Management of metastatic disease is integral to cancer treatment. Evaluation of metastases often requires surgical removal of all anatomically susceptible lymph nodes for ex vivo pathologic examination. We report a family of novel ratiometric activatable cell-penetrating peptides, which contain Cy5 as far red fluorescent donor and Cy7 as near-infrared fluorescent acceptor. Cy5 is quenched in favor of Cy7 reemission until the intervening linker is cut by tumor-associated matrix metalloproteinases-2 and 9 (MMP2,9) or elastases. Such cleavage increases the Cy5:Cy7 emission ratio 40-fold and triggers tissue retention of the Cy5-containing fragment. This ratiometric increase provides an accelerated and quantifiable metric to identify primary tumors and metastases to liver and lymph nodes with increased sensitivity and specificity. This technique represents a significant advance over existing nonratiometric protease sensors and sentinel lymph node detection methods, which give no information about cancer invasion.
We study the detection of mutations, sequencing errors, and homologous recombination events (HREs) in a set of closely related microbial genomes. We base the model on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and break the genomes into blocks to handle the rearrangement problem. Then we apply a dynamic programming algorithm to model whether changes within each block are likely a result of mutations, sequencing errors, or HREs. Results from simulation experiments show that we can detect 31%–61% of HREs and the precision of our detection is about 48%–90% depending on the rates of mutation and missing data. The HREfinder software for predicting HREs in a set of whole genomes is available as open source (http://sourceforge.net/projects/hrefinder/).
Recent studies have highlighted the heterogeneity of gliomas and demonstrated that molecular and genetic analysis could help in their classification and in the design of treatment protocols. In a previous study we have identified a 4-gene signature highly correlated with survival of glioma patients. The aim of this study is to confirm and extend these findings by investigating the expression of these genes at the protein level and their association with outcome of patients with high grade gliomas.
Immunohistochemical staining for EDN/RB, HJURP, p60/CAF-1 and PDLI4 was studied on archive materials from 96 patients (64 glioblastomas and 32 grade III gliomas). The levels of all four proteins differed significantly between grade III and grade IV tumours. The levels of the EDN/RB, HJURP and p60/CAF-1 proteins were strongly associated with overall survival (p<0.001, p<0.001 and p=0.002, respectively), whereas the one of PDLI4 was not (P=0.11). A risk criterion defined as high levels of at least two of the EDN/RB, HJURP and p60/CAF-1 proteins accurately predicted the prognosis of patients. Multivariate analysis confirmed that this criterion was an independent negative prognostic marker (hazard ratio = 2.225; 95% CI, 1.248 to 3.966, p=0.007).
The expression of the EDN/RB, HJURP, p60/CAF-1 and PDLI4 proteins is disrupted in high grade gliomas and increases in the levels of these proteins are closely linked to tumour aggressiveness and poor outcome.
Improvements to oligonucleotide fingerprinting of rRNA genes (OFRG) were obtained by implementing polony microarray technology. OFRG is an array-based method for analyzing microbial community composition. Polonies are discrete clusters of DNA, produced by solid-phase PCR in hydrogels, and derived from individual, spatially isolated DNA molecules. The advantages of a polony-based OFRG method include higher throughput and reductions in the PCR-induced errors and compositional skew inherent in all other PCR-based community composition methods, including high throughput sequencing of rRNA genes. Given the similarities between polony microarrays and certain aspects of sequencing methods such as the Illumina platform, we suggest that if concepts presented in this study were implemented in high throughput sequencing protocols, a reduction of PCR-induced errors and compositional skew may be realized.
