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1.  Late Effects in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients with Acquired Severe Aplastic Anemia: A Report from the Late Effects Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research 
With improvements in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes for severe aplastic anemia (SAA), there is a growing population of SAA survivors following HCT. However, there is a paucity of information regarding late effects that occur after HCT in SAA survivors. This study describes the malignant and non-malignant late effects in survivors with SAA following HCT. A descriptive analysis was conducted of 1,718 patients post-HCT for acquired SAA between 1995–2006 reported to the CIBMTR. The prevalence and cumulative incidences of late effects are reported for 1-year HCT survivors with SAA. Of the HCT recipients, 1,176 (68.5%) and 542 (31.5%) patients underwent a matched sibling donor (MSD) or unrelated donor (URD) HCT, respectively. The median age at the time of HCT was 20 years. The median interval from diagnosis to transplant was 3 months for MSD HCT and 14 months for URD HCT. The median follow-up was 70 months and 67 months for MSD and URD HCT survivors, respectively. Overall survival at 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years for the entire cohort was 76% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 74–78), 73% (95% CI: 71–75), and 70% (95% CI: 68–72). Among 1-year survivors of MSD HCT, 6% had one late effect and 1% had multiple late effects. For 1-year survivors of URD HCT, 13% had one late effect and 2% had multiple late effects. Among survivors of MSD HCT, the cumulative incidences of developing late effects were all less than 3% and did not increase over time. In contrast, for recipients of URD HCT, the cumulative incidence of developing several late effects exceeded 3% by five years: gonadal dysfunction 10.5% (95% CI: 7.3–14.3), growth disturbance 7.2% (95% CI: 4.4–10.7), avascular necrosis 6.3% (95% CI: 3.6–9.7), hypothyroidism 5.5% (95% CI: 2.8–9.0), and cataracts 5.1% (95% CI: 2.9–8.0). Our results indicated that all patients undergoing HCT for SAA remain at-risk for late effects and must be counseled about and should be monitored for late effects for the remainder of their lives.
doi:10.1016/j.bbmt.2012.06.018
PMCID: PMC3496823  PMID: 22863842
hematopoietic cell transplant; allogeneic; survivorship; severe aplastic anemia; late effects
2.  SECOND MALIGNANCIES AFTER AUTOLOGOUS HEMATOPOIETIC CELL TRANSPLANTATION IN CHILDREN 
Bone marrow transplantation  2012;48(3):363-368.
Childhood autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (AHCT) survivors can be at risk for secondary malignant neoplasms (SMNs). We assembled a cohort of 1,487 pediatric AHCT recipients to investigate the incidence and risk factors for SMNs. Primary diagnoses included neuroblastoma (39%), lymphoma (26%), sarcoma (18%), CNS tumors (14%), and Wilms tumor (2%). Median follow-up was 8 years (range, <1–21 years). SMNs were reported in 35 patients (AML/MDS=13, solid cancers=20, subtype missing=2). The overall cumulative incidence of SMNs at 10 years from AHCT was 2.60% (AML/MDS=1.06%, solid tumors=1.30%). We found no association between SMNs risk and age, gender, diagnosis, disease status, time since diagnosis, or use of total body irradiation or etoposide as part of conditioning. Overall survival at 5-years from diagnosis of SMNs was 33% (95% CI, 16–52%). When compared to age- and gender-matched general population, AHCT recipients had 24 times higher risks of developing SMNs (95% CI, 16.0–33.0). Notable SMN sites included bone (N=5 SMNs, observed (O)/expected (E)=81), thyroid (N=5, O/E=53), breast (n=2, O/E=93), soft tissue (N=2, O/E=34), AML (N=6, O/E=266), and MDS (N=7, O/E=6603). Risks of SMNs increased with longer follow-up from AHCT. Pediatric AHCT recipients are at considerably increased risk for SMNs and need life-long surveillance for SMNs.
doi:10.1038/bmt.2012.166
PMCID: PMC3525761  PMID: 22964594
Hematopoietic cell transplantation; Autologous; Pediatric; Second Cancers; Risk factors
3.  Cancer Prevention and Screening Practices of Siblings of Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study 
Objective
To compare the skin and breast/cervical cancer prevention/screening practices of adult siblings of childhood cancer survivors with controls and to identify modifying factors for these practices.
