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2.  14-3-3τ Promotes Breast Cancer Invasion and Metastasis by Inhibiting RhoGDIα 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2014;34(14):2635-2649.
14-3-3τ is frequently overexpressed in breast cancer; however, whether it contributes to breast cancer progression remains undetermined. Here, we identify a critical role for 14-3-3τ in promoting breast cancer metastasis, in part through binding to and inhibition of RhoGDIα, a negative regulator of Rho GTPases and a metastasis suppressor. 14-3-3τ binds Ser174-phosphorylated RhoGDIα and blocks its association with Rho GTPases, thereby promoting epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 activation. When 14-3-3τ is overexpressed in MCF7 breast cancer cells that express 14-3-3τ at low levels, it increases motility, reduces adhesion, and promotes metastasis in mammary fat pad xenografts. On the other hand, depletion of 14-3-3τ in MCF7 cells and in an invasive cell line, MDA-MB231, inhibits Rho GTPase activation and blocks breast cancer migration and invasion. Moreover, 14-3-3τ overexpression in human breast tumors is associated with the activation of ROCK (a Rho GTPase effector), high metastatic rate, and shorter survival, underscoring a clinically significant role for 14-3-3τ in breast cancer progression. Our work indicates that 14-3-3τ is a novel therapeutic target to prevent breast cancer metastasis.
PMCID: PMC4097670  PMID: 24820414
3.  Effects of Diabetic Case Management on Knowledge, Self-Management Abilities, Health Behaviors, and Health Service Utilization for Diabetes in Korea 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2014;56(1):244-252.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a case management program for diabetics, using a pre-post comparison design.
Materials and Methods
The study population comprised 6007 diabetics who received case management intervention in 2006 and were sampled nationwide in Korea. Before and after the intervention, the study population answered questions regarding their knowledge of diabetes, self-management ability, and health behaviors. Body mass index (BMI) was also calculated. Healthcare service utilization for diabetes was extracted from health insurance claim data from 2005 to 2007.
The case management program significantly improved the study population's knowledge of diabetes and ability to self-manage nutrition, blood glucose monitoring, foot and oral care, and medications. This program also significantly changed the study population's health behaviors regarding smoking, alcohol drinking, and exercise, and BMI was positively affected. In the over-serviced subgroup, there was a significant decrease in the number of consultations (mean=7.0; SD=19.5) after intervention. Conversely, in the under-serviced subgroup, there was a significant increase in the number of consultations (mean=3.2; SD=7.9) and the days of prescribed medication (mean=66.4; SD=120.3) after intervention.
This study showed that the case management program led the study population to improve their knowledge, self-management ability, health behaviors, and utilization of health care. It is necessary in future studies to evaluate the appropriateness of healthcare usage and clinical outcome by using a control group to determine the direct effectiveness of this case management program.
PMCID: PMC4276763  PMID: 25510771
Case management; diabetes; intervention; Korea
4.  Two-photon fluorescence imaging of intracellular hydrogen peroxide with chemoselective fluorescent probes 
Journal of Biomedical Optics  2013;18(10):106002.
We present the application of two-photon fluorescence (TPF) imaging to monitor intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production in brain cells. For selective imaging of H2O2 over other reactive oxygen species, we employed small-molecule fluorescent probes that utilize a chemoselective boronate deprotection mechanism. Peroxyfluor-6 acetoxymethyl ester detects global cellular H2O2 and mitochondria peroxy yellow 1 detects mitochondrial H2O2. Two-photon absorption cross sections for these H2O2 probes are measured with a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser in the wavelength range of 720 to 1040 nm. TPF imaging is demonstrated in the HT22 cell line to monitor both cytoplasmic H2O2 and localized H2O2 production in mitochondria. Endogenous cytoplasmic H2O2 production is detected with TPF imaging in rat astrocytes modified with d-amino acid oxidase. The TPF H2O2 imaging demonstrated that these chemoselective probes are powerful tools for the detection of intracellular H2O2.
PMCID: PMC3787808  PMID: 24084856
two-photon fluorescence imaging; hydrogen peroxide; reactive oxygen species; fluorescent probe; oxidative stress; molecular imaging
5.  Preparation and use of MitoPY1 for imaging hydrogen peroxide in mitochondria of live cells 
Nature protocols  2013;8(6):1249-1259.