Oligonucleotide fingerprinting of rRNA genes; OFRG; Polony; Polonies; PCR-induced errors; High throughput sequencing
Action potential (AP) contours vary considerably between the fibers of normal adult and aged left atria. The underlying ionic and molecular mechanisms that mediate these differences remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the L-type calcium current (ICa.L) and the L-type Ca2+ channel of the left atria may be altered with age to contribute to atrial fibrillation (AF). Two groups of mongrel dogs (normal adults, 2–2.5 years old and older dogs, >8 years old) were used in this study. The inducibility of AF was quantitated using the cumulative window of vulnerability (WOV). A whole-cell patch-clamp was used to record APs and ICa.L in left atrial (LA) cells obtained from the two groups of dogs. Protein and mRNA expression levels of the a1C (Cav1.2) subunit of the L-type calcium channel were assessed using western blotting and quantitative PCR (qPCR), respectively. Although the resting potential, AP amplitude and did not differ with age, the plateau potential was more negative and the APD90 was longer in the aged cells compared with that in normal adult cells. Aged LA cells exhibited lower peak ICa.L current densities than normal adult LA cells (P<0.05). In addition, the Cav1.2 mRNA and protein expression levels in LA cells were decreased in the aged group compared with those in the normal adult group. The lower AP plateau potential and the decreased ICa.L of LA cells in aged dogs may contribute to the slow and discontinuous conduction of the left atria. Furthermore, the reduction of the expression levels of Cav1.2 with age may be the molecular mechanism that mediates the decline in ICa.L with increasing age.
atria; calcuim channel; cellular electrophysiology; aging
Improving the health and well-being of women and children has long been a common goal throughout the world. From 2005 to 2011, Suizhou City had an annual average of 22,405 pregnant and parturient women (1.04% of the population) and 98,811 children under 5 years old (4.57% of the population). Understanding the status of maternal and child health care in Suizhou City during such period can provide the local health administrative department valid scientific bases upon which to construct effective policies.
Various types of annual reports on maternal and child health care were collected and analyzed retrospectively.
Mortality rates for infants and children under 5 years showed a declining trend, while the rates of newborn home visiting, maternal health service coverage, and children health systematic management increased annually in Suizhou City from 2005 to 2011. The incidence of birth defect increased from 2.42‰ in 2005 to 3.89‰ in 2011. The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) fluctuated from 8.39/100,000 to 28.77/100,000, which was much lower than the national MMR (30.0/100,000 in 2010). The rates of hospitalized delivery and births attended by trained health personnel for pregnant women increased to more than 90% in the past five years.
The improvements in maternal and child health care work in Suizhou City are worthy of recognition. Thus, the government should continue to increase funding in these areas to promote the complete enhancement of the maternal and child health care system.
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-based cytoprotective mechanism acting to prevent pathologies accompanying protein aggregation. It is frequently active in tumors, but relatively unstudied in gliomas. We hypothesized that UPR stress effects on glioma cells might protect tumors from additional exogenous stress (ie, chemotherapeutics), postulating that protection was concurrent with altered tumor cell metabolism. Using human brain tumor cell lines, xenograft tumors, human samples and gene expression databases, we determined molecular features of glioma cell UPR induction/activation, and here report a detailed analysis of UPR transcriptional/translational/metabolic responses. Immunohistochemistry, Western and Northern blots identified elevated levels of UPR transcription factors and downstream ER chaperone targets in gliomas. Microarray profiling revealed distinct regulation of stress responses between xenograft tumors and parent cell lines, with gene ontology and network analyses linking gene expression to cell survival and metabolic processes. Human glioma samples were examined for levels of the ER chaperone GRP94 by immunohistochemistry and for other UPR components by Western blotting. Gene and protein expression data from patient gliomas correlated poor patient prognoses with increased expression of ER chaperones, UPR target genes, and metabolic enzymes (glycolysis and lipogenesis). NMR-based metabolomic studies revealed increased metabolic outputs in glucose uptake with elevated glycolytic activity as well as increased phospholipid turnover. Elevated levels of amino acids, antioxidants, and cholesterol were also evident upon UPR stress; in particular, recurrent tumors had overall higher lipid outputs and elevated specific UPR arms. Clonogenicity studies following temozolomide treatment of stressed or unstressed cells demonstrated UPR-induced chemoresistance. Our data characterize the UPR in glioma cells and human tumors, and link the UPR to chemoresistance possibly via enhanced metabolism. Given the role of the UPR in the balance between cell survival and apoptosis, targeting the UPR and/or controlling metabolic activity may prove beneficial for malignant glioma therapeutics.
