In order to better investigate the cause/effect relationships of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), we hereby describe a new non-human primate model of mTLE.
Ten macaques were studied and divided into 2 groups: saline control group (n = 4) and kainic acid (KA) injection group (n = 6). All macaques were implanted bilaterally with subdural electrodes over temporal cortex and depth electrodes in CA3 hippocampal region. KA was stereotaxically injected into the right hippocampus of macaques. All animals were monitored by video and electrocorticography (ECoG) to assess status epilepticus (SE) and subsequent spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). Additionally, in order to evaluate brain injury produced by SE or SRS, we used both neuroimaging, including magnetic resonance image (MRI) & magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and histological pathology, including Nissl stainning and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) immunostaining.
The typical seizures were observed in the KA-injected animal model. Hippocampal sclerosis could be found by MRI & MRS. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and GFAP immunostaining showed neuronal loss, proliferation of glial cells, formation of glial scars, and hippocampal atrophy. Electron microscopic analysis of hippocampal tissues revealed neuronal pyknosis, partial ribosome depolymerization, an abnormal reduction in rough endoplasmic reticulum size, expansion of Golgi vesicles and swollen star-shaped cells. Furthermore, we reported that KA was able to induce SE followed by SRS after a variable period of time. Similar to human mTLE, brain damage is confined to the hippocampus. Accordingly, hippocampal volume is in positive correlations with the neuronal cells count in the CA3, especially the ratio of neuron/glial cell.
The results suggest that a model of mTLE can be developed in macaques by intra-hippocampal injection of KA. Brain damage is confined to the hippocampus which is similar to the human mTLE. The hippocampal volume correlates with the extension of the hippocampal damage.
To explore the profile of patients who visit a sleep center with symptoms that fulfill the four essential criteria for restless legs syndrome (RLS).
A prospective study.
Outpatients from one sleep disorders clinic in Taiwan.
1,200 consecutive patients visit sleep disorders clinic with any sleep complaints.
After completing a history and physical examination, all participants answered the RLS questionnaire. Subjects who fulfilled the four essential criteria for RLS were referred to a special clinic. A work-up including blood tests, polysomnography, and specialized neurological tests etc. was performed to make the final diagnosis.
Measurements and Results
A total of 1,185 participants were enrolled, and, of these, 131(11.1%) fulfilled the four essential criteria for RLS, and 121 completed the supplemental work-up. Their mean age was 47.6±13.3 and 52.9% were male. Insomnia and snoring were the most common chief complaints. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and other diseases were found in 103 patients. Only 18 (14.9%) patients had no comorbid condition and were diagnosed with primary RLS.
Symptoms of RLS are common in patients with sleep complaints. Even in a sleep clinic, using a questionnaire approach for identification of RLS has a low positive predictive value. Clinicians should pay attention to the limitations of the 4-item questionnaire in diagnosis of RLS and also the importance of a careful differential diagnosis to identify possible secondary causes of RLS.
The discovery of cell free fetal DNA (cff-DNA) in maternal plasma has brought new insight for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. Combining with the rapidly developed massively parallel sequencing technology, noninvasive prenatal detection of chromosome aneuploidy and single base variation has been successfully validated. However, few studies discussed the possibility of noninvasive pathogenic CNVs detection.
A novel algorithm for noninvasive prenatal detection of fetal pathogenic CNVs was firstly tested in 5 pairs of parents with heterozygote α-thalassemia of Southeast Asian (SEA) deletion using target region capture sequencing for maternal plasma. Capture probes were designed for α-globin (HBA) and β-globin (HBB) gene, as well as 4,525 SNPs selected from 22 automatic chromosomes. Mixed adaptors with 384 different barcodes were employed to construct maternal plasma DNA library for massively parallel sequencing. The signal of fetal CNVs was calculated using the relative copy ratio (RCR) of maternal plasma combined with the analysis of R-score and L-score by comparing with normal control. With mean of 101.93× maternal plasma sequencing depth for the target region, the RCR value combined with further R-score and L-score analysis showed a possible homozygous deletion in the HBA gene region for one fetus, heterozygous deletion for two fetus and normal for the other two fetus, which was consistent with that of invasive prenatal diagnosis.
