Adult survivors of childhood lower-extremity sarcoma are largely physically inactive, a behavior which potentially compounds their health burden. Altering this behavior requires understanding those factors that contribute to their physical inactivity. Therefore, this investigation sought to identify factors associated with inactivity in this subpopulation of cancer survivors.
Demographic, personal, treatment and physical activity information from adult survivors of childhood lower-extremity sarcomas was obtained from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) cohort. Generalized linear models were used to identify variables that best identified those individuals who were physically inactive.
Only 41% of survivors met Center for Disease Control (CDC) activity guidelines. Survivors were 1.20 (95% CI 1.11–1.30) more likely compared to CCSS sibling cohort and 1.12 (95% CI 1.10–1.15) times more likely than the general population to fail to meet CDC guidelines. Significant predictors of physical inactivity included female sex, hemipelvectomy surgery, and platinum and vinca alkaloid chemotherapy.
The primary findings of this study are that survivors of childhood onset lower-extremity sarcoma are 1) highly likely to be physically inactive and 2) less likely than their siblings or the general population to regularly exercise. This study has identified treatment related risk factors associated with inactivity that will help health and wellness practitioners develop successful exercise interventions to help these survivors achieve recommended levels of physical activity for health.
IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS
These results suggest that physical activity interventions for adult survivors of childhood lower-extremity sarcomas should be sex specific and responsive to unique physical late effects experienced by these survivors.
Childhood cancer; physical activity; exercise; late-effects; sedentary
Young adult survivors of childhood brain tumors (BT) may have late-effects that compromise physical performance and everyday task participation.
To evaluate muscle strength, fitness, physical performance, and task participation among adult survivors of childhood BT.
In-home evaluations and interviews were conducted for 156 participants (54% male). Results on measures of muscle strength, fitness, physical performance, and participation were compared between survivors and population-group members with chi-squared statistics and two-sample t-tests. Associations between late effects and physical performance, and physical performance and participation, were evaluated in regression models.
BT survivors were a median age of 22 (18–58), and 14.7 (6.5–45.9) years from diagnosis. Survivors had lower estimates of grip strength (Female: 24.7±9.2 vs. 31.5±5.8, Male: 39.0±12.2 vs. 53.0±10.1 kilograms), knee extension strength (Female: 246.6±95.5 vs. 331.5±5.8, Male: 304.7±116.4 vs. 466.6±92.1 Newtons) and peak oxygen uptake (Female: 25.1±8.8 vs. 31.3±5.1, Male: 24.6±9.5 vs. 33.2±3.4 milliliters/kilogram/minute) than population-group members. Physical performance was lower among survivors and associated with not living independently (OR=5.0, 95% CI=2.0–12.2) and not attending college (OR=2.3, 95% CI 1.2–4.4).
Muscle strength and fitness values among BT survivors are similar to those among persons 60+ years, and are associated with physical performance limitations. Physical performance limitations are associated with poor outcomes in home and school environments. These data indicate an opportunity for interventions targeted at improving long-term physical function in this survivor population.
physical performance; disability; brain tumor; cancer survivor; pediatric
Children with cancer receive mutagenic treatments, which raises concern about the potential transmissibility of germline damage to their offspring. This question has been inadequately studied to date because of a lack of detailed individual treatment exposure assessment such as gonadal radiation doses.
Within the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we performed a retrospective cohort analysis of validated cases of congenital anomalies among 4,699 children of 1,128 male and 1,627 female childhood cancer survivors. We quantified chemotherapy with alkylating agents and radiotherapy doses to the testes and ovaries and related these exposures to risk of congenital anomalies using logistic regression.
One hundred twenty-nine children had at least one anomaly (prevalence = 2.7%). For children whose mothers were exposed to radiation or alkylating agents versus neither, the prevalence of anomalies was 3.0% versus 3.5% (P = .51); corresponding figures were 1.9% versus 1.7% (P = .79) for the children of male survivors. Neither ovarian radiation dose (mean, 1.19 Gy; odds ratio [OR] = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.20 to 1.75 for 2.50+ Gy) nor testicular radiation dose (mean, 0.48 Gy; OR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.36 to 2.83 for 0.50+ Gy) was related to risk of congenital anomalies. Treatment with alkylating agents also was not significantly associated with anomalies in the children of male or female survivors.
Our findings offer strong evidence that the children of cancer survivors are not at significantly increased risk for congenital anomalies stemming from their parent's exposure to mutagenic cancer treatments. This information is important for counseling cancer survivors planning to have children.
Many Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) participants are at increased risk for obesity. The etiology of their obesity is likely multifactorial but not well understood.
