Fragment based drug discovery remains a successful tool for pharmaceutical lead discovery. Although based upon the principle of thermodynamic additivity, the underlying thermodynamic basis is poorly understood. A thermodynamic additivity analysis was performed using stromelysin-1 and a series of biphenyl hydroxamate ligands identified through fragment additivity. Our studies suggest that, in this instance, additivity arises from enthalpic effects, while interaction entropies are unfavorable; this thermodynamic behavior is masked by proton transfer. Evaluation of the changes in constant pressure heat capacities during binding suggest that solvent exclusion from the binding site does not account for the dramatic affinity enhancements observed.
Additivity; Fragment based drug design; Stromelysin-1; Matrix metalloproteinase-3
Nilaparvata lugens (the brown planthopper, BPH) and Laodelphax striatellus (the small brown planthopper, SBPH) are two of the most important pests of rice. Up to now, there was only one mitochondrial genome of rice planthopper has been sequenced and very few dependable information of mitochondria could be used for research on population genetics, phylogeographics and phylogenetic evolution of these pests. To get more valuable information from the mitochondria, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of BPH and SBPH. These two planthoppers were infected with two different functional Wolbachia (intracellular endosymbiont) strains (wLug and wStri). Since both mitochondria and Wolbachia are transmitted by cytoplasmic inheritance and it was difficult to separate them when purified the Wolbachia particles, concomitantly sequencing the genome of Wolbachia using next generation sequencing method, we also got nearly complete mitochondrial genome sequences of these two rice planthoppers. After gap closing, we present high quality and reliable complete mitochondrial genomes of these two planthoppers.
The mitogenomes of N. lugens (BPH) and L. striatellus (SBPH) are 17, 619 bp and 16, 431 bp long with A + T contents of 76.95% and 77.17%, respectively. Both species have typical circular mitochondrial genomes that encode the complete set of 37 genes which are usually found in metazoans. However, the BPH mitogenome also possesses two additional copies of the trnC gene. In both mitochondrial genomes, the lengths of the atp8 gene were conspicuously shorter than that of all other known insect mitochondrial genomes (99 bp for BPH, 102 bp for SBPH). That two rearrangement regions (trnC-trnW and nad6-trnP-trnT) of mitochondrial genomes differing from other known insect were found in these two distantly related planthoppers revealed that the gene order of mitochondria might be conservative in Delphacidae. The large non-coding fragment (the A+T-rich region) putatively corresponding responsible for the control of replication and transcription of mitochondria contained a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) block in different natural individuals of these two planthoppers. Comparison with a previously sequenced individual of SBPH revealed that the mitochondrial genetic variation within a species exists not only in the sequence and secondary structure of genes, but also in the gene order (the different location of trnH gene).
The mitochondrial genome arrangement pattern found in planthoppers was involved in rearrangements of both tRNA genes and protein-coding genes (PCGs). Different species from different genera of Delphacidae possessing the same mitochondrial gene rearrangement suggests that gene rearrangements of mitochondrial genome probably occurred before the differentiation of this family. After comparatively analyzing the gene order of different species of Hemiptera, we propose that except for some specific taxonomical group (e.g. the whiteflies) the gene order might have diversified in family level of this order. The VNTRs detected in the control region might provide additional genetic markers for studying population genetics, individual difference and phylogeographics of planthoppers.
Avibacterium paragallinarum is the causative agent of infectious coryza. Here we report the draft genome sequence of reference strain 221 of A. paragallinarum serovar A. The genome is composed of 135 contigs for 2,685,568 bp with a 41% G+C content.