Our study showed the feasibility to detect pathogenic CNVs using target region capture sequencing, which might greatly extend the scope of noninvasive prenatal diagnosis.
This retrospective study evaluated the utility and safety of surgical lung biopsy (SLB) in cancer patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
All cases of critically ill patients with cancer and diagnosed with ARDS who underwent SLB in a tertiary care hospital from January 2002 to July 2009 were reviewed. Clinical data including patient baseline characteristics, surgical complications, pathological findings, treatment alterations, and survival outcomes were retrospectively collected and analyzed.
A total of 16 critically ill patients with cancer diagnosed with ARDS who underwent SLB were enrolled. The meantime from ARDS onset to SLB was 3.0 ± 1.5 days. All SLB specimens offered a pathological diagnosis, and specific diagnoses were made in 9 of 16 patients. Biopsy findings resulted in a change in therapy in 11 of 16 patients. Overall, the SLB surgical complication rate was 19% (3/16). SLB did not directly cause the observed operative mortality. The ICU mortality rate was 38% (6/16). Patients who switched therapies after SLB had a trend toward decreased mortality than patients without a change in therapy (27% versus 60%; P = 0.299).
In selected critically ill cancer patients with ARDS, SLB had a high diagnostic yield rate and an acceptable surgical complication rate.
Surgical lung biopsy; Cancer; Acute respiratory distress syndrome; Outcomes
Platinum-nanoparticle-based catalysts are widely used in many important chemical processes and automobile industries. Downsizing catalyst nanoparticles to single atoms is highly desirable to maximize their use efficiency, however, very challenging. Here we report a practical synthesis for isolated single Pt atoms anchored to graphene nanosheet using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. ALD offers the capability of precise control of catalyst size span from single atom, subnanometer cluster to nanoparticle. The single-atom catalysts exhibit significantly improved catalytic activity (up to 10 times) over that of the state-of-the-art commercial Pt/C catalyst. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analyses reveal that the low-coordination and partially unoccupied densities of states of 5d orbital of Pt atoms are responsible for the excellent performance. This work is anticipated to form the basis for the exploration of a next generation of highly efficient single-atom catalysts for various applications.
The aim of this study was to investigate the abnormal expression of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-9 (ADAM9) in human resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue, in order to evaluate the significance of ADAM9 expression in surgically resected NSCLC. Sixty-four cases of completely resected stage I NSCLC with mediastinal N2 lymph node dissection were immunohistochemically analyzed for ADAM9 protein expression. Survival, univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the significance of ADAM9 expression and its correlation with other clinicopathological characteristics. ADAM9 was observed to be significantly more highly expressed in NSCLC tissue compared with normal control lung tissue (P=0.001). The 5-year survival rate for patients with NSCLC tissues highly expressing ADAM9 was significantly lower when compared with NSCLC tissues of patients exhibiting low expression of ADAM9 (56.9 vs. 88.9%, P= 0.012). Multivariate analysis identified that high expression of ADAM9 is an independent factor of shortened survival time in resected stage I NSCLC (HR, 3.385; 95% CI, 1.224–9.360; P=0.019). These results clearly demonstrate that ADAM9 is highly expressed in NSCLC and highly expressed ADAM9 correlates with shortened survival time, suggesting that ADAM9 is a novel biomarker for predicting prognosis in resected stage I NSCLC. ADAM9 may also become a useful predictive biomarker for the selection of adjuvant chemotherapy treatment of NSCLC.