Aberrant microRNA expression has been implicated in the development of human cancers. Here, we investigated the oncogenic significance and function of miR-23b in glioma. We identified that the expression of miR-23b was elevated in both glioma samples and glioma cells, indicated by real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses. Down-regulation of miR-23b triggered growth inhibition, induced apoptosis, and suppressed invasion of glioma in vitro. Luciferase assay and Western blot analysis revealed that VHL is a direct target of miR-23b. Restoring expression of VHL inhibited glioma proliferation and invasion. Mechanistic investigation revealed that miR-23b deletion decreased HIF-1α/VEGF expression and suppressed β-catenin/Tcf-4 transcription activity by targeting VHL. Furthermore, expression of VHL was inversely correlated with miR-23b in glioma samples and was predictive of patient survival in a retrospective analysis. Therefore, we demonstrated that downregulation of miR-23b suppressed tumor survival through targeting VHL, leading to the inhibition of β-catenin/Tcf-4 and HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathways.
glioma; HIF-1α; microRNA; VHL; β-catenin
Azoospermia is one of the major reproductive disorders which cause male infertility in humans; however, the etiology of this disease is largely unknown. In the present study, six missense mutations of WT1 gene were detected in 529 human patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), indicating a strong association between WT1 mutation and NOA. The Wilms tumor gene, Wt1, is specifically expressed in Sertoli cells (SCs) which support spermatogenesis. To examine the functions of this gene in spermatogenesis, Wt1 was deleted in adult testis using Wt1flox and Cre-ERTM mice strains. We found that inactivation of Wt1 resulted in massive germ cell death and only SCs were present in most of the seminiferous tubules which was very similar to NOA in humans. In investigating the potential mechanism for this, histological studies revealed that the blood–testis barrier (BTB) was disrupted in Wt1 deficient testes. In vitro studies demonstrated that Wt1 was essential for cell polarity maintenance in SCs. Further studies found that the expression of cell polarity associated genes (Par6b and E-cadherin) and Wnt signaling genes (Wnt4, Wnt11) were downregulated in Wt1 deficient SCs, and that the expression of Par6b and E-cadherin was regulated by Wnt4. Our findings suggest that Wt1 is important in spermatogenesis by regulating the polarity of SCs via Wnt signaling pathway and that WT1 mutation is one of the genetic causes of NOA in humans.
Infertility is one of the most common health problems, affecting about 15% of the couples in the world. In about half of these couples, infertility is related to male reproductive defect. Azoospermia is one of the major causes of male infertility in humans. Previous studies have found that the mutation or deletion of some genes is associated with azoospermia; however, the genetic cause of this remains largely unknown. In the present study, we detected Wt1 missense mutations in men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). An essential function for WT1 in male spermatogenesis was confirmed by the use of a Wt1 conditional knockout mouse strain. Inactivation of Wt1 resulted in germ cell loss in mice, which was similar to NOA in human patients. Our data indicate that WT1 mutation is one genetic cause of male infertility and suggest that WT1 mutational analysis will be useful for diagnosis in a clinical setting.
Dengue virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and infects at least 100 million people every year. Progressive urbanization in Asia and South-Central America and the geographic expansion of Aedes mosquito habitats have accelerated the global spread of dengue, resulting in a continuously increasing number of cases. A cost-effective, safe vaccine conferring protection with ideally a single injection could stop dengue transmission. Current vaccine candidates require several booster injections or do not provide protection against all four serotypes. Here we demonstrate that dengue virus mutants lacking 2′-O-methyltransferase activity are highly sensitive to type I IFN inhibition. The mutant viruses are attenuated in mice and rhesus monkeys and elicit a strong adaptive immune response. Monkeys immunized with a single dose of 2′-O-methyltransferase mutant virus showed 100% sero-conversion even when a dose as low as 1,000 plaque forming units was administrated. Animals were fully protected against a homologous challenge. Furthermore, mosquitoes feeding on blood containing the mutant virus were not infected, whereas those feeding on blood containing wild-type virus were infected and thus able to transmit it. These results show the potential of 2′-O-methyltransferase mutant virus as a safe, rationally designed dengue vaccine that restrains itself due to the increased susceptibility to the host's innate immune response.