Apoptosis is executed through the activity of the caspases that are aspartyl-specific proteases. In this study, we isolated the caspase gene (Cscaspase-1) of Chilo suppressalis (one of the leading pests responsible for destruction of rice crops). It possesses the open reading frame (ORF) of 295 amino acids including prodomain, large subunit and small subunits, and two cleavage sites (Asp23 and Asp194) were found to be located among them. In addition to these profiles, Cscaspase-1 contains two active sites (His134 and Cys176). Genomic analysis demonstrated there was no intron in the genome of Cscaspase-1. The Cscaspase-1 transcripts were found in all tissues of the fifth instar larvae, and higher levels were found in the midgut, hindgut and Malpighian tubules. Examination of Cscaspase-1 expression in different developmental stages indicated low constitutive levels in the eggs and early larvae stages, and higher abundances were exhibited in the last larvae and pupae stages. The relative mRNA levels of Cscaspase-1 were induced by heat and cold temperatures. For example, the highest increase of Cscaspase-1 transcription was at −3 °C and 36 °C respectively. In a word, Cscaspase-1 plays a role of effector in the apoptosis of C. suppressalis. It also correlates with development, metamorphosis and thermotolerance of C. suppreassalis.
apoptosis; Cscaspase-1; Chilo suppressalis; expression; development; thermotolerance
β-Catenin is important in liver homeostasis as a part of Wnt signaling and adherens junctions (AJs), while its aberrant activation is observed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We have reported hepatocyte-specific β-catenin knockout (KO) mice to lack adhesive defects as γ-catenin compensated at AJ. Because γ-catenin is a desmosomal protein, we asked if its increase in KO might deregulate desmosomes. No changes in desmosomal proteins or ultrastructure other than increased plakophilin-3 were observed. To further elucidate the role and regulation of γ-catenin, we contemplate an in vitro model and show γ-catenin increase in HCC cells upon β-catenin knockdown (KD). Here, γ-catenin is unable to rescue β-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) reporter activity; however, it sufficiently compensates at AJs as assessed by scratch wound assay, centrifugal assay for cell adhesion (CAFCA), and hanging drop assays. γ-Catenin increase is observed only after β-catenin protein decrease and not after blockade of its transactivation. γ-Catenin increase is associated with enhanced serine/threonine phosphorylation and abrogated by protein kinase A (PKA) inhibition. In fact, several PKA-binding sites were detected in γ-catenin by in silico analysis. Intriguingly γ-catenin KD led to increased β-catenin levels and transactivation. Thus, γ-catenin compensates for β-catenin loss at AJ without affecting desmosomes but is unable to fulfill functions in Wnt signaling. γ-Catenin stabilization after β-catenin loss is brought about by PKA. Catenin-sensing mechanism may depend on absolute β-catenin levels and not its activity. Anti-β-catenin therapies for HCC affecting total β-catenin may target aberrant Wnt signaling without negatively impacting intercellular adhesion, provided mechanisms leading to γ-catenin stabilization are spared.
The apoptolidins are 20/21-membered macrolides produced by Nocardiopsis sp. FU40. Several members of this family are potent and remarkably selective inducers of apoptosis in cancer cell lines, likely via a distinct mitochondria associated target. To investigate the biosynthesis of this natural product, the complete genome of the apoptolidin producer Nocardiopsis sp. FU40 was sequenced and a 116 Kb region was identified containing a putative apoptolidin biosynthetic gene cluster. The apoptolidin gene cluster comprises a type I polyketide synthase, with 13 homologating modules, apparently initiated in an unprecedented fashion via transfer from a methoxymalonyl-acyl carrier protein loading module. Spanning approximately 39 open reading frames, the gene cluster was cloned into a series of overlapping cosmids and functionally validated by targeted gene disruption experiments in the producing organism. Disruption of putative PKS and P450 genes delineated the roles of these genes in apoptolidin biosynthesis and chemical complementation studies demonstrated intact biosynthesis peripheral to the disrupted genes. This work provides insight into details of the biosynthesis of this biologically significant natural product and provides a basis for future mutasynthetic methods for the generation of non-natural apopotolidins.
Polyketide; Type I Polyketide Synthase; Macrolide Natural Product; Gene Cluster; Mutasynthesis
In recent years, interfacial mobility has gained popularity as a model with which to rationalize both affinity in ligand binding and the often observed phenomenon of enthalpy-entropy compensation. While protein contraction and reduced mobility, as demonstrated by computational and NMR techniques respectively, have been correlated to entropies of binding for a variety of systems, to our knowledge, Raman difference spectroscopy has never been included in these analyses. Here, non-resonance Raman difference spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, and x-ray crystallography were utilized to correlate protein contraction, as demonstrated by an increase in protein interior packing and decreased residual protein movement, with trends of enthalpy-entropy compensation. These results are in accord with the interfacial mobility model, and lend additional credence to this view of protein activity.