ADAM9; lung neoplasm; immunohistochemistry; prognosis; lobectomy
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the lung and diagnosis is difficult in children. The measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) may be useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of treatments. A number of factors affect FeNO levels and their influence varies across countries and regions. This study included 300 healthy students, aged from 6 to 14 years, who participated voluntarily. A comprehensive medical survey was used and measurements of FeNO levels and spirometric parameters were recorded in Shenyang, China. We observed that the median FeNO was 11 ppb (range, 8–16 ppb) in children from the northern areas of China. For males, the median level was 13 ppb (range, 9–18 ppb) and the median level was 10 ppb (range, 8–14 ppb) for females. There was a significant difference between males and females (P= 0.007) and age was correlated with FeNO (R2= 0.6554), while weight, height, body mass index (BMI), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV1), FEV1/FVC and peak expiratory flow (PEF) had no correlation with FeNO. In conclusion, the median FeNO is 11 ppb (range, 8–16 ppb) in male and female healthy children from northern areas of China and is affected by gender and age.
exhaled nitric oxide; healthy children; gender; age
Annoying snore is the principle symptom and problem in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). However, investigation has been hampered by the complex snoring sound analyses.
This study was aimed to investigate the energy types of the full-night snoring sounds in patients with OSAS.
Patients and Method
Twenty male OSAS patients underwent snoring sound recording throughout 6 hours of in-lab overnight polysomnogragphy. Snoring sounds were processed and analyzed by a new sound analytic program, named as Snore Map®. We transformed the 6-hour snoring sound power spectra into the energy spectrum and classified it as snore map type 1 (monosyllabic low-frequency snore), type 2 (duplex low-&mid-frequency snore), type 3 (duplex low- & high-frequency snore), and type 4 (triplex low-, mid-, & high-frequency snore). The interrator and test-retest reliabilities of snore map typing were assessed. The snore map types and their associations among demographic data, subjective snoring questionnaires, and polysomnographic parameters were explored.
The interrator reliability of snore map typing were almost perfect (κ = 0.87) and the test-retest reliability was high (r = 0.71). The snore map type was proportional to the body mass index (r = 0.63, P = 0.003) and neck circumference (r = 0.52, P = 0.018). Snore map types were unrelated to subjective snoring questionnaire scores (All P>0.05). After adjustment for body mass index and neck circumference, snore map type 3–4 was significantly associated with severity of OSAS (r = 0.52, P = 0.026).
Snore map typing of a full-night energy spectrum is feasible and reliable. The presence of a higher snore map type is a warning sign of severe OSAS and indicated priority OSAS management. Future studies are warranted to evaluate whether snore map type can be used to discriminate OSAS from primary snoring and whether it is affected by OSAS management.
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are the enzymes that defend cells against the damage mediated by oxidant and electrophilic carcinogens. GSTπ (GSTP1) is a member of the GST family and the hypermethylation GSTP1 CpG island DNA is detected in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues, which contributes to the negative expression of GSTP1 mRNA and protein. GSTP1 expression is considered to be an early event in HCC. Stat3, a member of the signal transduction and activator of transcription (Stat) family, is important for promoting the proliferation, survival and other biological processes of cells triggered by cytokines and growth factors. Activated Stat3 may participate in oncogenesis. Previous studies have demonstrated that overexpression of phosphorylated Stat3 is important in the proliferation of HCC cells, suggesting that disturbance of the Stat3 pathway may be an early event. We hypothesize that the suppression of GSTP1 expression in HCC cells increases Stat3 activation. In order to test this hypothesis, HepG2 cells were genetically modified to transiently express high levels of GSTP1. The transient expression of GSTP1 specifically downregulated epidermal growth factor (EGF)-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3, and subsequently suppressed the transcriptional activity of Stat3. By contrast, GSTP1 RNAi was able to lead to an increase in the phosphorylation of Stat3. In addition, overexpression of GSTP1 was capable of reducing the survival of HepG2 cells and inducing cell cycle arrest. This inhibition was mediated by a direct interaction between GSTP1 and Stat3. Overall, our results suggest that GSTP1 is important in the regulation of the transcriptional activity of Stat3, and that it is also a regulator of the cell cycle via EGF signaling.