The four serotypes of dengue virus cause severe outbreaks globally in tropical countries with thousands of patients requiring hospitalization. The health care and indirect economic cost of dengue in endemic countries is huge. Despite this, no clinically approved vaccine or antiviral treatment is currently available. Dengue transmission could be stopped with a vaccine that provides full protection to all serotypes. Dengue afflicts many developing countries and a vaccine should therefore be cost-effective and should provide protection with ideally a single injection. Here we present a novel dengue vaccine approach that harbours mutation(s) in the 2′-O-methyltransferase (MTase), a viral enzyme that methylates viral RNA as a strategy to escape the host immune response. Non-methylated RNA is recognized as “foreign” and triggers an interferon response in the cell. The MTase mutant virus is immediately recognized by the host's immune response and hardly has a chance to spread in the organism while an immune response is efficiently triggered by the initially infected cells. Mice and monkeys infected with the mutant virus developed an immune response that fully protected them from a challenge with wild-type virus. Furthermore, we show that MTase mutant dengue virus cannot infect Aedes mosquitoes. Collectively, the results suggest 2′-O-MTase mutant dengue virus as a safe, highly immunogenic vaccine approach.
A series of novel potential DNA bis-intercalators were designed and synthesized, in which two glucuronic acids were linked by ethylenediamine, and the glucuronic acid was coupled with various chromophores, including quinoline, acridine, indole and purine, at the C-1 position. The preliminary binding properties of these compounds to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) have been investigated by UV-absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results indicated that all the target compounds can interact with CT-DNA, and the acridine derivative, 3b, showed the highest key selection vector (KSV) value, which suggested that compound 3b binds most strongly to CT-DNA.
glycuronic acid; DNA bis-intercaltor; synthesis and design
Residents of the Tibetan Plateau show heritable adaptations to extreme altitude. We sequenced 50 exomes of ethnic Tibetans, encompassing coding sequences of 92% of human genes, with an average coverage of 18X per individual. Genes showing population-specific allele frequency changes, which represent strong candidates for altitude adaptation, were identified. The strongest signal of natural selection came from EPAS1, a transcription factor involved in response to hypoxia. One SNP at EPAS1 shows a 78% frequency difference between Tibetan and Han samples, representing the fastest allele frequency change observed at any human gene to date. This SNP’s association with erythrocyte abundance supports the role of EPAS1 in adaptation to hypoxia. Thus, a population genomic survey has revealed a functionally important locus in genetic adaptation to high altitude.
To investigate the hypothesis that MRI derived diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion (MRP) parameters are sensitive image biomarkers for monitoring early antiangiogenic effects and predicting progression free survival (PFS) in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
In this phase II clinical trial, 23 of 34 patients were included in the imaging and circulating biomarker study. DWI and MRP were performed at the baseline and at 2-weeks after initiation of sunitinib. The imaging protocol included an axial DWI sequence using b values of 50, 400 and 800 sec/mm2, and MRP using a series of coronal 3D-VIBE following 20 ml of Gd-DTPA at 2 ml/sec. These parameters were compared with clinical outcome and PFS at 6-months. Correlation between changes in MRI parameters and plasma biomarkers was also evaluated.
After 2-week of sunitinib, substantial Ktrans changes in HCC were observed from median baseline value 2.15 min−1 to 0.94 min−1 (P = 0.0001) with increases in median apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from 0.88 × 10-3 mm2/s to 0.98 × 10-3 mm2/s (P = 0.0001). Tumor size remained unchanged by RECIST and mRECIST (both P > 0.05). Patients who showed larger drop in Ktrans and Kep at 2 weeks correlated with favorable clinical outcome, and higher baseline Ktrans and larger drop in EVF correlated with longer PFS (all P < 0.05). There was a significant association between a decrease in sVEGFR2 and the drop in Ktrans and Kep (P = 0.044, P = 0.030), and a significant and borderline association between decrease in TNF-α and the drop in Ktrans and Kep, respectively (P = 0.051, P = 0.035).