We compared the patterns of medically attended injuries between children with and without disabilities and explored the residential environment risks in five counties of Hubei Province in the People's Republic of China by a 1∶1 matched case-control study based on the biopsychosocial model of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health – ICF.
1201 children aged 1–14 with disabilities and 1201 their healthy counterparts matched as having the same gender, same age, and lived in the same neighborhood were recruited in our study. Characteristics of injuries in the past 12 months were compared between children with and without disabilities. The associations among disability status, home environment factors and injuries were examined in logistic regression analysis taking into account sociodemographic factors.
Children with disabilities had a significantly higher prevalence of injury than children without disabilities (10.2% vs. 4.4%; P<.001). The two groups differed significantly in terms of number of injury episodes, injury place and activity at time of injury. Falls were the leading mechanism of injury regardless of disability status. Most of the injury events happened inside the home and leisure activities were the most reported activity when injured for both groups. The univariate OR for injury was 4.46 (2.57–7.74) for the disabled children compared with the non-disabled children. Disabled children whose family raised cat/dog(s) were 76% more likely to be injured during the last 12 months (OR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.02, 3.02),comparing with those whose family did not have any cat/dog. And for children without disabilities, those whose family had cat/dog(s) were over 3 times more likely to having injuries comparing with those whose family did not have any cat/dog.
Children with disabilities had a significantly increased risk for injury. Interventions to prevent residential injury are an important public health priority in children with disabilities.
The complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were determined and analyzed. The circular genomes were 15,388 bp long for C. medinalis and 15,395 bp long for C. suppressalis. Both mitogenomes contained 37 genes, with gene order similar to that of other lepidopterans. Notably, 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs) utilized the standard ATN, but the cox1 gene used CGA as the initiation codon; the cox1, cox2, and nad4 genes in the two mitogenomes had the truncated termination codons T, T, and TA, respectively, but the nad5 gene was found to use T as the termination codon only in the C. medinalis mitogenome. Additionally, the codon distribution and Relative Synonymous Codon Usage of the 13 PCGs in the C. medinalis mitogenome were very different from those in other pyralid moth mitogenomes. Most of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures. However, the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of the trnS1(AGN) gene did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Forty-nine helices in six domains, and 33 helices in three domains were present in the secondary structures of the rrnL and rrnS genes of the two mitogenomes, respectively. There were four major intergenic spacers, except for the A+T-rich region, spanning at least 12 bp in the two mitogenomes. The A+T-rich region contained an 'ATAGT(A)'-like motif followed by a poly-T stretch in the two mitogenomes. In addition, there were a potential stem-loop structure, a duplicated 25-bp repeat element, and a microsatellite '(TA)13' observed in the A+T-rich region of the C. medinalis mitogenome. A poly-T motif, a duplicated 31-bp repeat element, and a 19-bp triplication were found in the C. suppressalis mitogenome. However, there are many differences in the A+T-rich regions between the C. suppressalis mitogenome sequence in the present study and previous reports. Finally, the phylogenetic relationships of these insects were reconstructed based on amino acid sequences of mitochondrial 13 PCGs using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods. These molecular-based phylogenies support the traditional morphologically based view of relationships within the Pyralidae.
Mitochondrial genome; Cnaphalocrocis medinalis; Chilo suppressalis; Lepidoptera; Pyralidae; phylogenetic relationship.