glutathione S-transferase π; Stat3; phosphorylation; cell cycle
apoptosis; caspase-3; enhanced green fluorescent proteins; protease sensors; ratiometric measurements
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to play a key role in oncogenesis. Genetic variations in miRNA processing genes and miRNA binding sites may affect the biogenesis of miRNA and the miRNA-mRNA interactions, hence promoting tumorigenesis. In the present study, we hypothesized that potentially functional polymorphisms in miRNA processing genes may contribute to head and neck cancer (HNC) susceptibility. To test this hypothesis, we genotyped three SNPs at miRNA binding sites of miRNA processing genes (rs1057035 in 3′UTR of DICER, rs3803012 in 3′UTR of RAN and rs10773771 in 3′UTR of HIWI) with a case-control study including 397 HNC cases and 900 controls matched by age and sex in Chinese. Although none of three SNPs was significantly associated with overall risk of HNC, rs1057035 in 3′UTR of DICER was associated with a significantly decreased risk of oral cancer (TC/CC vs. TT: adjusted OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.46–0.92). Furthermore, luciferase activity assay showed that rs1057035 variant C allele led to significantly lower expression levels as compared to the T allele, which may be due to the relatively high inhibition of hsa-miR-574-3p on DICER mRNA. These findings indicated that rs1057035 located at 3′UTR of DICER may contribute to the risk of oral cancer by affecting the binding of miRNAs to DICER. Large-scale and well-designed studies are warranted to validate our findings.
Despite initial sensitivity to chemotherapy, ovarian cancers (OVCA) often develop drug-resistance, which limits patient survival. Using specimens and/or genomic data from 289 patients and a panel of cancer cell lines, we explored genome-wide expression changes that underlie the evolution of OVCA chemo-resistance and characterized the BCL2 antagonist of cell death (BAD) apoptosis pathway as a determinant of chemo-sensitivity and patient survival.
Serial OVCA cell cisplatin treatments were performed in parallel with measurements of genome-wide expression changes. Pathway analysis was performed on genes associated with increasing cisplatin-resistance (EC50). BAD-pathway expression and BAD-protein phosphorylation were evaluated in patient samples and cell lines as determinants of chemo-sensitivity and/or clinical outcome and as therapeutic targets.
Induced in vitro OVCA cisplatin-resistance was associated with BAD-pathway expression (P < 0.001). In OVCA cell lines and primary specimens, BAD-protein phosphorylation was associated with platinum-resistance (n = 147, P < 0.0001) and also with overall patient survival (n = 134, P = 0.0007). Targeted modulation of BAD-phosphorylation levels influenced cisplatin sensitivity. A 47-gene BAD-pathway score was associated with in vitro phosphorylated-BAD levels and with survival in 142 patients with advanced-stage (III/IV) serous OVCA. Integration of BAD-phosphorylation or BAD-pathway score with OVCA surgical cytoreductive status was significantly associated with overall survival by log-rank test (P = 0.004 and <0.0001, respectively).
The BAD apoptosis pathway influences OVCA chemo-sensitivity and overall survival, likely via modulation of BAD-phosphorylation. The pathway has clinical relevance as a biomarker of therapeutic response, patient survival, and as a promising therapeutic target.
BAD apoptosis pathway; survival; ovarian cancer; principal component analysis; cisplatin
Intracellular precursor supply is a critical factor for amino acid productivity. In the present study, ppsA and tktA genes were overexpressed in genetically engineered Escherichia coli to enhance the availability of two precursor substrates, phosphoenolpyruvate and erythrose-4-phosphate. The engineered strain, TRTH0709 carrying pSV709, produced 35.9 g/L tryptophan from glucose after 40 h in fed-batch cultivation. The two genes were inserted, independently or together, into a low-copy-number expression vector (pSTV28) and transferred to TRTH0709. Fed-batch fermentations at high cell densities of the recombination strains revealed that overexpression of the ppsA gene alone does not significantly increase tryptophan yield. On the other hand, overexpression of the tktA gene, alone or with the ppsA gene, could further improve tryptophan yield to a final tryptophan titer of 37.9 and 40.2 g/L, respectively. These results represent a 5.6% and 11.9% enhancement over the titer achieved by TRTH0709. No evident genetic modifications leading to growth impairment were observed.