In HCC, MRP may be a more sensitive biomarker in predicting early response and PFS following sunitinib than RECIST and mRECIST.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Antiangiogenic treatment; Image biomarker; Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI; Diffusion-weighted imaging; Circulating biomarker
Insulin resistance in obesity is associated with chronic systemic low-grade inflammation. Although it has been shown that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the liver, muscle and adipose tissue plays an important role in obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance, the effect of TLR4 activation in the intestine has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to explore the activation of the mouse intestinal TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway following the administration of a short-term high-fat diet, as well as the function of the signaling pathway in the local enteric inflammatory response. The effect of the high-fat diet on TLR4 activation, NF-κB and phosphorylated IκB (PIκB) activity, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6 expression in the intestinal tissues of diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice was investigated. The results demonstrated that the high-fat diet induced TLR4 mRNA and protein expression in intestinal tissues. TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway activation gradually increased as the number of days of high-fat diet administration increased, and peaked on day 7. Additionally, activation of the signaling pathway reduced PIκB expression levels and increased TNF-α and IL-6 expression levels in intestinal tissues. Our results demonstrated that a short-term high-fat diet induces activation of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in intestinal tissues, which causes local intestinal low-grade inflammation. These data improve our understanding of the molecular events involved in intestinal low-grade inflammation, which may be the triggering factor for chronic systemic low-grade inflammation.
Toll-like receptor 4/NF-κB; short-term high-fat diet; intestines; local inflammatory response
Human enterovirus type 71 (EV71) is the major pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and has been associated with severe neurological disease and even death in infants and young children. The pathogenesis of EV71 infection in the human central nervous system remains unclear. In this study, human whole genome microarray was employed to perform transcriptome profiling in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells infected with EV71. The results indicated that EV71 infection lead to altered expression of 161 human mRNAs, including 74 up-regulated genes and 87 down-regulated genes. Bioinformatics analysis indicated the possible roles of the differentially regulated mRNAs in selected pathways, including cell cycle/proliferation, apoptosis, and cytokine/chemokine responses. Finally, the microarray results were validated using real-time RT-PCR with high identity. Overall, our results provided fundamental information regarding the host response to EV71 infection in human neuroblastoma cells, and this finding will help explain the pathogenesis of EV71 infection and virus-host interaction.
Thrombin and other coagulation enzymes have been shown to be important during atherosclerotic disease development. Study of these proteases is currently limited because of lack of robust molecular imaging agents for imaging protease activity in vivo. Activatable cell penetrating peptides (ACPPs) have been used to monitor MMP activity in tumors and, in principle, can be modified to detect other proteases. We have developed a probe that incorporates the peptide sequence DPRSFL from the proteinase activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) into an ACPP and shown that it is preferentially cleaved by purified thrombin. Active thrombin in serum cleaves DPRSFL–ACPP with >90% inhibition by lepirudin or argatroban. The DPRSFL–ACPP cleavage product accumulated in advanced atherosclerotic lesions in living mice, with 85% reduction in retention upon pre-injection of mice with hirudin. Uptake of the ACPP cleavage product was highest in plaques with histological features associated with more severe disease. Freshly resected human atheromas bathed in DPRSFL–ACPP retained 63% greater cleavage product compared to control ACPP. In conclusion, DPRSFL–ACPP can be used to study thrombin activity in coagulation and atherosclerosis with good spatial and temporal resolution. Thrombin-sensitive ACPPs may be developed into probes for early detection and intraoperative imaging of high risk atherosclerotic plaques.