The complete 15,413-bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was sequenced and compared with those of four other noctuid moths. All of the mitogenomes analyzed displayed similar characteristics with respect to gene content, genome organization, nucleotide comparison, and codon usages. Twelve-one protein-coding genes (PCGs) utilized the standard ATN, but the cox1 gene used CGA as the initiation codon; cox1, cox2, and nad4 genes had the truncated termination codon T in the S. inferens mitogenome. All of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures except for trnS1(AGN), in which the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Both the secondary structures of rrnL and rrnS genes inferred from the S. inferens mitogenome closely resembled those of other noctuid moths. In the A+T-rich region, the conserved motif “ATAGA” followed by a long T-stretch was observed in all noctuid moths, but other specific tandem-repeat elements were more variable. Additionally, the S. inferens mitogenome contained a potential stem-loop structure, a duplicated 17-bp repeat element, a decuplicated segment, and a microsatellite “(AT)7”, without a poly-A element upstream of the trnM in the A+T-rich region. Finally, the phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed based on amino acid sequences of mitochondrial 13 PCGs, which support the traditional morphologically based view of relationships within the Noctuidae.
Sesamia inferens; mitochondrial genome; lepidoptera; Noctuidae; phylogenetic relationship
Plecopteran species (Leuctridae) were collected from the Qinling Mountains in southern Shaanxi Province, China. This mountain range is home to nine species of Leuctridae belonging to two genera, and the species identified in this work include one new species and three new records for the Qinling Mountains, all belonging to the genus Rhopalopsole. The new species is named R. tricuspis Qian and Du, sp. nov. A redescription of R. basinigra Yang and Yang 1995 is supplemented. A key is provided for the adult males of Leuctridae from the Qinling Mountains.
new species; redescription
Researchers in the medical sciences prefer employing Cox model for survival analysis. In some cases, however, parametric methods can provide more accurate estimates. In this study, we used Weibull model to analyze the prognostic factors in patients with gastric cancer and compared with Cox.
We retrospectively studied 1715 patients with gastric cancer. Age at diagnosis, gender, family history, past medical history, tumor location, tumor size, eradicative degree of surgery, depth of tumor invasion, combined evisceration, pathologic stage, histologic grade and lymph node status were chosen as potential prognostic factors. Weibull and Cox model were performed with hazard rate and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) to compare the efficiency of models.
The results from both Weibull and Cox indicated that patients with the past history of having gastric cancer had the risk of death increased significantly followed by poorly differentiated or moderately differentiated in histologic grade. Eradicative degree of surgery, pathologic stage, depth of tumor invasion and tumor location were also identified as independent prognostic factors found significant. Age was significant only in Weibull model.
From the results of multivariate analysis, the data strongly supported the Weibull can elicit more precise results as an alternative to Cox based on AIC.
The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200–400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp.
calcifying nanoparticles; nanobacteria; pulp stones
Wolbachia are a group of intracellular inherited endosymbiontic bacteria infecting a wide range of insects. In this study the infection status of Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) was measured in the Asiatic rice leafroller, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), from twenty locations in China by sequencing wsp, ftsZ and 16S rDNA genes. The results showed high infection rates of Wolbachia in C. medinalis populations. Wolbachia was detected in all geographically separate populations; the average infection rate was ∼ 62.5%, and the highest rates were 90% in Wenzhou and Yangzhou populations. The Wolbachia detected in different C. medinalis populations were 100% identical to each other when wsp, ftsZ, and 16S rDNA sequences were compared, with all sequences belonging to the Wolbachia B supergroup. Based on wsp, ftsZ and 16S rDNA sequences of Wolbachia, three phylogenetic trees of similar pattern emerged. This analysis indicated the possibility of inter-species and intra-species horizontal transmission of Wolbachia in different arthropods in related geographical regions. The migration route of C. medinalis in mainland China was also discussed since large differentiation had been found between the wsp sequences of Chinese and Thai populations.