To investigate the association between XPD Asp312Asn polymorphism and head and neck cancer risk through this meta-analysis.
We performed a meta-analysis of 9 published case-control studies including 2,670 patients with head and neck cancer and 4,452 controls. An odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was applied to assess the association between XPD Asp312Asn polymorphism and head and neck cancer risk.
Overall, no significant association between XPD Asp312Asn polymorphism and head and neck cancer risk was found in this meta-analysis (Asn/Asn vs. Asp/Asp: OR = 0.95, 95%CI = 0.80–1.13, P = 0.550, Pheterogeneity = 0.126; Asp/Asn vs. Asp/Asp: OR = 1.11, 95%CI = 0.99–1.24, P = 0.065, Pheterogeneity = 0.663; Asn/Asn+Asp/Asn vs. Asp/Asp: OR = 1.07, 95%CI = 0.97–1.19, P = 0.189, Pheterogeneity = 0.627; Asn/Asn vs. Asp/Asp+Asp/Asn: OR = 0.87, 95%CI = 0.68–1.10, P = 0.243, Pheterogeneity = 0.089). In the subgroup analysis by HWE, ethnicity, and study design, there was still no significant association detected in all genetic models.
This meta-analysis demonstrates that XPD Asp312Asn polymorphism may not be a risk factor for developing head and neck cancer.
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays important roles in the progression of colon cancer. DACT1 has been identified as a modulator of Wnt signaling through its interaction with Dishevelled (Dvl), a central mediator of both the canonical and noncanonical Wnt pathways. However, the functions of DACT1 in the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway remain unclear. Here, we present evidence that DACT1 is an important positive regulator in colon cancer through regulating the stability and sublocation of β-catenin. We have shown that DACT1 promotes cancer cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo and enhances the migratory and invasive potential of colon cancer cells. Furthermore, the higher expression of DACT1 not only increases the nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions of β-catenin, but also increases its membrane-associated fraction. The overexpression of DACT1 leads to the increased accumulation of nonphosphorylated β-catenin in the cytoplasm and particularly in the nuclei. We have demonstrated that DACT1 interacts with GSK-3β and β-catenin. DACT1 stabilizes β-catenin via DACT1-induced effects on GSK-3β and directly interacts with β-catenin proteins. The level of phosphorylated GSK-3β at Ser9 is significantly increased following the elevated expression of DACT1. DACT1 mediates the subcellular localization of β-catenin via increasing the level of phosphorylated GSK-3β at Ser9 to inhibit the activity of GSK-3β. Taken together, our study identifies DACT1 as an important positive regulator in colon cancer and suggests a potential strategy for the therapeutic control of the β-catenin-dependent pathway.
Norovirus is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. A norovirus outbreak occurred in Ohio in January 2010. Stool and saliva samples were obtained from six infected individuals. The full-length genomes of two representative strains (HS206 and HS210) were characterized. They belonged to GII.12 in the capsid but GII.g in the RNA polymerase region. Interestingly, an immunocompetent 2-year-old male shed virus for up to 30 days, as detected by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) typing of saliva showed that the norovirus strains infected various types of secretor-positive individuals (types A, B, and O). The viruslike particles of strain HS206 did not bind substantially to A/B/O antigens by synthetic HBGA binding, hemagglutination, or saliva binding assays. These results suggest that infection by this strain may not be A/B/O antigen dependent or that in vitro binding patterns do not always accurately reflect in vivo HBGA usage. This is different from the HBGA binding pattern of the previously reported GII.12/Aichi76 strain. Structural analysis of the predicted capsid of these GII.12 strains revealed two amino acid mismatches located near the HBGA binding sites. Four gnotobiotic pigs were inoculated orally with HS206 (6 × 1010 genomic equivalents [GE]/pig). Virus shedding began at postinoculation days (PID) 1 to 3 and continued up to PID 16 (1 × 105 to 2 × 107 GE/ml). Gastroenteritis cases caused by GII.12 noroviruses have been recently reported worldwide. We observed that this emerging GII.12 norovirus infected humans regardless of A/B/O blood type. The infection of pigs by strain HS206 suggests that interspecies transmission of this strain is possible under experimental conditions.