Previous study showed that the magnesium-protoporphyrin IX chelatase H subunit (CHLH/ABAR) positively regulates abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Here, we investigated the functions of a CHLH/ABAR interaction protein, the chloroplast co-chaperonin 20 (CPN20) in ABA signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. We showed that down-expression of the CPN20 gene increases, but overexpression of the CPN20 gene reduces, ABA sensitivity in the major ABA responses including ABA-induced seed germination inhibition, postgermination growth arrest, promotion of stomatal closure and inhibition of stomatal opening. Genetic evidence supports that CPN20 functions downstream or at the same node of CHLH/ABAR, but upstream of the WRKY40 transcription factor. The other CPN20 interaction partners CPN10 and CPN60 are not involved in ABA signaling. Our findings show that CPN20 functions negatively in the ABAR-WRKY40 coupled ABA signaling independently of its co-chaperonin role, and provide a new insight into the role of co-chaperones in the regulation of plant responses to environmental cues.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11103-013-0082-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Abscisic acid signaling; Arabidopsis thaliana; Cochaperonin CPN20; Mg-chelatase H subunit; WRKY40 transcription factor
Retinoblastoma binding protein 6 (RBBP6) plays an important role in chaperone-mediated ubiquitination and interacts with TP53 in carcinogenesis. However, the clinicopathologic significance of RBBP6 expression in colon cancer is unknown; in particular, the prognostic value of RBBP6 combined with TP53 expression has not been explored. Therefore, quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analyses were performed to detect RBBP6 expression in colon cancer tissues. RBBP6 and TP53 expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray format, in which the primary colon cancer tissue was paired with noncancerous tissue. Tissue specimens were obtained from 203 patients. We found that RBBP6 was overexpressed in colon tumorous tissues and was significantly associated with clinical stage, depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis (LNM), distant metastasis, and histologic grade. Further studies revealed that a corresponding correlation between RBBP6 overexpression and mutant TP53 was evident in colon cancer (r = 0.450; P<0.001). RBBP6 expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS). Interestingly, patients with tumors that had both RBBP6 overexpression and mutant TP53 protein accumulation relapsed and died within a significantly short period after surgery (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that patients with LNM and patients with both RBBP6- and TP53-positive tumors had extremely poor OS (HR 6.75; 95% CI 2.63–17.35; P<0.001) and DFS (HR 8.08; 95% CI 2.80–23.30; P<0.001). These clinical findings indicate that the assessment of both RBBP6 and mutant TP53 expression will be helpful in predicting colon cancer prognosis.
Members of the DnaQ superfamily are major 3′–5′ exonucleases that degrade either only single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) or both ssDNA and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). However, the mechanism by which dsDNA is recognized and digested remains unclear. Exonuclease X (ExoX) is a distributive DnaQ exonuclease that cleaves both ssDNA and dsDNA substrates. Here, we report the crystal structures of Escherichia coli ExoX in complex with three different dsDNA substrates: 3′ overhanging dsDNA, blunt-ended dsDNA and 3′ recessed mismatch-containing dsDNA. In these structures, ExoX binds to dsDNA via both a conserved substrate strand-interacting site and a previously uncharacterized complementary strand-interacting motif. When ExoX complexes with blunt-ended dsDNA or 5′ overhanging dsDNA, a ‘wedge’ composed of Leu12 and Gln13 penetrates between the first two base pairs to break the 3′ terminal base pair and facilitates precise feeding of the 3′ terminus of the substrate strand into the ExoX cleavage active site. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the complementary strand-binding site and the wedge of ExoX are dsDNA specific. Together with the results of structural comparisons, our data support a mechanism by which normal and mismatched dsDNA are recognized and digested by E. coli ExoX. The crystal structures also provide insight into the structural framework of the different substrate specificities of the DnaQ family members.