infection rate; phylogenetic relationship
Plasmodium falciparum, in addition to scavenging essential fatty acids from its intra- and intercellular environments, possesses a functional complement of type II fatty acid synthase (FAS) enzymes targeted to the apicoplast organelle. Recent evidence suggests that products of the plasmodial FAS II system may be critical for the parasite's liver-to-blood cycle transition, and it has been speculated that endogenously generated fatty acids may be precursors for essential cofactors, such as lipoate, in the apicoplast. β-Ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase III (pfKASIII or FabH) is one of the key enzymes in the initiating steps of the FAS II pathway, possessing two functions in P. falciparum: the decarboxylative thio-Claisen condensation of malonyl-ACP and various acyl coenzymes A (acyl-CoAs; KAS activity) and the acetyl-CoA:ACP transacylase reaction (ACAT). Here, we report the generation and characterization of a hybrid Lactococcus lactis strain that translates pfKASIII instead of L. lactis fabH to initiate fatty acid biosynthesis. The L. lactis expression vector pMG36e was modified for the efficient overexpression of the plasmodial gene in L. lactis. Transcriptional analysis indicated high-efficiency overexpression, and biochemical KAS and ACAT assays confirm these activities in cell extracts. Phenotypically, the L. lactis strain expressing pfKASIII has a growth rate and fatty acid profiles that are comparable to those of the strain complemented with its endogenous gene, suggesting that pfKASIII can use L. lactis ACP as substrate and perform near-normal function in L. lactis cells. This strain may have potential application as a bacterial model for pfKASIII inhibitor prescreening.
Tuberous sclerosis complex is a disease caused by mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, which encode a protein complex that inhibits mTOR kinase signaling by inactivating the Rheb GTPase. Activation of mTOR promotes the formation of benign tumors in various organs while the mechanisms underlying the neurological symptoms of the disease remain largely unknown. Here, we report that in mice Tsc2 haploinsufficiency causes aberrant retinogeniculate projections that suggest defects in EphA receptor-dependent axon guidance. We also show that EphA receptor activation by ephrin-A ligands in neurons leads to inhibition of ERK1/2 kinase activity and decreased inhibition of Tsc2 by ERK1/2. Thus, ephrin stimulation inactivates the mTOR pathway by enhancing Tsc2 activity. Furthermore, Tsc2 deficiency and hyperactive Rheb constitutively activate mTOR and inhibit ephrin-induced growth cone collapse. Our results demonstrate that TSC2-Rheb-mTOR signaling cooperates with the ephrin-Eph receptor system to control axon guidance in the visual system.
Objective: Uric acid (UA) is considered to be a powerful predictor of cardiovascular risk and hyperuricemia might be involved in the metabolic syndrome (MS). This study aims to investigate the relation between UA levels and aortic root dilatation. Methods: A total of 348 hypertensive patients [age (67.5±9.8) years] with or without MS were included in the study. The aortic root diameters at the aortic annulus, the sinuses of Valsalva, the sinotubular junction, and the proximal part of the ascending aorta were measured using a two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography. Serum UA levels were also measured for all patients. Results: A high UA level is independently associated with aortic root diameters at the sinuses of Valsalva (P=0.001) and the proximal ascending aorta (P<0.0001) in the hypertensive patients without MS. In contrast, aortic root diameters were not significantly related to UA levels in the hypertensive patients with MS. Furthermore, increased UA levels were associated with an increased risk for aortic root dilatation in the patients without MS (sex-adjusted hazard ratio 1.75, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.27–2.41), but not in those with MS. Conclusions: This study demonstrated an independent relationship between the aortic root dimensions and increased levels of serum UA in the hypertensive patients without MS. Further understanding of the mechanisms underlying these associations may allow a clearer interpretation of the potential value of specific urate-lowering treatment on cardiovascular disease.
Aortic root; Uric acid; Hypertension; Metabolic syndrome
Backgrond and Aims
Stylosanthes spp. (stylo) is one of the most important pasture legumes used in a wide range of agricultural systems on acid soils, where aluminium (Al) toxicity and phosphorus (P) deficiency are two major limiting factors for plant growth. However, physiological mechanisms of stylo adaptation to acid soils are not understood.
Twelve stylo genotypes were surveyed under field conditions, followed by sand and nutrient solution culture experiments to investigate possible physiological mechanisms of stylo adaptation to low-P acid soils.
