1–G10) have been reported. In China, almost all the epidemiological and genotyping studies of E. granulosus s.l. are from the west and northwest pasturing areas. However, in Heilongjiang Province of northeastern China, no molecular information is available on E. granulosus s.l. To understand and to speculate on possible transmission patterns of E. granulosus s.l., we molecularly identified and genotyped 10 hydatid cysts from hepatic CE patients in Heilongjiang Province based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1), cytochrome b (cytb) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) genes. Two genotypes were identified, G1 genotype (n = 6) and G7 genotype (n = 4). All the six G1 genotype isolates were identical to each other at the cox1 locus; three and two different sequences were obtained at the cytb and nad1 loci, respectively, with two cytb gene sequences not being described previously. G7 genotype isolates were identical to each other at the cox1, cytb and nad1 loci; however, the cytb gene sequence was not described previously. This is the first report of G7 genotype in humans in China. Three new cytb gene sequences from G1 and G7 genotypes might reflect endemic genetic characterizations. Pigs might be the main intermediate hosts of G7 genotype in our investigated area by homology analysis. The results will aid in making more effective control strategies for the prevention of transmission of E. granulosus s.l.
The aim of this study is to explore the therapeutic potential of RYGB, a common used bariatric surgery, on diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In animal model experiments, rats were made diabetic by STZ administration, and after 12 weeks of diabetes, two groups were studied: RYGB and sham surgery control (PF). Change in oral glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and the plasma concentrations of insulin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured. Peripheral nerve function was determined by the current perception threshold. Sciatic nerve blood flow (SNBF) and intraepidermal nerve fiber densities (IENFDs) also were evaluated. The results indicated that glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were significantly improved in the RYGB group. Fasting total GLP-1 were increased in the RYGB group. The increase seen in current perception threshold vales in RYGB group was reduced. The decreased IENFDs in sole skins of RYGB group were ameliorated by RYGB. In conclusion, the findings indicate that RYGB ameliorates the severity of DPN, which may be associated with increased GLP-1 and improved insulin sensitivity/action.
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass; diabetes; glucagon-like peptide-1; insulin sensitivity
This is a rare instance of acute kidney injury caused by hyperuricemia due to spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome and also the first case of spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome reported in association with myelodysplastic syndrome.
A 53-year-old man presented with abrupt oliguria. Laboratory findings on admission included hyperuricemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, metabolic acidosis and rapidly rising serum creatinine, which were consistent with acute tumor lysis syndrome in the absence of precipitating chemotherapy or radiotherapy. After hemodialysis and oral uric acid lowering therapy, serum uric acid levels returned to normal range and renal function rapidly recovered. The patient was diagnosed as myelodysplastic syndrome eleven months later.
Occult malignancy including solid tumors and hematological malignancies should be carefully evaluated in the case of unexplainable acute kidney injury with hyperuricemia. Aggressive investigations should be thoroughly considered and repeated in this population.
Acute kidney injury; Hyperuricemia; Myelodysplastic syndrome; Spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome
This study sought to evaluate the prognostic significance of postoperative complications for colon cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery.
From May 2006 to May 2009, a total 224 patients who underwent laparoscopic curative resection (R0) for colon cancer were included in our retrospective study. Postoperative complications were evaluated according to a standardized grading system. The main outcome measurements of our study were overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS), which were then compared between the no complication and complication groups. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to assess the correlation between complications and prognosis.
Fifty-nine postoperative complications occurred in 43 patients. The overall morbidity rate was 26.3%. The 5-year OS in the complication group was 41.4% compared with 78.5% in the no complication group (P<0.001). The cumulative incidence of relapse was also more aggressive in patients with complications (5-year RFS: complication group 40.9% vs. no complication group 82.1%, P<0.001). Multivariate analysis identified complications as a significant factor increasing the risk for both OS (RR 2.737; 95% CI 1.512–4.952; P = 0.001) and RFS (RR 4.247; 95% CI 2.291–7.876; P<0.001).
Postoperative complications could pose a significant adverse impact not only on OS but also on RFS in patients with colon cancer even when laparoscopic R0 resection is available.
We investigated whether the anti-atherosclerosis of adiponectin (APN) relates to the reduction of oxidative stress. We observed the overexpression of adiponectin gene with different titers on atherosclerosis (AS) models of high-fat apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice.