Norovirus (NoV) RNA was detected in the stools of 6 out 14 (42.8%) 8–12-week-old cats with enteritis from a feline shelter, in New York State. Upon sequence analysis of the complete capsid, the six NoVs were found to be identical, suggesting the spread of a unique NoV strain in the shelter. The full-length genomic sequence (7839 nt) of one feline NoV, CU081210E/2010/US, was determined. In the capsid protein VP1 region, the virus displayed the highest amino acid identity to animal genogroup IV genotype 2 (GIV.2) NoVs: lion/Pistoia-387/06/IT (97.9%) and dog/Bari-170/07/IT (90.4%). These findings document the discovery of a novel feline calicivirus, different from vesiviruses, and extend the spectrum of NoV host range. Epidemiological studies using feline NoV-specific diagnostic tools and experimental infection of cats are required to understand whether NoVs have a pathogenic role in this species.
Although tobacco and alcohol consumption are the major risk factors of head and neck cancer (HNC), genetic variations of genes involved in several biological pathways, such as DNA repair genes, may affect an individual’s susceptibility to HNC. However, few studies have investigated the associations between polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and HNC risk in the Chinese population. Thus, we genotyped five common, non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) [APEX1 (Asp148Glu), XRCC1 (Arg399Gln), ADPRT (Val762Ala), XPD (Lys751Gln) and XPG (His1104Asp)] in a hospital-based, case-control study of 397 HNC cases and 900 cancer-free controls in China. The results showed that none of the five SNPs in the DNA repair pathway was significantly associated with HNC risk, suggesting that these polymorphisms may not play a major role in HNC susceptibility in this Chinese population.
DNA repair; polymorphisms; head and neck cancer; risk
Autophagy is a self-catabolic process that maintains intracellular homeostasis and prolongs cell survival under stress via lysosomal degradation of cytoplasmic constituents and recycling of amino acids and energy. Autophagy is intricately involved in many aspects of human health and disease, including cancer. Autophagy is a double-edged sword in tumorigenesis, acting both as a tumor suppressor and a protector of cancer cell survival, and elucidation of its exact role at different stages of cancer progression and in treatment responsiveness is a complex and challenging task. Better understanding of autophagy regulation and its impact on treatment outcome will potentially allow us to identify novel therapeutic targets in cancer. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the regulation and dual function of autophagy in tumorigenesis, as well as ongoing efforts in modulating autophagy for cancer treatment and prevention. This is a very exciting and highly promising area of cancer research, as pharmacologic modulation of autophagy appears to augment the efficacy of currently available anticancer regimens and opens the way to the development of new combinatorial therapeutic strategies that will hopefully contribute to cancer eradication.
autophagy; tumorigenesis; chemotherapy; radiation; cancer treatment
The BCL2 family proteins are critical mediators of cellular apoptosis and, as such, have been implicated as determinants of cancer cell chemo-sensitivity. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the phosphorylation status of the BCL2 antagonist of cell death (BAD) protein may influence ovarian cancer (OVCA) cell sensitivity to cisplatin. Here, we sought to evaluate how kinase and phosphatase components of the BAD apoptosis pathway influence OVCA chemo-sensitivity.
Protein levels of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) were measured by immunofluorescence in a series of 64 primary advanced-stage serous OVCA patient samples. In parallel, levels of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), AKT, and PP2C were quantified by Western blot analysis in paired mother/daughter platinum-sensitive/resistant OVCA cell lines (A2008/C13, A2780S/A2780CP, Chi/ChiR). BAD pathway kinase CDK1 was depleted using siRNA transfection, and the influence on BAD phosphorylation and cisplatin-induced apoptosis was evaluated.