Stylo genotypes varied substantially in growth and P uptake in low P conditions in the field. Three genotypes contrasting in P efficiency were selected for experiments in nutrient solution and sand culture to examine their Al tolerance and ability to utilize different P sources, including Ca-P, K-P, Al-P, Fe-P and phytate-P. Among the three tested genotypes, the P-efficient genotype ‘TPRC2001-1’ had higher Al tolerance than the P-inefficient genotype ‘Fine-stem’ as indicated by relative tap root length and haematoxylin staining. The three genotypes differed in their ability to utilize different P sources. The P-efficient genotype, ‘TPRC2001-1’, had superior ability to utilize phytate-P.
The findings suggest that possible physiological mechanisms of stylo adaptation to low-P acid soils might involve superior ability of plant roots to tolerate Al toxicity and to utilize organic P and Al-P.
Stylosanthes; phosphorus; P efficiency; organic P; Al toxicity; acid soil
We present here a rapid, highly sensitive nonradioactive assay for adenylation enzyme selectivity determination and characterization. This method measures the isotopic back exchange of unlabeled pyrophosphate into γ–18O4-labeled ATP via MALDI-TOFMS, ESI-LC/MS or ESI-LC/MS/MS and is demonstrated for both nonribosomal (TycA, ValA) and ribosomal synthetases (TrpRS, LysRS) of known specificity. This low volume (6μL) method detects as little as 0.01% (600 fmol) exchange, comparable in sensitivity to previously reported radioactive assays and readily adaptable to kinetics measurements and high throughput analysis of a wide spectrum of synthetases. Finally, a previously uncharacterized A-T didomain from anthramycin biosynthesis in the thermophile S. refuinius was demonstrated to selectively activate 4-methyl-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid at 47 °C, providing biochemical evidence for a new aromatic β–amino acid activating adenylation domain and the first functional analysis of the anthramycin biosynthetic gene cluster.
Pyrophosphate exchange; adenylation; nrps; nonribosomal peptide synthetase; anthramycin; benzodiazepine; biosynthesis
Heat shock protein 60 is an important chaperonin. In this paper, hsp60 of the stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), was cloned by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) reactions. The full length cDNA of hsp6°Consisted of 2142 bp, with an ORF of 1719 bp, encoding 572 amino acid residues, with a 5'UTR of 158 bp and a 3'UTR of 265 bp. Cluster analysis confirmed that the deduced amino acid sequence shared high identity with the reported sequences from other insects (77%–86%). To investigate whether hsp60 in C. suppressalis responds to thermal stress, the expression levels of hsp60 mRNA in larval haemocytes across temperature gradients from 31 to 39°C were analysed by real-time quantitative PCR. There was no significant difference for hsp60 expression from 28 to 31°C. he temperatures for maximal induction of hsp60 expression in haemocytes was close to 36°C. Hsp60 expression was observed by using flow cytometry. These results revealed that thermal stress significantly induced hsp60 expression and Hsp60 synthesis in larval haemocytes, and the expression profiles of Hsp60 at the mRNA and protein levels were in high agreement with each other from 33 to 39°C.
Lepidoptera; Hsp60; RACE; haemocytes; temperature
To detect the expression of HSP25 in rat dental follicles both in vivo and vitro, and explore the underlying mechanism of HSP25 on the proliferation and differentiation of rat dental follicle cells (DFCs).
Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of HSP25 in mandibles of postnatal rats on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 in vivo. In vitro, the expression of HSP25 in DFCs was detected by an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay were used to identify the time-course effect mediated by different concentrations of recombinant murine HSP25 of 0, 1, 10, 50 and 100 ng/mL on rat DFCs.
Expression of HSP25 was not detected in dental follicles of the rats until day 5 after birth, but became up-regulated in a time-dependent manner till day 11. HSP25 was detected in the cytoplasm of cultured rat DFCs. No significant difference could be observed in the proliferation of DFCs after stimulation with different concentrations of HSP25 on days 1, 2 and 3 (P>0.05). HSP25 at concentrations of 50 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL up-regulated the ALP activity of DFCs on day 9 (P<0.05).