We divided 48 male ApoE−/− mice into 4 groups: control group, high-fat diet group, low adiponectin group, and high adiponectin group. The low and high adiponectin group mice were treated with recombinant adenovirus expressing mice adiponectin (Ad-APN) with low-dose adiponectin 1.0×108 p.f.u. and high-dose adiponectin 5.0×108 p.f.u. via the tail every 2 weeks and given a high-fat diet for the last 8 weeks. On the 14th day after injection, blood samples were obtained from the vena cava.
Along with increased serum adiponectin, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased (P<0.05) and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was decreased (P<0.05). Levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were decreased, especially TC and LDL-C (P<0.05). A real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction test was used to analyze levels of mRNA expression for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and adiponectin in the aorta. Along with increased adiponectin, the mRNA expression of eNOS in the aorta was increased significantly (P<0.05). The lesion formation in the aortic sinus was inhibited by 25% and 31% in the low-APN group and high-APN group, respectively (P<0.05). Along with the increase of adiponectin doses, the damage of atherosclerosis gradually eased. However, the differences between the low-APN group and high-APN group had no statistical significance.
Adiponectin may protect the aorta from atherosclerosis injury by reducing oxidative stress, reducing lesion formation size in the aortic root and reducing TC, TG, and LDL-C in serum. The molecular mechanism may involve preservation of SOD, reducing MDA in serum, and increasing eNOS and adiponectin mRNA expression in the aorta.
Adiponectin; Atherosclerosis; Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III; Oxidative Stress; Superoxide Dismutase
In this study, new marine ningalin B analogues containing a piperazine or a benzoloxy group at ring C have been synthesized and evaluated on their P-gp modulating activity in human breast cancer and leukemia cell lines. Their structure-activity relationship was preliminarily studied. Compounds 19 and 20 are potent P-gp inhibitors. These two synthetic analogues of permethyl ningalin B may be potentially used as effective modulators of P-gp-mediated drug resistance in cancer cells.
ningalin B analogues; multidrug resistance (MDR); pyrrole; P-glycoprotein; P-gp modulators
Female sex workers (FSWs) play a critical role in the heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in China. Several studies reported that street-based FSWs have higher risk behaviors than establishment-based FSWs. Therefore, street-based FSWs should be specifically targeted for HIV and STIs intervention programs.
This study aims to investigate the prevalence rates and risk factors of HIV and syphilis among FSWs in Nanchang, China.
Materials and Methods:
Using convenience sampling methods, 361 street-based FSWs were recruited from August 2011 to February 2012. All participants completed an anonymous questionnaire on socioeconomic and sex behavioral information and were tested for HIV and syphilis. Risk for HIV and syphilis infection was assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses.
No HIV infections were found. The prevalence rate of syphilis was 43.5%. Nearly 46.1% of street-based FSWs reported having education for no more than 6 years. Having reproductive tract infections at current visit, duration of sex work more than 5 years, indulgence in unprotected sex trade in the last time, unprotected sex trade in the last month, and unprotected sex with boyfriend or spouse in the last month were reported by 35.2%, 43.5%, 33.8%, 60.4%, and 93.1% street-based FSWs, respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, having reproductive tract infections at current visit [odds ratio (OR), 12.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.01-24.37], duration of sex work more than five years (OR, 4.26; 95% CI, 2.40-7.54), and unprotected sex trade in the last month (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.06-3.22) were independently associated with syphilis infection.
The prevalence rate of syphilis among street-based FSWs is very high. Most street-based FSWs in our survey had low education, long experience of commercial sex, and high rate of inconsistent condom use. Comprehensive interventions targeting this high-risk group, especially scaling up screening and ensuring consistent use of condoms during sex are needed.