Patients and Methods
We evaluated the potential contribution of demographic, lifestyle, treatment, and intrapersonal factors and self-reported pharmaceutical use to obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) among 9,284 adult (> 18 years of age) CCSS participants. Independent predictors were identified using multivariable regression models. Interrelationships were determined using structural equation modeling (SEM).
Independent risk factors for obesity included cancer diagnosed at 5 to 9 years of age (relative risk [RR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.24; P = .03), abnormal Short Form–36 physical function (RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.33; P < .001), hypothalamic/pituitary radiation doses of 20 to 30 Gy (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.30; P = .01), and paroxetine use (RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.54; P = .01). Meeting US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for vigorous physical activity (RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.97; P = .01) and a medium amount of anxiety (RR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.99; P = .04) reduced the risk of obesity. Results of SEM (N = 8,244; comparative fit index = 0.999; Tucker Lewis index = 0.999; root mean square error of approximation = 0.014; weighted root mean square residual = 0.749) described the hierarchical impact of the direct predictors, moderators, and mediators of obesity.
Treatment, lifestyle, and intrapersonal factors, as well as the use of specific antidepressants, may contribute to obesity among survivors. A multifaceted intervention, including alternative drug and other therapies for depression and anxiety, may be required to reduce risk.
We examined whether survivors from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study were less likely to be in higher skill occupations than a sibling comparison and whether certain survivors were at higher risk.
We created three mutually-exclusive occupational categories for participants aged ≥25 years: Managerial/Professional and Non-Physical and Physical Service/Blue Collar. We examined currently employed survivors (N=4845) and siblings (N=1727) in multivariable generalized linear models to evaluate the likelihood of being in the three occupational categories. Among all participants, we used multinomial logistic regression to examine the likelihood of these outcomes in comparison to being unemployed (survivors N=6671; siblings N=2129). Multivariable linear models were used to assess survivor occupational differences by cancer and treatment variables. Personal income was compared by occupation.
Employed survivors were less often in higher skilled Managerial/Professional occupations (Relative Risk=0.93, 95% Confidence Interval 0.89–0.98) than siblings. Survivors who were Black, were diagnosed at a younger age, or had high-dose cranial radiation were less likely to hold Professional occupations than other survivors. In multinomial models, female survivors’ likelihood of being in full-time Professional occupations (27%) was lower than male survivors (42%) and female (41%) and male (50%) siblings. Survivors’ personal income was lower than siblings within each of the three occupational categories in models adjusted for sociodemographic variables.
Adult childhood cancer survivors are employed in lower skill jobs than siblings. Survivors with certain treatment histories are at higher risk and may require vocational assistance throughout adulthood.
Neoplasms; Occupations; Survivors; Socioeconomic Factors; Late Effects; Female
Ionizing radiation is a breast carcinogen that induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), and variation in genes involved in the DNA DSB response has been implicated in radiation-induced breast cancer. The Women’s Environmental, Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study is a population-based study of cases with contralateral breast cancer (CBC) and matched controls with unilateral breast cancer. The location-specific radiation dose received to the contralateral breast was estimated from radiotherapy records and mathematical models. 152 SNPs in six genes (CHEK2, MRE11A, MDC1, NBN, RAD50, TP53BP1) involved in the DNA DSBs response were genotyped. No variants or haplotypes were associated with CBC risk (649 cases, 1284 controls) and no variants were found to interact with radiation dose. Carriers of a RAD50 haplotype exposed to ≥1Gy had an increased risk of CBC compared with unexposed carriers (RR=4.31 (95% CI 1.93-9.62)); with an excess relative risk (ERR)/Gy = 2.13 (95% CI 0.61-5.33)). Although the results of this study were largely null, carriers of a haplotype in RAD50 treated with radiation, had a greater CBC risk than unexposed carriers. This suggests that carriers of this haplotype may be susceptible to the DNA-damaging effects of radiation therapy associated with radiation-induced breast cancer.
DNA repair; haplotypes; polymorphisms; radiation; contralateral breast cancer
While ionizing radiation is an established environmental risk factor for thyroid cancer, the effect of chemotherapy drugs on thyroid cancer risk remains unclear. We evaluated the chemotherapy-related risk of thyroid cancer in childhood cancer survivors, and the possible joint effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
The study included 12,547 five-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed during 1970 through 1986. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy information was obtained from medical records, and radiation dose was estimated to the thyroid gland. Cumulative incidence and relative risks were calculated using life-table methods and Poisson regression. Chemotherapy-related risks were evaluated separately by categories of radiation dose.
Histologically confirmed thyroid cancer occurred in 119 patients. Thirty years after the first childhood cancer treatment, the cumulative incidence of thyroid cancer was 1.3% (95% CI, 1.0–1.6) for females and 0.6% (0.4–0.8) for males. Among patients with thyroid radiation doses ≤ 20 Gy, treatment with alkylating agents was associated with a significant 2.4-fold increased risk of thyroid cancer (95% CI, 1.3–4.5; P = 0.002). Chemotherapy risks decreased as radiation dose increased, with a significant decrease for patients treated with alkylating agents (P-trend = 0.03). No chemotherapy-related risk was evident for thyroid radiation doses >20 Gy.