Mitochondria peroxy yellow 1 (MitoPY1) is a small-molecule fluorescent probe that selectively tracks to the mitochondria of live biological specimens and responds to local fluxes of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by a turn-on fluorescence enhancement. This bifunctional dye uses a triphenylphosphonium targeting group and a boronate-based molecular switch to selectively respond to H2O2 over competing reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the mitochondria. MitoPY1 can be used to measure mitochondrial H2O2 levels in both cell culture and tissue models. In this protocol, we describe the synthesis of MitoPY1 and how to use this chemical tool to visualize mitochondrial H2O2 in live cells. The preparation of MitoPY1 is anticipated to take 7–10 d, and assays involving microscopy of cultured mammalian cells can be performed in 1–2 d.
PMCID: PMC4096497  PMID: 23722262
6.  Boronate-Based Fluorescent Probes: Imaging Hydrogen Peroxide in Living Systems 
Methods in enzymology  2013;526:19-43.
Hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species with unique chemical properties, is produced endogenously in living systems as a destructive oxidant to ward off pathogens or as a finely tuned second messenger in dynamic cellular signaling pathways. In order to understand the complex roles that hydrogen peroxide can play in biological systems, new tools to monitor hydrogen peroxide in its native settings, with high selectivity and sensitivity, are needed. Knowledge of organic synthetic reactivity provides the foundation for the molecular design of selective, functional hydrogen peroxide probes. A palette of fluorescent and luminescent probes that react chemoselectively with hydrogen peroxide has been developed, utilizing a boronate oxidation trigger. These indicators offer a variety of colors and in cellulo characteristics and have been used to examine hydrogen peroxide in a number of experimental setups, including in vitro fluorometry, confocal fluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometry. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the chemical features of these probes and information on their behavior to help researchers select the optimal probe and application.
PMCID: PMC4096516  PMID: 23791092
7.  Mitochondrial Hydrogen Peroxide and Defective Cholesterol Efflux Prevent In Vitro Fertilization by Cryopreserved Inbred Mouse Sperm1 
Biology of Reproduction  2013;89(1):17.
Recent advances in the cryopreservation of mouse sperm have resulted in dramatically improved in vitro fertilization (IVF) rates, but the biological mechanisms underlying the techniques remain unclear. Two different classes of compounds have been widely utilized to improve the IVF rates of cryopreserved mouse sperm: antioxidants and cyclodextrins. To determine how cryopreservation reduces mouse sperm IVF and how antioxidants and cyclodextrins mitigate this effect, we examined sperm function and oxidative damage after cryopreservation, with and without treatments, in mouse strains important for biomedical research. Our investigation revealed mouse strain-specific effects on IVF by modulation of oxidative stress and cholesterol efflux of cryopreserved sperm. Antioxidants improved IVF rates of C57Bl6/J cryopreserved mouse sperm by reducing hydrogen peroxide produced by sperm mitochondria and ameliorating peroxidative damage to the sperm acrosome. Enhancing cholesterol efflux with cyclodextrin restored capacitation-dependent sperm function and IVF after cryopreservation of C57Bl/6J, C57Bl/6N, and 129X1 mouse sperm. Our results highlight two accessible pathways for continued development of IVF techniques for mouse sperm and provide novel endpoints prognostic of IVF success. These insights may improve sperm cryopreservation methods of other mouse strains and species.
Mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide and defective cholesterol efflux prevent in vitro fertilization by mouse sperm after cryopreservation in a strain-dependent manner.
PMCID: PMC4076349  PMID: 23740947
acrosome reaction; cryopreservation; in vitro fertilization (IVF); oxidative stress; sperm capacitation
8.  Fluorescent probes for sensing and imaging biological hydrogen sulfide 
Current opinion in chemical biology  2012;16(5-6):595-601.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has long been recognized as a toxic molecule in biological systems. However, emerging studies now link controlled fluxes of this reactive sulfur species to cellular regulation and signaling events akin to other small molecule messengers, such as nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and carbon monoxide. Progress in the development of fluorescent small-molecule indicators with high selectivity for hydrogen sulfide offers a promising approach for studying its production, trafficking, and downstream physiological and/or pathological effects.
PMCID: PMC3509267  PMID: 22921406
9.  TRIP6 Regulates p27KIP1 To Promote Tumorigenesis 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2013;33(7):1394-1409.