Epidemiology; female sex worker; human immunodeficiency virus; prevalence; risk factor; syphilis
Unique quantitative bioaccessibility data has been generated, and the influence of surface/material and test media characteristics on the elemental release process were assessed for silicon containing materials in specific synthetic body fluids at certain time periods at a fixed loading. The metal release test protocol, elaborated by the KTH team, has previously been used for classification, ranking, and screening of different alloys and metals. Time resolved elemental release of Si, Fe and Al from particles, sized less than 50 µm, of two grades of metallurgical silicon (high purity silicon, SiHG, low purity silicon, SiLG), an alloy (ferrosilicon, FeSi) and a mineral (aluminium silicate, AlSi) has been investigated in synthetic body fluids of varying pH, composition and complexation capacity, simple models of for example dermal contact and digestion scenarios. Individual methods for analysis of released Si (as silicic acid, Si(OH)4) in synthetic body fluids using GF-AAS were developed for each fluid including optimisation of solution pH and graphite furnace parameters. The release of Si from the two metallurgical silicon grades was strongly dependent on both pH and media composition with the highest release in pH neutral media. No similar effect was observed for the FeSi alloy or the aluminium silicate mineral. Surface adsorption of phosphate and lactic acid were believed to hinder the release of Si whereas the presence of citric acid enhanced the release as a result of surface complexation. An increased presence of Al and Fe in the material (low purity metalloid, alloy or mineral) resulted in a reduced release of Si in pH neutral media. The release of Si was enhanced for all materials with Al at their outermost surface in acetic media.
EIF3e is a component of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF-3) complexes, which is an essential factor for initiation of protein synthesis in mammalian cells. Translational control plays key roles in the complex mechanism of cancer development and progression. However, the clinical significance of eIF3e in colon cancer remains to be elucidated. We analyzed the eIF3e expression in a tissue microarray (TMA), which contained 173 colon cancer tissues paired with adjacent normal mucosa and lymph node metastasis. The expression of eIF3e was significantly elevated in colon cancer tissues in comparison with those in adjacent normal mucosa (P < 0.001) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). The high expression of eIF3e in colon cancer was significantly correlated with tumor size (P < 0.001), lymph node involvement (P < 0.001), distant metastasis (P < 0.001), clinical stage (P < 0.001), histopathologic classification (P < 0.001), and vessel invasion (P = 0.036). Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that eIF3e is an independent prognosis factor for overall survival and disease-free survival in colon cancer. Down-regulation of eIF3e in vitro inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation, clonality and promoted cell apoptosis. Taken together, high eIF3e expression may contribute to tumor progression and predict poor prognosis in colon cancer.
Colon cancer; clinicopathological features; prognosis; eIF3e; proliferation; apoptosis
The intrinsic signaling cascades and cell states associated with the Glioma CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (G-CIMP) remain poorly understood. Using published mRNA signatures associated with EGFR activation, we demonstrate that G-CIMP+ tumors harbor decreased EGFR signaling using three independent datasets, including the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas(CGGA; n=155), the REMBRANDT dataset (n=288), and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA; n=406). Additionally, an independent collection of 25 fresh-frozen glioblastomas confirmed lowered pERK levels in G-CIMP+ specimens (p<0.001), indicating suppressed EGFR signaling. Analysis of TCGA glioblastomas revealed that G-CIMP+ glioblastomas harbored lowered mRNA levels for EGFR and H-Ras. Induction of G-CIMP+ state by exogenous expression of a mutated isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, IDH1-R132H, suppressed EGFR and H-Ras protein expression as well as pERK accumulation in independent glioblastoma models. These suppressions were associated with increased deposition of the repressive histone markers, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3, in the EGFR and H-Ras promoter regions. The IDH1-R132H expression-induced pERK suppression can be reversed by exogenous expression of H-RasG12V. Finally, the G-CIMP+ Ink4a-Arf−/− EGFRvIII glioblastoma line was more resistant to the EGFR inhibitor, Gefitinib, relative to its isogenic G-CIMP- counterpart. These results suggest that G-CIMP epigenetically regulates EGFR signaling and serves as a predictive biomarker for EGFR inhibitors in glioblastoma patients.