Treatments with alkylating agents increased thyroid cancer risk, but only in the radiation dose range under 20 Gy, where cell sparing likely predominates over cell killing.
Our study adds to the evidence for chemotherapy agent-specific increased risks of thyroid cancer, which to date, were mainly thought to be related to prior radiotherapy.
Thyroid cancer; second cancer; chemotherapy; radiation risk; cohort study
Preconception radiation and chemotherapy have the potential to produce germ cell mutations leading to genetic disease in the next generation. Dose-response relationships were evaluated between cancer treatments and untoward pregnancy outcomes.
Patients and Methods
A case-cohort study was conducted involving 472 Danish survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer and their 1,037 pregnancies. Adverse outcomes included 159 congenital malformations, six chromosomal abnormalities, seven stillbirths, and nine neonatal deaths. Preconception radiation doses to the gonads, uterus, and pituitary gland and administered chemotherapy were quantified based on medical records and related to adverse outcomes using a generalized estimating equation model.
No statistically significant associations were found between genetic disease in children and parental treatment with alkylating drugs or preconception radiation doses to the testes in male and ovaries in female cancer survivors. Specifically, the risk of genetic disease was similar among the children of irradiated survivors when compared with nonirradiated survivors (relative risk [RR], 1.02; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.44; P = .94). A statistically significant association between abdomino-pelvic irradiation and malformations, stillbirths, and neonatal deaths was not seen in the children of female survivors overall (P = .07) or in the children of mothers receiving high uterine doses (mean, 13.5 Gy; max, 100 Gy; RR, 2.3; 95% CI, 0.95 to 5.56).
Mutagenic chemotherapy and radiotherapy doses to the gonads were not associated with genetic defects in children of cancer survivors. However, larger studies need to be conducted to further explore potential associations between high-dose pelvic irradiation and specific adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Childhood cancer survivors are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. To further characterize this risk, this study aimed to compare the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in childhood cancer survivors and their siblings.
Participants included 8599 survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS), a retrospectively ascertained North American cohort of long-term survivors who were diagnosed 1970–1986, and 2936 randomly selected siblings of CCSS survivors. The main outcome was self-reported DM.
Survivors and siblings had mean ages of 31.5 years (range, 17.0–54.1) and 33.4 years (range, 9.6–58.4), respectively. DM was reported in 2.5% of survivors and 1.7% of siblings. Adjusting for body mass index (BMI), age, sex, race/ethnicity, household income, and insurance, survivors were 1.8 times more likely to report DM (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3–2.5; P<0.001) than siblings, with survivors who received total body irradiation (odds ratio [OR], 12.6; 95% CI, 6.2–25.3; P<0.001), abdominal irradiation (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.3–5.0; P<0.001) and cranial irradiation (OR, 1.6; 95% CI 1.0–2.3; P=0.03) at increased risk. In adjusted models, increased risk of DM was associated with: total body irradiation (OR 7.2; 95% CI, 3.4–15.0; P<0.001); abdominal irradiation (OR 2.7; 95% CI, 1.9–3.8; P<0.001); alkylating agents (OR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2–2.3; P<0.01); and younger age at diagnosis (0–4 years; OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.3–4.6; P<0.01).
Childhood cancer survivors treated with total body or abdominal irradiation have an increased risk of diabetes that appears unrelated to BMI or physical inactivity.
Childhood cancer survivor; diabetes mellitus; abdominal radiation; total body irradiation
Our study examines whether reproductive and hormonal factors prior to, at the time of, or subsequent to, radiation treatment for a first primary breast cancer, modify the risk of radiation-induced second primary breast cancer.
Methods and Materials
The Women’s Environmental, Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study is a multi-center, population-based study of 708 women (cases) with asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC) and 1,399 women (controls) with unilateral breast cancer. Radiotherapy (RT) records, coupled with anthropomorphic phantom simulations, were used to estimate quadrant-specific radiation dose to the contralateral breast for each patient. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to assess the relationship between reproductive factors and risk of CBC.
Women who were nulliparous at diagnosis and exposed to ≥1 gray (Gy) to the contralateral breast, had a greater risk of CBC than matched unexposed nulliparous women (RR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2–4.0). No increased risk was seen in RT-exposed parous women (RR=1.1, 95% CI 0.8–1.4). Women treated with RT who later became pregnant (n=8 cases and 9 controls) had a greater risk of CBC (RR=6.0, 95% CI 1.3, 28.4) than unexposed women (n=4 cases and 7 controls) who also became pregnant. The association of radiation with risk of CBC did not vary by number of pregnancies, history of breastfeeding or menopausal status at the time of first breast cancer diagnosis.