TRIP6 is an adaptor protein that regulates cell motility and antiapoptotic signaling. Although it has been implicated in tumorigenesis, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here we provide evidence that TRIP6 promotes tumorigenesis by serving as a bridge to promote the recruitment of p27KIP1 to AKT in the cytosol. TRIP6 regulates the membrane translocation and activation of AKT and facilitates AKT-mediated recognition and phosphorylation of p27KIP1 specifically at T157, thereby promoting the cytosolic mislocalization of p27KIP1. This is required for p27KIP1 to enhance lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced ovarian cancer cell migration. TRIP6 also promotes serum-induced reduction of nuclear p27KIP1 expression levels through Skp2-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Consequently, knockdown of TRIP6 in glioblastoma or ovarian cancer xenografts restores nuclear p27KIP1 expression and impairs tumor proliferation. As TRIP6 is upregulated in gliomas and its levels correlate with poor clinical outcomes in a dose-dependent manner, it may represent a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target in gliomas.
PMCID: PMC3624266  PMID: 23339869
11.  “Communicate to vaccinate”: the development of a taxonomy of communication interventions to improve routine childhood vaccination 
Vaccination is a cost-effective public health measure and is central to the Millennium Development Goal of reducing child mortality. However, childhood vaccination coverage remains sub-optimal in many settings. While communication is a key feature of vaccination programmes, we are not aware of any comprehensive approach to organising the broad range of communication interventions that can be delivered to parents and communities to improve vaccination coverage. Developing a classification system (taxonomy) organised into conceptually similar categories will aid in: understanding the relationships between different types of communication interventions; facilitating conceptual mapping of these interventions; clarifying the key purposes and features of interventions to aid implementation and evaluation; and identifying areas where evidence is strong and where there are gaps. This paper reports on the development of the ‘Communicate to vaccinate’ taxonomy.
The taxonomy was developed in two stages. Stage 1 included: 1) forming an advisory group; 2) searching for descriptions of interventions in trials (CENTRAL database) and general health literature (Medline); 3) developing a sampling strategy; 4) screening the search results; 5) developing a data extraction form; and 6) extracting intervention data. Stage 2 included: 1) grouping the interventions according to purpose; 2) holding deliberative forums in English and French with key vaccination stakeholders to gather feedback; 3) conducting a targeted search of grey literature to supplement the taxonomy; 4) finalising the taxonomy based on the input provided.
The taxonomy includes seven main categories of communication interventions: inform or educate, remind or recall, teach skills, provide support, facilitate decision making, enable communication and enhance community ownership. These categories are broken down into 43 intervention types across three target groups: parents or soon-to-be-parents; communities, community members or volunteers; and health care providers.
Our taxonomy illuminates and organises this field and identifies the range of available communication interventions to increase routine childhood vaccination uptake. We have utilised a variety of data sources, capturing information from rigorous evaluations such as randomised trials as well as experiences and knowledge of practitioners and vaccination stakeholders. The taxonomy reflects current public health practice and can guide the future development of vaccination programmes.
PMCID: PMC3655915  PMID: 23663327
Childhood; Vaccination; Immunisation; Communication; Low- and middle-income country; Intervention; Consumer; Taxonomy; Parents
12.  Rethinking the politics and implementation of health in all policies 
In Europe, successful health policies have contributed to a continued decline in mortality. However, not all parts of Europe have benefited equally and the sustainability of achievements cannot be taken for granted since health policies vary widely even among neighbouring countries. Furthermore, there are a number of remaining public health challenges such as food and alcohol polices. We argue that if we are to make further progress we need to rethink the politics and implementation of Health in All Policies. Commenting on an article analyzing the roll out and early implementation of Israel’s National Programme to Promote Active, Healthy Lifestyles provides an opportunity to thrash out four issues. First, intersectoral structures are key transmission belts for Health in All Policies between ministries and sectors and we need to exploit their specific uses and understand their limitations. Second, our analytical perspective should focus on what it takes to introduce policy change instead of assuming an idealized policy cycle. This includes a reconsideration of interventions which may not be very effective but help to raise the standing of health on the political agenda, thus providing a stronger basis for policy change. Third, we need to better understand variations in context between and within countries, e.g. why do some countries adopt Health in All policies but others don’t, and why is it that in the same country compliance with some health policies is better than with others. Finally, we will need to better understand how a diverse set of actors from other sectors can internalize health as an intrinsic value.