HSP25-immunoreactivity increased chronologically during the development of dental follicles. The protein had no significant effect on cell proliferation but may play a role in cementoblast/osteoblast differentiation of DFCs.
dental follicle; HSP25; cell proliferation; cell differentiation; alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
In the title coordination polymer, [Cu(C9H8NO4)2]n, the Cu atom, located on a twofold rotation axis, is four coordinate in a distorted square-planar environment. Each 2,6-dimethylpyridinium-3,5-dicarboxylate anion bridges two Cu atoms, forming a two-dimensional coordination polymer. A three-dimensional supramolecular network is built from N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the pyridinium NH and the carboxyl COO groups.
Groundwater contaminated with arsenic imposes a big challenge to human health worldwide. Using natural compounds to subvert the detrimental effects of arsenic represents an attractive strategy. The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a critical regulator of the cellular antioxidant response and xenobiotic metabolism. Recently, activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway has been reported to confer protection against arsenic-induced toxicity in a cell culture model.
The goal of the present work was to identify a potent Nrf2 activator from plants as a chemopreventive compound and to demonstrate the efficacy of the compound in battling arsenic-induced toxicity.
Oridonin activated the Nrf2 signaling pathway at a low subtoxic dose and was able to stabilize Nrf2 by blocking Nrf2 ubiquitination and degradation, leading to accumulation of the Nrf2 protein and activation of the Nrf2-dependent cytoprotective response. Pretreatment of UROtsa cells with 1.4 μM oridonin significantly enhanced the cellular redox capacity, reduced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and improved cell survival after arsenic challenge.
We identified oridonin as representing a novel class of Nrf2 activators and illustrated the mechanism by which the Nrf2 pathway is activated. Furthermore, we demonstrated the feasibility of using natural compounds targeting Nrf2 as a therapeutic approach to protect humans from various environmental insults that may occur daily.
antioxidant responsive element; antitumor; ARE; arsenic; chemoprevention; diterpenoid; Keap1; Nrf2; oridonin; oxidative stress; rubescensin
The molecular mechanisms underlying the involvement of oligodendrocytes in formation of the nodes of Ranvier (NORs) remain poorly understood. Here we show that oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) aggregates specifically at NORs. Nodal location of OMgp does not occur along demyelinated axons of either Shiverer or proteolipid protein (PLP) transgenic mice. Over-expression of OMgp in OLN-93 cells facilitates process outgrowth. In transgenic mice in which expression of OMgp is down-regulated, myelin thickness declines, and lateral oligodendrocyte loops at the node-paranode junction are less compacted and even join together with the opposite loops, which leads to shortened nodal gaps. Notably, each of these structural abnormalities plus modest down-regulation of expression of Na+ channel α subunit result in reduced conduction velocity in the spinal cords of the mutant mice. Thus, OMgp that is derived from glia has distinct roles in regulating nodal formation and function during CNS myelination.
OMgp; myelination; Node of Ranvier; oligodendrocyte; Na+ channel
Completion of treatment for tuberculosis (TB) is of utmost priority for TB control programs. The aims of this study were to evaluate the treatment outcome of TB cases registered in Guangzhou during the period 1993–2002, and to identify factors associated with treatment success.
Two (of eight) districts in Guangzhou were selected randomly as objects of study and their surveillance database was analyzed to assess the treatment outcome and identify factors associated with treatment success for TB cases registered in Guangzhou. Six treatment outcome criteria were assessed based on guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO). Logistic regression was used to estimate risk factors for treatment outcome.
A total of 6743 pulmonary tuberculosis cases (4903 males, 1840 females) were included in this study. The treatment success rate (including cured and complete treatment) was 88% (95%CI 87%–89%). One hundred and eight-six (2.8%) patients died and 401 (5.9%) patients defaulted treatment. In multivariate analysis, treatment success was found to be associated with young age, lack of cavitation and compliance with treatment.
The total treatment success rate in the current study was similar to the WHO target for all smear positive cases, while the failure rate and the default rate in 2002 were slightly higher. Good care of elderly patients, early diagnosis of cavitation and compliance with treatment could improve the success rate of TB treatment.