Nulliparous women treated with RT were at an increased risk of CBC. Although based on small numbers, women who become pregnant after first diagnosis also appear to be at an increased risk of radiation-induced CBC.
Reproductive factors; radiation treatment; second primary contralateral breast cancer
Little is known about pain among long-term adult survivors of childhood cancers. The study investigated pain prevalence in this population compared with sibling controls and examined pain-related risk factors. Three self-reported pain outcomes including pain conditions, prescription analgesics used, and pain attributed to cancer and treatment were assessed among 10,397 cancer survivors and 3,034 sibling controls from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Pain conditions (pain/abnormal sensation, migraines, and other headaches) were reported by 12.3%, 15.5%, and 20.5% of survivors respectively; 16.7% of survivors reported use of prescription analgesics, and 21% attributed pain to cancer and treatment. Risks of reporting pain conditions and using prescription analgesics were higher among survivors than siblings adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Younger age at diagnosis and a history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Wilms tumor, or neuroblastoma (compared to leukemia) were associated with greater risk of reporting pain conditions. A history of bone cancer or soft tissue sarcoma (compared to leukemia) was associated with greater risks of using prescription analgesics and cancer-related pain attribution. Non-brain directed scatter irradiation was associated with elevated risk for migraines and cancer-related pain attribution. Female gender and lower educational attainment were associated with increased reports of all three pain outcomes; minority status, unemployment, and being single were associated with greater risks for reporting pain conditions. These findings contribute to the understanding of pain and associated risk factors among adult survivors of childhood cancer and suggest areas of focus for pain intervention.
Long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer; Self-reported pain; Pain attribution; Risk factors
Long-term survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for fatigue, sleep problems, and neurocognitive impairment, though the association between these outcomes has not been previously examined.
Outcomes were evaluated in 1426 survivors from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study using a validated Neurocognitive Questionnaire. Relative risks for neurocognitive impairment were calculated using demographic and treatment factors, and survivors’ report on the FACIT-Fatigue, the Short Form-36 Vitality Scale (SF-36-V), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS).
Neurocognitive impairment was identified in over 20% of survivors, using sibling-based norms for comparison. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that fatigue (RR=1.34, 1.13–1.59), daytime sleepiness (RR=1.68, 1.55–1.83), poor sleep quality (RR=1.23, 1.01–1.49) and decreased vitality (RR=1.75, 95% CI 1.33–2.30) were all associated with impaired task efficiency. Likewise, fatigue (RR=1.77, 1.23–2.55), sleepiness (RR=1.38, 1.14–1.67) and decreased vitality (RR=3.08, 1.98–4.79) were predictive of emotional regulation problems. Diminished organization was associated with increased sleepiness (RR=1.80, 1.31–2.48) and decreased vitality (RR=1.90, 1.37–2.63). Impaired memory was associated with poor sleep quality (RR=1.45, 1.19–1.76), increased sleepiness (RR=2.05, 1.63–2.58), and decreased vitality (RR=2.01, 1.42–2.86). The impact of fatigue, sleepiness, sleep quality and vitality on neurocognitive outcomes was independent of the effects of cranial radiation therapy, steroids and antimetabolite chemotherapy, sex, and current age.
Neurocognitive function in long-term survivors of childhood cancer appears particularly vulnerable to the effects of fatigue and sleep disruption. These findings suggest sleep hygiene should be emphasized among survivors, as it may provide an additional mechanism for intervention to improve neurocognitive outcomes.
Childhood Cancer Survivor Study; CCSS; neurocognitive; sleep; fatigue; vitality
We examined the relationship of physical, mental, and neurocognitive function with employment and occupational status in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.
We included survivors ≥25 years of age with available Short Form-36 (physical and mental health component scores), Brief Symptom Inventory (depression, anxiety and somatization), and Neurocognitive Questionnaire (task efficiency, emotional regulation, organization, and memory). We generated relative risks (RR) from generalized linear models for these measures on unemployment (N=5386) and occupation (N=3763) outcomes adjusted for demographic and cancer-related factors, and generated sex-stratified models.
Poor physical health was associated with an almost 8-fold higher risk of health-related unemployment (p<0.001) compared to survivors with normal physical health. Male survivors with somatization and memory problems were approximately 50% (p<0.05 for both) more likely to report this outcome, while task efficiency limitations was significant for both sexes (males: RR=2.43, p<0.001; females: RR=2.28, p<0.001). Employed female survivors with task efficiency, emotional regulation, and memory limitations were 13%-20% (p<0.05 for all) less likely to work in professional or managerial occupations than unaffected females.