G-CIMP; EGFR; Glioblastoma; Epigenetic suppression
In the present study, we assessed the efficiency of four BMSC transplantation methods as a therapy for liver failure. A rat model (80 Sprague-Dawley rats) of D-galactosamine (D-gal)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) was established and the rats were divided into 5 groups: a hepatic artery injection group, a portal vein injection group, a vena caudalis injection group, an intraperitoneal injection group and a control group (16 per group). Following transplantation, the liver tissue and blood samples were collected on days 1, 3 and 7, we detected the EdU (5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine)-labeled cells homing to the liver tissue and assessed the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cysteine-containing aspartate-specific protease (caspase)-3 expression in the liver tissue and detected the levels of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the liver tissues. Compared with the control group, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and damage to the liver tissue in the hepatic artery group, the portal vein group and the vena caudalis group improved in vivo. The expression of PCNA and HGF in the liver was higher and caspase-3 expression was lower in the hepatic artery injection group, the portal vein injection group and the vena caudalis injection group than that in the intraperitoneal injection and control groups. The EdU-labeled BMSCs were only observed homing to the liver tissue in these three groups. However, no significant differences were observed between these three groups. Liver function in the rats with ALF was improved following BMSC transplantation via 3 endovascular implantation methods (through the hepatic artery, portal vein and vena caudalis). These 3 methods were effective in transplanting BMSCs for the treatment of ALF. However, the selection of blood vessel in the implantation pathway does not affect the transplantation outcome. Transplantation via intraperitoneal injection showed no therapeutic effect in our animal experiments.
acute liver failure; stem cell transplantation; bone mesenchymal stem cells; transplantation method
Background & Aims
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified 140 Crohn’s disease (CD) susceptibility loci. For most loci, the variants that cause disease are not known and the genes affected by these variants have not been identified. We aimed to identify variants that cause CD through detailed sequencing, genetic association, expression, and functional studies.
We sequenced whole exomes of 42 unrelated subjects with Crohn’s disease (CD) and 5 healthy individuals (controls), and then filtered single-nucleotide variants by incorporating association results from meta-analyses of CD GWASs and in silico mutation effect prediction algorithms. We then genotyped 9348 patients with CD, 2868 with ulcerative colitis, and 14,567 controls, and associated variants analyzed in functional studies using materials from patients and controls and in vitro model systems.
We identified rare missense mutations in PR domain-containing1 (PRDM1) and associated these with CD. These increased proliferation of T cells and secretion of cytokines upon activation, and increased expression of the adhesion molecule L-selectin. A common CD risk allele, identified in GWASs, correlated with reduced expression of PRDM1 in ileal biopsies and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (combined P=1.6×0−8). We identified an association between CD and a common missense variant, Val248Ala, in nuclear domain 10 protein 52 (NDP52) (P=4.83×10−9). We found that this variant impairs the regulatory functions of NDP52 to inhibit NFκB activation of genes that regulate inflammation and affect stability of proteins in toll-like receptor pathways.
We have extended GWAS results and provide evidence that variants in PRDM1 and NDP52 determine susceptibility to CD. PRDM1 maps adjacent to a CD interval identified in GWASs and encodes a transcription factor expressed by T and B cells. NDP52 is an adaptor protein that functions in selective autophagy of intracellular bacteria and signaling molecules, supporting the role for autophagy in pathogenesis of CD.
inflammatory bowel disease; whole-exome sequencing; complex disease
Dysregulated zinc transport has been observed in many cancers. However, the status of zinc homeostasis and the expression profile of zinc transporters in brain and brain tumors have not been reported.
The gene profiles of 14 zinc importers (ZIPs) and 10 zinc exporters (ZnTs) in patients with glioma were studied by investigating the association between the zinc transporters and brain tumor characteristics (tumor grade and overall survival time). Three independent cohorts were analyzed to cross-validate the findings: the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGCA) cohort (n = 186), the US National Cancer Institute Repository for Molecular Brain Neoplasia Data (REMBRANDT) cohort (n = 335), and The University of Texas (UT) cohort (n = 34).
The expression of ZIP3, 4, 8, 14, ZnT5, 6, and 7 were increased, and the expression of ZnT10 was decreased in grade IV gliomas, compared with grade II gliomas. Among all 24 zinc transporters, ZIP4 is most significantly associated with tumor grade and overall survival; this finding is consistent across 2 independent cohorts (CGCA and REMBRANDT) and is partially validated by the third cohort (UT). High ZIP4 expression was significantly associated with higher grade of gliomas and shorter overall survival (hazard ratio = 1.61, 95% confidence interval = 1.02–2.53, P = .040 in CGCA cohort; hazard ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval = 1.08–1.61, P = .007 in REMBRANDT cohort).