OVCA patient samples that demonstrated complete responses to primary platinum-based therapy demonstrated 4-fold higher CDK1 (p<0.0001) and 2-fold lower PP2C (p=0.14) protein levels than samples that demonstrated incomplete responses. Protein levels of PP2C were lower in the platinum-resistant versus that shown in the platinum-sensitive OVCA cell line sub-clones. Levels of PKA were higher in all platinum-resistant than in platinum-sensitive OVCA cell line sub-clones. Selective siRNA depletion of CDK1 increased sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis (p<0.002).
BAD pathway kinases and phosphatases, including CDK1 and PP2C, are associated with OVCA sensitivity to platinum and may represent therapeutic opportunities to enhance cytotoxic efficacy.
Cisplatin; Cyclin-dependent kinase 1; Ovarian cancer; BAD apoptosis pathway; Protein phosphatase 2C; Survival
Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TA208, a strain for industrial production of guanosine and synthesis of ribavirin by assimilation of formamide. Comparison of its genome sequence with those of strains DSM7 and FZB42 revealed horizontal gene transfer represented by unique prophages and restriction-modification systems and indicated significant accumulation of guanosine.
Rationale: Prolonged exposure to 100% O2 causes hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI), characterized by alveolar epithelial cell injury and death. We previously demonstrated that the murine chitinase-like protein, breast regression protein (BRP)–39 and its human homolog, YKL-40, inhibit cellular apoptosis. However, the regulation and roles of these molecules in hyperoxia have not been addressed.
Objectives: We hypothesized that BRP-39 and YKL-40 (also called chitinase-3–like 1) play important roles in the pathogenesis of HALI.
Methods: We characterized the regulation of BRP-39 during HALI and the responses induced by hyperoxia in wild-type mice, BRP-39–null (−/−) mice, and BRP-39−/− mice in which YKL-40 was overexpressed in respiratory epithelium. We also compared the levels of tracheal aspirate YKL-40 in premature newborns with respiratory failure.
Measurements and Main Results: These studies demonstrate that hyperoxia inhibits BRP-39 in vivo in the murine lung and in vitro in epithelial cells. They also demonstrate that BRP-39−/− mice have exaggerated permeability, protein leak, oxidation, inflammatory, chemokine, and epithelial apoptosis responses, and experience premature death in 100% O2. Lastly, they demonstrate that YKL-40 ameliorates HALI, prolongs survival in 100% O2, and rescues the exaggerated injury response in BRP-39−/− animals. In accord with these findings, the levels of tracheal aspirate YKL-40 were lower in premature infants treated with hyperoxia for respiratory failure who subsequently experienced bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death compared with those that did not experience these complications.
Conclusions: These studies demonstrate that hyperoxia inhibits BRP-39/YKL-40, and that BRP-39 and YKL-40 are critical regulators of oxidant injury, inflammation, and epithelial apoptosis in the murine and human lung.
BRP-39; YKL-40; hyperoxygen; BPD; HALI
The role of the SDF-1α-CXCR4 axis in response to myocardial infarction is unknown. We addressed it using the CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, to block SDF-1α interaction with CXCR4 after chronic coronary artery ligation. Chronic AMD3100 treatment decreased ejection fraction and fractional shortening in mice 20 days after myocardial infarction compared with vehicle-treated mice (echocardiography). Morphometric analysis showed hearts of AMD3100-treated infarcted mice to have expanded scar, to be hypertrophic (confirmed by myocyte cross-section area) and dilated, with increased LV end systolic and end diastolic dimensions, and to have decreased scar collagen content; p-AKT levels were attenuated and this was accompanied by increased apoptosis. Despite increased injury, c-kitpos cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) were increased in the risk region of AMD3100-treated infarcted mice; CPCs were CD34neg/CD45neg with the majority undergoing symmetric cell division. c-kitpos/MHCpos CPCs also increased in the risk region of the AMD3100-treated infarcted group. In this group, GSK-3β signaling was attenuated compared to vehicle-treated, possibly accounting for increased proliferation and increased cardiac committed MHCpos CPCs. Increased proliferation following AMD3100 treatment was supported by increased levels of cyclin D1, a consequence of increased prolyl isomerase, Pin1, and decreased cyclin D1 phosphorylation. In summary, pharmacologic antagonism of CXCR4 demonstrates that SDF-1α-CXCR4 signaling plays an important role during and after myocardial infarction and that it exerts pleiotropic salubrious effects, protecting the myocardium from apoptotic cell death, facilitating scar formation, restricting CPC proliferation, and directing CPCs toward a cardiac fate.