Members of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family have been identified as regulators of oncogenic transformation in several human malignancies. A prominent member of this family, NFAT1, is associated with tumor cell survival, apoptosis, migration and invasion. Here, we investigated the role of NFAT1 in glioma cells. In 111 clinical samples, microarray analysis demonstrated that NFAT1 was over-expressed in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), compared with low-grade gliomas, a result confirmed by RT-PCR in 24 clinical samples and in the U87 and U251 cell lines. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence stain indicated that over-expressed NFAT1 was mainly located in the nucleus, where it acted as a transcription factor. After treatment with the NFAT antagonist cyclosporin A (CsA) and FK506, levels of NFAT1 in the nuclei of U87 GBM cells were dramatically reduced. The invasive potential of U87 cells was reduced by the same treatment, as well as by inhibition of NFAT1 expression using small hairpin RNA. Proliferation of U87 cells was unaffected by CsA, FK506 and NFAT1 shRNA transfection. Clustering analysis and Pearson correlation analysis of microarray data showed that the expression of NFAT1 correlated with the expression of the invasion-related genes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) and MMP-9, a result confirmed by in vitro analysis. These findings demonstrate that NFAT1 contributes to the invasive potential but not the proliferation of GBM cells, and suggest that CsA may find application as an adjuvant in combined treatment strategies for GBM.
We present the design, synthesis and characterization of new functionalized fluorescent optical switches for rapid, all-visible light-mediated manipulation of fluorescence signals from labelled structures within living cells, and as probes for high-contrast optical lock-in detection (OLID) imaging microscopy. A triazole-substituted BIPS (TzBIPS) is identified from a rational synthetic design strategy that undergoes robust, rapid and reversible, visible light-driven transitions between a colorless spiro- (SP) and a far-red absorbing merocyanine (MC) state within living cells. The excited MC-state of TzBIPS may also decay to the MC-ground state emitting near infra-red fluorescence, which is used as a sensitive and quantitative read-out of the state of the optical switch in living cells. The SP to MC transition for a membrane-targeted TzBIPS probe (C12-TzBIPS) is triggered at 405 nm at an energy level compatible with studies in living cells, while the action spectrum of the reverse transition (MC to SP) has a maximum at 650 nm. The SP to MC transition is complete within the 790 ns pixel dwell time of the confocal microscope, while a single cycle of optical switching between the SP and MC states in a region of interest is complete within 8 ms (125 Hz) within living cells, the fastest rate attained for any optical switch probe in a biological sample. This property can be exploited for real-time correction of background signals in living cells. A reactive form of TzBIPS is linked to secondary antibodies and used, in conjunction with an enhanced scope-based analysis of the modulated MC-fluorescence in immuno-stained cells, for high-contrast immunofluorescence microscopic analysis of the actin cytoskeleton.
Genome-wide microRNA (miRNA) profiling of 82 glioblastomas demonstrated that miR-181d was inversely associated with patient overall survival after correcting for age, Karnofsky performance status, extent of resection, and temozolomide (TMZ) treatment. This association was validated using the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset (n= 424) and an independent cohort (n= 35). In these independent cohorts, an association of miR-181d with survival was evident in patients who underwent TMZ treatment but was not observed in patients without TMZ therapy. Bioinformatic analysis of potential genes regulated by miR-181d revealed methyl-guanine-methyl-transferase (MGMT) as a downstream target. Indeed, transfection of miR-181d downregulated MGMT mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assays and coprecipitation studies showed a direct interaction between miR-181d and MGMT 3′UTR. The suppressive effect of miR-181d on MGMT expression was rescued by the introduction of an MGMT cDNA. Finally, MGMT expression inversely correlated with miR-181d expression in independent glioblastoma cohorts. Together, these results suggest that miR-181d is a predictive biomarker for TMZ response and that its role is mediated, in part, by posttranscriptional regulation of MGMT.
biomarker; glioblastoma; MGMT; miR-181d; temozolomide
Here we report the complete genome sequence of a dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) strain, GZ40, isolated in Guangdong, China, in 2010. A phylogenetic analysis classified GZ40 into the Cosmopolitan genotype, while previous Chinese DENV-2 isolates belong to the Asian I genotype. The reemergence of the Cosmopolitan genotype of DENV-2 in China deserves further investigation.
We report here the complete genome sequence of a human echovirus type 30 strain ECV30/GX10/05 isolated in Guangxi, China, in 2010. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ECV30/GX10/05 was closely related to a Korean strain isolated in 2008. The sequence information will help in an understanding of the molecular epidemiology and evolution of echovirus.