Physical problems may cause much of the health-related unemployment among childhood cancer survivors. While both male and female survivors with neurocognitive deficits – primarily in task efficiencies – are at risk for unemployment, employed female survivors with neurocognitive deficits may face poor occupational outcomes more often than males.
Childhood cancer survivors are at risk for poor employment outcomes. Screening and intervention for physical, mental and neurocognitive limitations could improve employment outcomes for this population.
pediatric cancer; employment status; physical health; mental health; neurocognitive function
Adult childhood cancer survivors report high levels of unemployment although it is unknown whether this is due to health or employability limitations.
We examined two employment outcomes from 2002–2005 in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS): 1. health-related unemployment and 2. unemployed but seeking work. We compared survivors to a nearest-age CCSS sibling cohort and examined demographic and treatment-related risk groups for each outcome.
We studied 6339 survivors and 2280 siblings aged ≥25 years excluding those unemployed by choice. Multivariable generalized linear models evaluated whether survivors were more likely to be unemployed than siblings and whether certain survivors were at a higher risk for unemployment.
Survivors (10.4%) reported health-related unemployment more often than siblings (1.8%; Relative Risk [RR] 6.07, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 4.32–8.53). Survivors (5.0%) were more likely to report being unemployed but seeking work than siblings (2.7%; RR 1.90, 95% CI 1.43–2.54). Health-related unemployment was more common in female survivors than males (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.73, 95% CI 1.43–2.08). Cranial radiotherapy doses ≥25 Gy were associated with higher odds of unemployment (health-related: OR 3.47, 95% CI 2.54–4.74; seeking work: OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.15–2.71). Unemployed survivors reported higher levels of poor physical functioning than employed survivors, and had lower education and income and were more likely to be publicly insured than unemployed siblings.
Childhood cancer survivors have higher levels of unemployment due to health or being between jobs. High-risk survivors may need vocational assistance.
Childhood cancer survivors experience an increased incidence of subsequent neoplasms (SNs). Those surviving the first SN (SN1) remain at risk to develop multiple SNs. Because SNs are a common cause of late morbidity and mortality, characterization of rates of multiple SNs is needed.
Patients and Methods
In a total of 14,358 5-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed between 1970 and 1986, analyses were carried out among 1,382 survivors with an SN1. Cumulative incidence of second subsequent neoplasm (SN2), either malignant or benign, was calculated.
A total of 1,382 survivors (9.6%) developed SN1, of whom 386 (27.9%) developed SN2. Of those with SN2, 153 (39.6%) developed more than two SNs. Cumulative incidence of SN2 was 46.9% (95% CI, 41.6% to 52.2%) at 20 years after SN1. The cumulative incidence of SN2 among radiation-exposed survivors was 41.3% (95% CI, 37.2% to 45.4%) at 15 years compared with 25.7% (95% CI, 16.5% to 34.9%) for those not treated with radiation. Radiation-exposed survivors who developed an SN1 of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) had a cumulative incidence of subsequent malignant neoplasm (SMN; ie, malignancies excluding NMSC) of 20.3% (95% CI, 13.0% to 27.6%) at 15 years compared with only 10.7% (95% CI, 7.2% to 14.2%) for those who were exposed to radiation and whose SN1 was an invasive SMN (excluding NMSC).
Multiple SNs are common among aging survivors of childhood cancer. SN1 of NMSC identifies a population at high risk for invasive SMN. Survivors not exposed to radiation who develop multiple SNs represent a population of interest for studying genetic susceptibility to neoplasia.
Positive health-related behaviors are essential for the future wellbeing of childhood cancer survivors, though relatively few maintain healthy behaviors into adulthood.
Neurocognitive function and emotional distress were examined in 6,440 adult survivors from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, and used to predict rates of expected health-related behaviors. Covariates included cancer diagnosis, age, sex, body mass index, insurance status, income, and antidepressant medication use, and multivariable models were constructed adjusting for these factors.
In multivariable regression models, survivors with neurocognitive problems in task efficiency (RR=0.77, 95% CI=0.72–0.84) were less likely to meet the Centers for Disease Control guidelines for weekly physical activity. Survivors with neurocognitive impairment were more likely to engage in general survivor care (RR=1.20, 95% CI=1.10–1.30), and less likely to engage in dental care (RR=0.92, 95% CI=0.88–0.97). Obese survivors were less likely to report receiving a bone density exam (RR=0.67, 95% CI=0.54–0.82), a mammogram (RR=0.71, 95% CI=0.57–0.89), and a skin exam (RR=0.78, 95% CI = 0.68–0.89). Survivors reporting somatization, i.e. vague physical symptoms associated with anxiety, were more likely to report receiving echocardiograms (RR=1.53, 95% CI = 1.32–1.77).