PMCID: PMC3639036  PMID: 23607717
13.  'Communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC). building evidence for improving communication about childhood vaccinations in low- and middle-income countries: protocol for a programme of research 
Effective provider-parent communication can improve childhood vaccination uptake and strengthen immunisation services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Building capacity to improve communication strategies has been neglected. Rigorous research exists but is not readily found or applicable to LMICs, making it difficult for policy makers to use it to inform vaccination policies and practice.
The aim of this project is to build research knowledge and capacity to use evidence-based strategies for improving communication about childhood vaccinations with parents and communities in LMICs.
Methods and design
This project is a mixed methods study with six sub-studies. In sub-study one, we will develop a systematic map of provider-parent communication interventions for childhood vaccinations by screening and extracting data from relevant literature. This map will inform sub-study two, in which we will develop a taxonomy of interventions to improve provider-parent communication around childhood vaccination. In sub-study three, the taxonomy will be populated with trial citations to create an evidence map, which will also identify how evidence is linked to communication barriers regarding vaccination.
In the project's fourth sub-study, we will present the interventions map, taxonomy, and evidence map to international stakeholders to identify high-priority topics for systematic reviews of interventions to improve parent-provider communication for childhood vaccination. We will produce systematic reviews of the effects of high-priority interventions in the fifth sub-study. In the sixth and final sub-study of the project, evidence from the systematic reviews will be translated into accessible formats and messages for dissemination to LMICs.
This project combines evidence mapping, conceptual and taxonomy development, priority setting, systematic reviews, and knowledge transfer. It will build and share concepts, terms, evidence, and resources to aid the development of communication strategies for effective vaccination programmes in LMICs.
PMCID: PMC3259054  PMID: 22132930
14.  Pain charts (body maps or manikins) in assessment of the location of pediatric pain 
Pain management  2011;1(1):61-68.
This article surveys the use of pain charts or pain drawings in eliciting information about the location of pain symptoms from children and adolescents. While pain charts are widely used and have been incorporated in multidimensional pediatric pain questionnaires and diaries, they present a number of issues requiring further study. These include, in particular, the number and size of different locations or areas of pain that need to be differentiated; the age at which children are able to complete pain charts unassisted; and whether the intensity and other qualities of pain can be accurately recorded on pain charts by children and adolescents. Based on data currently available, it is suggested that the unassisted use of pain charts be restricted to children aged 8 years or over, while for clinical purposes many younger children can complete pain charts with adult support. Where the investigator’s interest is restricted to a few areas of the body, checklists of body parts may have greater utility than pain charts. A new pain chart adapted for use in studies of pediatric recurrent and chronic pain is presented.
PMCID: PMC3091382  PMID: 21572558
15.  The development and pilot testing of a rapid assessment tool to improve local public health system capacity in Australia 
BMC Public Health  2009;9:413.
To operate effectively the public health system requires infrastructure and the capacity to act. Public health's ability to attract funding for infrastructure and capacity development would be enhanced if it was able to demonstrate what level of capacity was required to ensure a high performing system. Australia's public health activities are undertaken within a complex organizational framework that involves three levels of government and a diverse range of other organizations. The question of appropriate levels of infrastructure and capacity is critical at each level. Comparatively little is known about infrastructure and capacity at the local level.
In-depth interviews were conducted with senior managers in two Australian states with different frameworks for health administration. They were asked to reflect on the critical components of infrastructure and capacity required at the local level. The interviews were analyzed to identify the major themes. Workshops with public health experts explored this data further. The information generated was used to develop a tool, designed to be used by groups of organizations within discrete geographical locations to assess local public health capacity.
Local actors in these two different systems pointed to similar areas for inclusion for the development of an instrument to map public health capacity at the local level. The tool asks respondents to consider resources, programs and the cultural environment within their organization. It also asks about the policy environment - recognizing that the broader environment within which organizations operate impacts on their capacity to act. Pilot testing of the tool pointed to some of the challenges involved in such an exercise, particularly if the tool were to be adopted as policy.
This research indicates that it is possible to develop a tool for the systematic assessment of public health capacity at the local level. Piloting the tool revealed some concerns amongst participants, particularly about how the tool would be used. However there was also recognition that the areas covered by the tool were those considered relevant.