Dysregulated expression of zinc transporters is involved in the progression of gliomas. Our results suggest that ZIP4 may serve as a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker for gliomas.
biomarker; brain tumor; prognosis; survival; zinc transporter; ZIP4
The generation of reactive oxygen species plays a pivotal role in both acute and chronic glomerular injuries in patients with lupus nephritis. Since the transcription factor Nrf2 is a major regulator of the antioxidant response and is a primary cellular defense mechanism we sought to determine a role of Nrf2 in the progression of lupus nephritis. Pathological analyses of renal biopsies from patients with different types of lupus nephritis showed oxidative damage in the glomeruli, accompanied by an active Nrf2 antioxidant response. A murine lupus nephritis model using Nrf2+/+ and Nrf2−/− mice was established using pristine injection. In this model, Nrf2−/− mice suffered from greater renal damage and had more severe pathological alterations in the kidney. In addition, Nrf2+/+ mice showed ameliorative renal function when treated with sulforaphane, an Nrf2 inducer. Nrf2−/− mice had higher expression of TGFβ1, fibronectin and iNOS. In primary mouse mesangial cells, the nephritogenic monoclonal antibody R4A activated the NF-κB pathway and increased the level of reactive oxygen species, iNOS, TGFβ1 and fibronectin. Knockdown of Nrf2 expression aggravated all aforementioned responses induced by R4A. Thus, these results suggest that Nrf2 improves lupus nephritis by neutralizing reactive oxygen species and by negatively regulating the NF-κB and TGFβ1 signaling pathways.
lupus nephritis; Nrf2; ROS; NF-κB; TGFβ1; iNOS
Peptide TZ1C2 can populate two distinct orientations: a staggered (out-of-register) fibril and an aligned (in-register) coiled-coil trimer. The coordination of two cadmium ions induces a registry shift that results in a reversible transition between these structural forms. This process recapitulates the self-assembly mechanism of native protein fibrils in which a ligand binding event gates a reversible conformational transition between alternate forms of a folded peptide structure.
Background. Endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (AEA) protects neurons from oxidative injury in rodent models; however the mechanism of AEA-induced neuroprotection remains to be determined. Activation of neuronal NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) contributes to oxidative damage of the brain, and inhibition of Nox2 can attenuate cerebral oxidative stress. We aimed to determine whether the neuronal Nox2 was involved in protection mediated by AEA. Methods. The mouse hippocampal neuron cell line HT22 was exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to mimic oxidative injury of neurons. The protective effect of AEA was assessed by measuring cell metabolic activity, apoptosis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, cellular morphology, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and antioxidant and oxidant levels and Nox2 expression. Results. HT22 cells exposed to H2O2 demonstrated morphological changes, decreased LDH release, reduced metabolic activity, increased levels of intracellular ROS and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased expression of Nox2. AEA prevented these effects, a property abolished by simultaneous administration of CB1 antagonist AM251 or CB1-siRNA. Conclusion. Nox2 inhibition is involved in AEA-induced cytoprotection against oxidative stress through CB1 activation in HT22 cells.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation in the treatment of acute hepatic failure (AHF) in rats. BMSCs were isolated from rat bone marrow, cultured and analyzed by flow cytometry. Following BMSC transplantation into rats with AHF, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin (ALB), direct bilirubin (DBIL) and indirect bilirubin (IBIL) in the serum were measured using an automatic biochemical analyzer. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay were performed to analyze the pathological changes and apoptosis rate. Levels of cluster of differentiation (CD)163 and interleukin (IL)-10 in the serum and liver tissue were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay and western blot analysis. Compared with the levels in the control group, the serum levels of ALT, AST, DBIL, IBIL, CD163 and IL-10 in the BMSC transplantation groups were significantly lower at 120 and 168 h, while the serum levels of ALB were significantly higher at 168 h after BMSC transplantation. The pathological features of liver failure were alleviated by BMSC transplantation. The expression levels of CD163 and IL-10 in the liver tissue were also significantly decreased following transplantation. The results indicate that BMSCs have a therapeutic effect on AHF in rats, and CD163 and IL-10 may be used as sensitive serum prognosis indicators in the early assessment of patients following liver transplantation.
acute hepatic failure; bone mesenchymal stem cells; cluster of differentiation 163; interleukin 10; rat model