These results support the link between neurocognitive and emotional problems and health-related behaviors in adult survivors of childhood cancer. Monitoring neurocognitive and emotional outcomes may help to identify survivors at risk for poor adherence to prescribed health behaviors and health screening exams.
To evaluate the effect of hypothalamic/pituitary radiation dose on the occurrence of first pregnancy
Retrospective cohort study of childhood cancer five-year survivors (CCS) diagnosed between 1970 and 1986 prior to 21 years of age at one of 26 North American pediatric cancer treatment centers
3619 female CCS who participated in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study and received no/scatter (≤ 0.1 Gy) radiation to the ovaries and 2081 female siblings (Sibs) of the participants
Main Outcome Measure(s)
Self-reported pregnancy events
As a group CCS were as likely to report being pregnant as Sibs (Hazard Ratio (HR), 1.07; 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI), 0.97 to 1.19). Multivariable models showed a significant decrease in the risk of pregnancy with HPT RT doses ≥ 22 Gy compared with those CCS receiving no HPT RT.
These results support the hypothesis that exposures of 22 to 27 Gy HPT RT may be a contributing factor to infertility among female CCS.
childhood cancer survivor; hypothalamic irradiation; pituitary irradiation; alkylating agent; pregnancy
Background & Aims
Children who receive cancer therapy experience numerous acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities. However, the long-term GI consequences have not been extensively studied. We evaluated the incidence of adverse long-term GI outcomes and identified treatment-related risk factors.
Upper GI, hepatic, and lower GI adverse outcomes were assessed in cases randomly selected from participants in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, a study of 14,358 survivors of childhood cancer who were diagnosed between 1970 and 1986; data were compared with those from siblings. The median age at cancer diagnosis was 6.8 years (0–21.0 years), the median age at outcome assessment was 23.2 years (5.6–48.9 years) for survivors and 26.6 years (1.8–56.2 years) for siblings. Rates of self-reported, late complications of the GI tract (occurred 5 or more years after cancer diagnosis) were determined and associated with patient characteristics and cancer treatments, adjusting for age, sex, and race; data were compared with those from siblings.
Compared with siblings, survivors had increased risk for late-onset complications of the upper GI tract (relative risk [RR]=1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–2.0), liver (RR=2.1; 95% CI, 1.8–2.5), and lower GI tract (RR=1.9; 1.7–2.2). The RR for requiring colostomy, ileostomy, or liver biopsy, or for developing liver cirrhosis were 5.6 (95% CI, 2.4–13.1), 24.1 (95% CI, 7.5–77.8), and 8.9 (95% CI, 2.0–40.0), respectively. Older age at diagnosis, intensified therapy, abdominal radiation, and abdominal surgery increased the risk of certain GI complications.
Individuals who received therapy for cancer during childhood have an increased risk of developing GI complications later in life.
tumor; chemotherapy; side effect; toxicity; pediatric
As cancer survival improves, the long-term risks from treatments including the risk of developing a second cancer after radiotherapy become more important. The proportion of second cancers that may be related to radiotherapy is unknown.
We used the U.S. Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results cancer registries to conduct a systematic analysis of 15 cancer sites that are treated routinely with radiotherapy. Relative risks (RR) for patients receiving radiotherapy versus patients not receiving radiotherapy were estimated using Poisson regression adjusted for age, stage and other potential confounders.
The cohort included 647,672 five-year adult survivors followed-up for an average of 7 additional years; 60,271 (9%) developed a second solid cancer. For each of the first cancer sites the RR of developing a second cancer associated with radiotherapy exceeded one, and varied from 1.08 (95%CI:0.79–1.46) after eye/orbit cancers to 1.43 (95%CI:1.13–1.84) after testicular cancer. In general the RR was highest for organs likely to have received >5Gy, decreased with increasing age at diagnosis and increased with time since diagnosis. We estimated a total of 3266 (95%CI:2862–3670) excess second solid cancers that could be related to radiation; 8% (95%CI:7%–9%) of the total in all radiotherapy patients (1+yr survivors) and 5 excess cancers/1,000 patients treated with radiotherapy by 15 years after diagnosis. Approximately half (54%) the excess cancers were in organs likely to have received >5Gy.
A relatively small proportion of second cancers are related to radiotherapy in adults, suggesting that most are due to other factors, such as lifestyle or genetics.
Objectives To assess the incidence of and risks for congestive heart
failure, myocardial infarction, pericardial disease, and valvular abnormalities among
adult survivors of childhood and adolescent cancers.
Design Retrospective cohort study.
Setting 26 institutions that participated in the Childhood Cancer Survivor
Participants 14 358 five year survivors of cancer diagnosed under the age of
21 with leukaemia, brain cancer, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, kidney
cancer, neuroblastoma, soft tissue sarcoma, or bone cancer between 1970 and 1986.