PMCID: PMC2785789  PMID: 19912663
16.  The future of public health: the importance of workforce 
Health workforce has become a major concern and a significant health policy issue around the world in recent years. With recent international and national initiatives and models being developed and implemented in Australia and other countries, it is timely to understand the need and the rationale for a better trained and educated public health workforce for the future. Much more attention should also be given to evaluation and research in this field.
Through this thematic series on Workforce and Public Health, we have drawn on the diverse nature of public health, workforce implications, education and training and national and international case examples of ongoing improvements and issues in this sector.
PMCID: PMC2673230  PMID: 19358709
17.  The practice and regulatory requirements of naturopathy and western herbal medicine in Australia 
Australian health workforce regulation is premised on the need to protect public health and safety. Specific criteria are set out by governments to ascertain the degree of risk and the need for government intervention. A study was undertaken to understand the current state of usage and the practice of naturopathy and western herbal medicine, and to ascertain whether statutory regulation was warranted. We found increased use of these complementary therapies in the community, with risks arising from both the specific practices as well as consumers negotiating a parallel primary health care system. We also found highly variable standards of training, a myriad of professional associations, and a general failure of current systems of self-regulation to protect public health and safety. Statutory regulation was the preferred policy response for consumers, insurers, general practitioners, and most of the complementary therapists. While we found a case for statutory registration, we also argue that a minimalist regulatory response needs to be accompanied by other measures to educate the public, to improve the standards of practice, and to enhance our understanding of the interaction between complementary and mainstream health care.
PMCID: PMC3270908  PMID: 22312205
health workforce regulation; complementary health care; protection of public health and safety; health care policy
18.  Acupuncture, chiropractic and osteopathy use in Australia: a national population survey 
BMC Public Health  2008;8:105.
There have been no published national studies on the use in Australia of the manipulative therapies, acupuncture, chiropractic or osteopathy, or on matters including the purposes for which these therapies are used, treatment outcomes and the socio-demographic characteristics of users.
This study on the three manipulative therapies was a component of a broader investigation on the use of complementary and alternative therapies. For this we conducted a cross-sectional, population survey on a representative sample of 1,067 adults from the six states and two territories of Australia in 2005 by computer-assisted telephone interviews. The sample was recruited by random digit dialling.
Over a 12-month period, approximately one in four adult Australians used either acupuncture (9.2%), chiropractic (16.1%) or osteopathy (4.6%) at least once. It is estimated that, adult Australians made 32.3 million visits to acupuncturists, chiropractors and osteopaths, incurring personal expenditure estimated to be A$1.58 billion in total. The most common conditions treated were back pain and related problems and over 90% of the users of each therapy considered their treatment to be very or somewhat helpful. Adverse events are reported. Nearly one fifth of users were referred to manipulative therapy practitioners by medical practitioners.
There is substantial use of manipulative therapies by adult Australians, especially for back-related problems. Treatments incur considerable personal expenditure. In general, patient experience is positive. Referral by medical practitioners is a major determinant of use of these manipulative therapies.
PMCID: PMC2322980  PMID: 18377663
19.  Desired Chinese medicine practitioner capabilities and professional development needs: a survey of registered practitioners in Victoria, Australia 
The State of Victoria in Australia introduced Chinese medicine practitioner registration in 2000 and issued its education guidelines in late 2002 for introduction in 2005. This study obtained practitioners' views on desired capabilities for competent Chinese medicine practice and to identify professional development needs.
A questionnaire, consisting of 28 predefined capabilities in four categories with a rating scale of importance from one to five, was developed and sent to all registered Chinese medicine practitioners in the State of Victoria, Australia in October, 2005.
Two hundreds and twenty eight completed questionnaires were returned which represented a response rate of 32.5%. Of the four categories of capabilities, technical capabilities were considered to be the most important for clinical practice. Specifically, the ability to perform acupuncture treatment and/or dispense an herbal prescription was ranked the highest. In contrast, research and information management capabilities were considered the least important. The educational background of practitioners appeared to be an important factor influencing their rating of capabilities. Significantly, nearly double the number of practitioners with Australian qualifications than practitioners trained overseas valued communication as an important capability. For continuing professional education, clinical skills courses were considered as a priority while research degree studies were not.