Cytokines; Stromal cell derived factor-1α; Receptors; CXCR4; AMD3100; myocardial infarction; progenitor cells
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process whereby cytoplasm and cellular organelles are degraded in lysosomes for amino acid and energy recycling. Autophagy is a survival pathway activated in response to nutrient deprivation and other stressful stimuli, such as metabolic stress and exposure to anticancer drugs. However, autophagy may also result in cell death, if it proceeds to completion. Defective autophagy is implicated in tumorigenesis, as the essential autophagy regulator beclin 1 is monoallelically deleted in human breast, ovarian and prostate cancers, and beclin 1+/− mice are tumor-prone. How autophagy suppresses tumorigenesis is under intense investigation. Cell-autonomous mechanisms, involving protection of genome integrity and stability, and a non-cell-autonomous mechanism, involving suppression of necrosis and inflammation, have been discovered so far. The role of autophagy in treatment responsiveness is also complex. Autophagy inhibition concurrently with chemotherapy or radiotherapy has emerged as a novel approach in cancer treatment, as autophagy-competent tumor cells depend on autophagy for survival under drug- and radiation-induced stress. Alternatively, autophagy stimulation and preservation of cellular fitness bymaintenance of protein and organelle quality control, suppression of DNA damage and genomic instability, and limitation of necrosis-associated inflammation may play a critical role in cancer prevention.
Autophagy; Tumorigenesis; Tumor suppression; Autophagy regulation; Cancer therapy; Autophagy modulation
Type II endometrial cancer, which mainly presents as serous and clear cell types, has proved to be the most malignant and recurrent carcinoma among various female genital malignancies. The transcription factor, Nrf2, was first described as having chemopreventive activity. Activation of the Nrf2-mediated cellular defense response protects cells against the toxic and carcinogenic effects of environmental insults by upregulating an array of genes that detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) and restore cellular redox homeostasis. However, the cancer-promoting role of Nrf2 has recently been revealed. Nrf2 is constitutively upregulated in several types of human cancer tissues and cancer cell lines. Furthermore, inhibition of Nrf2 expression sensitizes cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, the constitutive level of Nrf2 was compared in different types of human endometrial tumors. It was found that Nrf2 was highly expressed in endometrial serous carcinoma (ESC), whereas complex hyperplasia (CH) and endometrial endometrioid carcinoma (EEC) had no or marginal expression of Nrf2. Likewise, the ESC derived SPEC-2 cell line had a higher level of Nrf2 expression and was more resistant to the toxic effects of cisplatin and paclitaxel than that of the Ishikawa cell line, which was generated from EEC. Silencing of Nrf2 rendered SPEC-2 cells more susceptible to chemotherapeutic drugs while it had a limited effect on Ishikawa cells. Inhibition of Nrf2 expression by overexpressing Keap1 sensitized SPEC-2 cells or SPEC-2-derived xenografts to chemotherapeutic treatments using both cell culture and SCID mouse models. Collectively, we provide a molecular basis for the use of Nrf2 inhibitors to increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs and to combat chemoresistance, the biggest obstacle in chemotherapy.
Nrf2; chemoresistance; and endometrial cancer