Comparison group included 3899 siblings of cancer survivors.
Main outcome measures Participants or their parents (in participants aged
less than 18 years) completed a questionnaire collecting information on demographic
characteristics, height, weight, health habits, medical conditions, and surgical
procedures occurring since diagnosis. The main outcome measures were the incidence of and
risk factors for congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, pericardial disease, and
valvular abnormalities in survivors of cancer compared with siblings.
Results Survivors of cancer were significantly more likely than siblings to
report congestive heart failure (hazard ratio (HR) 5.9, 95% confidence interval 3.4 to
9.6; P<0.001), myocardial infarction (HR 5.0, 95% CI 2.3 to 10.4; P<0.001),
pericardial disease (HR 6.3, 95% CI 3.3 to 11.9; P<0.001), or valvular abnormalities
(HR 4.8, 95% CI 3.0 to 7.6; P<0.001). Exposure to 250 mg/m2 or more of
anthracyclines increased the relative hazard of congestive heart failure, pericardial
disease, and valvular abnormalities by two to five times compared with survivors who had
not been exposed to anthracyclines. Cardiac radiation exposure of 1500 centigray or more
increased the relative hazard of congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction,
pericardial disease, and valvular abnormalities by twofold to sixfold compared to
non-irradiated survivors. The cumulative incidence of adverse cardiac outcomes in cancer
survivors continued to increase up to 30 years after diagnosis.
Conclusion Survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer are at substantial
risk for cardiovascular disease. Healthcare professionals must be aware of these risks
when caring for this growing population.
Curative but potentially mutagenic cancer therapy might lead to untoward disorders and increased hospitalization among the offspring of childhood cancer survivors. Hospitalizations in childhood were evaluated in a population-based cohort of 1,920 offspring of 3,963 childhood cancer survivors, 6,394 offspring of 5,657 siblings, and 9,594 population-based comparisons. The Danish Cancer Registry, Central Population Register, and National Hospital Register were used to identify study subjects and hospitalizations. The probability for children in the offspring cohorts of being hospitalized before a given age was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Hospitalization rate ratios (HRRs) were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model with population comparisons as referent. Little differences in hospitalization histories were seen among offspring in the three cohorts. HRRs of overall hospitalization was 1.05 (95% CI, 0.98–1.12) for offspring of survivors and 1.01 (95% CI, 0.97–1.05) for offspring of siblings, neither of which was significantly different from that of population comparisons. No significant associations were seen for most of the main diagnostic groups of diseases including infections and perinatal disorders. A six-fold excess risk of hospitalization for malignant tumors in survivors’ offspring, however, could largely be explained by hereditary cancer syndromes, and part of the 2-fold excess hospitalization for benign tumors might similarly be explained by an underlying genetic susceptibility or by increased surveillance of children born to survivors. Assuming that hospitalization is an indicator of multifactorial genetic disease, the findings provide further reassurance that cancer therapies do not confer a high risk of such conditions in offspring born after treatments.
cancer survivor; childhood cancer; germ-cell mutation; hospitalization in offspring
Previous studies have indicated that thyroid cancer risk after a first childhood malignancy is curvilinear with radiation dose, increasing at low to moderate doses and decreasing at high doses. Understanding factors that modify the radiation dose response over the entire therapeutic dose range is challenging and requires large numbers of subjects. We quantified the long-term risk of thyroid cancer associated with radiation treatment among 12,547 5-year survivors of a childhood cancer (leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, central nervous system cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, kidney cancer, bone cancer, neuroblastoma) diagnosed between 1970 and 1986 in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study using the most current cohort follow-up to 2005. There were 119 subsequent pathologically confirmed thyroid cancer cases, and individual radiation doses to the thyroid gland were estimated for the entire cohort. This cohort study builds on the previous case-control study in this population (69 thyroid cancer cases with follow-up to 2000) by allowing the evaluation of both relative and absolute risks. Poisson regression analyses were used to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIR), excess relative risks (ERR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of thyroid cancer associated with radiation dose. Other factors such as sex, type of first cancer, attained age, age at exposure to radiation, time since exposure to radiation, and chemotherapy (yes/no) were assessed for their effect on the linear and exponential quadratic terms describing the dose–response relationship. Similar to the previous analysis, thyroid cancer risk increased linearly with radiation dose up to approximately 20 Gy, where the relative risk peaked at 14.6-fold (95% CI, 6.8–31.5). At thyroid radiation doses >20 Gy, a downturn in the dose–response relationship was observed. The ERR model that best fit the data was linear-exponential quadratic. We found that age at exposure modified the ERR linear dose term (higher radiation risk with younger age) (P < 0.001) and that sex (higher radiation risk among females) (P = 0.008) and time since exposure (higher radiation risk with longer time) (P < 0.001) modified the EAR linear dose term. None of these factors modified the exponential quadratic (high dose) term. Sex, age at exposure and time since exposure were found to be significant modifiers of the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer and as such are important factors to account for in clinical follow-up and thyroid cancer risk estimation among childhood cancer survivors.