Registered Chinese medicine practitioners viewed skills training as important but did not support the need for research and information management training. This represents a significant hurdle to developing Chinese medicine as a form of evidence-based healthcare.
PMCID: PMC2267189  PMID: 18234119
20.  Emerging Strategies for Healthy Urban Governance 
Urban health promotion is not simply a matter of the right interventions, or even the necessary resources. Urban (and indeed global) health depends to an important extent on governance, the institutions and processes through which societies manage the course of events. This paper describes the concept of governance, distinguishing between reforms aimed at improving how government works and innovations that more fundamentally reinvent governance by developing new institutions and processes of local stakeholder control. The paper highlights strategies urban governors can use to maximize their influence on the national and international decisions that structure urban life. It concludes with some observations on the limitations of local governance strategies and the importance of establishing a “virtuous circuit” of governance through which urban dwellers play a greater role in the formation and implementation of policy at the national and global levels.
PMCID: PMC1891653  PMID: 17464568
Governance; Government; Strategies; Urban health
21.  Emerging Strategies for Healthy Urban Governance 
Urban health promotion is not simply a matter of the right interventions, or even the necessary resources. Urban (and indeed global) health depends to an important extent on governance, the institutions and processes through which societies manage the course of events. This paper describes the concept of governance, distinguishing between reforms aimed at improving how government works and innovations that more fundamentally reinvent governance by developing new institutions and processes of local stakeholder control. The paper highlights strategies urban governors can use to maximize their influence on the national and international decisions that structure urban life. It concludes with some observations on the limitations of local governance strategies and the importance of establishing a “virtuous circuit” of governance through which urban dwellers play a greater role in the formation and implementation of policy at the national and global levels.
PMCID: PMC1891653  PMID: 17464568
Governance; Government; Strategies; Urban health
22.  In what ways does the mandatory nature of Victoria's municipal public health planning framework impact on the planning process and outcomes? 
Systems for planning are a critical component of the infrastructure for public health. Both in Australia and internationally there is growing interest in how planning processes might best be strengthened to improve health outcomes for communities. In Australia the delivery of public health varies across states, and mandated municipal public health planning is being introduced or considered in a number of jurisdictions. In 1988 the Victorian State government enacted legislation that made it mandatory for each local government to produce a Municipal Public Health Plan, offering us a 20-year experience to consider.
In-depth interviews were undertaken with those involved in public health planning at the local government level, as part of a larger study on local public health infrastructure and capacity. From these interviews four significant themes emerge. Firstly, there is general agreement that the Victorian framework of mandatory public health planning has led to improvements in systems for planning. However, there is some debate about the degree of that improvement. Secondly, there is considerable variation in the way in which councils approach planning and the priority they attach to the process. Thirdly, there is concern that the focus is on producing a plan rather than on implementing the plan. Finally, some tension over priorities is evident. Those responsible for developing Municipal Public Health Plans express frustration over the difficulty of having issues they believe are important addressed through the MPHP process.
There are criticisms of Victoria's system for public health planning at the local government level. Some of these issues may be specific to the arrangement in Victoria, others are problems encountered in public health planning generally. In Victoria where the delivery structure for public health is diverse, a system of mandatory planning has created a minimum standard. The implementation of the framework was slow and factors in the broader political environment had a significant impact. Work done in recent years to support the process appears to have led to improvements. There are lessons for other states as they embark upon mandated public health plans.
PMCID: PMC1851012  PMID: 17376248
23.  Australian public health policy in 2003 – 2004 
In Australia, compared with other developed countries the many and varied programs which comprise public health have continued to be funded poorly and unsystematically, particularly given the amount of publicly voiced political support.
In 2003, the major public health policy developments in communicable disease control were in the fields of SARS, and vaccine funding, whilst the TGA was focused on the Pan Pharmaceutical crisis. Programs directed to health maintenance and healthy ageing were approved. The tertiary education sector was involved in the development of programs for training the public health workforce and new professional qualifications and competencies. The Abelson Report received support from overseas experts, providing a potential platform for calls to improve national funding for future Australian preventive programs; however, inconsistencies continued across all jurisdictions in their approaches to tackling national health priorities. Despite 2004 being an election year, public health policy was not visible, with the bulk of the public health funding available in the 2004/05 federal budget allocated to managing such emerging risks as avian flu. We conclude by suggesting several implications for the future.
PMCID: PMC1087471  PMID: 15811192

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