Although ionizing radiation is a known carcinogen, the long-term risk from relatively higher-dose diagnostic procedures during childhood is less well known. We evaluated this risk indirectly by assessing thyroid cancer incidence in a cohort treated with “lower-dose” chest radiotherapy more than 55 years ago. Between 2004 and 2008, we re-surveyed a population-based cohort of subjects treated with radiation for an enlarged thymus during infancy between 1926 and 1957 and their unexposed siblings. Thyroid cancer occurred in 50 irradiated subjects (mean thyroid dose, 1.29 Gy) and in 13 nonirradiated siblings during 334,347 person-years of follow-up. After adjusting for attained age, Jewish religion, sex and history of goiter, the rate ratio for thyroid cancer was 5.6 (95% CI: 3.1–10.8). The adjusted excess relative risk per gray was 3.2 (95% CI: 1.5–6.6). The adjusted excess absolute risk per gray was 2.2 cases (95% CI: 1.4–3.2) per 10,000 person-years. Cumulative thyroid cancer incidence remains elevated in this cohort after a median 57.5 years of follow-up and is dose-dependent. Although the incidence appeared to decrease after 40 years, increased risk remains a lifelong concern in those exposed to lower doses of medical radiation during early childhood.
In the last four decades, advances in therapies for primary cancers have improved overall survival for childhood cancer. Currently, almost 80% of children will survive beyond 5 years from diagnosis of their primary malignancy. These improved outcomes have resulted in a growing population of childhood cancer survivors. Radiation therapy, while an essential component of primary treatment for many childhood malignancies, has been associated with risk of long-term adverse outcomes. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS), a retrospective cohort of over 14,000 survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed between 1970 and 1986, has been an important resource to quantify associations between radiation therapy and risk of long-term adverse health and quality of life outcomes. Radiation therapy has been associated with increased risk for late mortality, development of second neoplasms, obesity, and pulmonary, cardiac and thyroid dysfunction as well as an increased overall risk for chronic health conditions. Importantly, the CCSS has provided more precise estimates for a number of dose–response relationships, including those for radiation therapy and development of subsequent malignant neoplasms of the central nervous system, thyroid and breast. Ongoing study of childhood cancer survivors is needed to establish long-term risks and to evaluate the impact of newer techniques such as conformal radiation therapy or proton-beam therapy.
Genome-wide association studies, focusing primarily on unilateral breast cancer, have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a number of genomic regions that have alleles associated with a significantly increased risk of breast cancer. In the current study we evaluate the contributions of these previously identified regions to the risk of developing contralateral breast cancer. The most strongly disease-associated SNPs from prior studies were tested for association with contralateral breast cancer. A subset of these SNPs, selected upon their main effects on contralateral breast cancer risk was further evaluated for interaction with treatment modalities and estrogen receptor (ER) status.
We genotyped 21 SNPs in 708 women with contralateral breast cancer and 1394 women with unilateral breast cancer who serve as the cases and controls in the Women's Environment, Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study. Records of treatment and ER status were available for most of WECARE Study participants. Associations of SNP genotypes and risk for contralateral breast cancer were calculated with multivariable adjusted conditional logistic regression methods.
Multiple SNPs in the FGFR2 locus were significantly associated with contralateral breast cancer, including rs1219648 (per allele rate ratio (RR) = 1.25, 95%CI = 1.08-1.45). Statistically significant associations with contralateral breast cancer were also observed at rs7313833, near the PTHLH gene (per allele RR = 1.26, 95%CI = 1.08-1.47), rs13387042 (2q35) (per allele RR = 1.19, 95%CI = 1.02-1.37), rs13281615 (8q24) (per allele RR = 1.21, 95%CI = 1.04-1.40), and rs11235127 near TMEM135 (per allele RR = 1.26, 95%CI = 1.04-1.53). The A allele of rs13387042 (2q35) was significantly associated with contralateral breast cancer in ER negative first tumors while the A allele of rs11235127 (near TMEM135) was significantly associated with contralateral breast cancer in ER positive first tumors. Although some SNP genotypes appeared to modify contralateral breast cancer risk with respect to tamoxifen treatment or particular radiation doses, trend tests for such effects were not significant.
Our results indicate that some common risk variants associated with primary breast cancer also increase risk for contralateral breast cancer, and that these risks vary with the ER status of the first tumor.