Methods
Cross-sectional, self-report data from 2,588 adult siblings of 5+ year survivors of childhood cancer were analyzed to assess cancer prevention/screening practices. Two age, sex and race/ethnicity-matched samples (n=5,915 and n=37,789) of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System participants served as the comparison populations. Sociodemographic and cancer-related data were explored as modifying factors for sibling cancer prevention/screening practices through multivariable logistic regression.
Results
Compared to controls, siblings were more likely to practice skin cancer prevention behaviors: use of protective clothing (OR 2.85, 95% 2.39-3.39), use of shade (OR 2. 11, 95% 1.88-2.36), use of sunscreen (OR 1.27, 95% 1.14-1.40), and wearing a hat (OR 1.77, 95% 1.58-1.98). No differences were noted for breast/cervical cancer screening including mammography and Pap testing. Having less than a high school education and lack of health insurance were associated with diminished cancer prevention/screening behaviors. Survivor diagnosis, treatment intensity, adverse health, chronic health conditions, and second cancers were not associated with sibling cancer prevention/screening behaviors.
Conclusions
Siblings of cancer survivors report greater skin cancer prevention practices when compared with controls; however, no differences were noted for breast/cervical cancer screening practices. Access to care and lack of education may be associated with decreased cancer prevention/screening behaviors. Interventions are needed to address these barriers.
Impact
Research should be directed at understanding the impact of the cancer experience on sibling health behaviors.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-1095
PMCID: PMC3392493  PMID: 22576363
Siblings; survivor; childhood cancer; prevention; screening
4.  Psychological Outcomes of Siblings of Cancer Survivors: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study 
Psycho-oncology  2010;20(12):1259-1268.
Objective
To identify risk factors for adverse psychological outcomes among adult siblings of long-term survivors of childhood cancer.
Methods
Cross-sectional, self-report data from 3,083 adult siblings (mean age 29 years, range 18-56 years) of 5+ year survivors of childhood cancer were analyzed to assess psychological outcomes as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18). Sociodemographic and health data, reported by both the siblings and their matched cancer survivors were explored as risk factors for adverse sibling psychological outcomes through multivariable logistic regression.
Results
Self-reported symptoms of psychological distress, as measured by the global severity index of the BSI-18, were reported by 3.8% of the sibling sample. Less than 1.5% of siblings reported elevated scores on two or more of the subscales of the BSI-18. Risk factors for sibling depression included having a survivor brother (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.42-3.55), and having a survivor with impaired general health (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.18-3.78). Siblings who were younger than the survivor reported increased global psychological distress (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.05-3.12), as did siblings of survivors reporting global psychological distress (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.08-4.59). Siblings of sarcoma survivors reported more somatization than did siblings of leukemia survivors (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.05-3.98).
Conclusions
These findings suggest that siblings of long-term childhood cancer survivors are psychologically healthy in general. There are, however, small subgroups of siblings at risk for long-term psychological impairment who may benefit from preventive risk-reduction strategies during childhood while their sibling with cancer is undergoing treatment.
doi:10.1002/pon.1848
PMCID: PMC3223600  PMID: 22114043
5.  Psychological Status in Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2009;27(14):2396-2404.
Psychological quality of life (QOL), health-related QOL (HRQOL), and life satisfaction outcomes and their associated risk factors are reviewed for the large cohort of survivors and siblings in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). This review includes previously published manuscripts that used CCSS data focused on psychological outcome measures, including the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18), the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 (SF-36), the Cantril Ladder of Life, and other self-report questionnaires. Comparisons and contrasts are made between siblings and survivors, and to normative data when available, in light of demographic/health information and abstracted data from the medical record. These studies demonstrate that a significant proportion of survivors report more symptoms of global distress and poorer physical, but not emotional, domains of HRQOL. Other than brain tumor survivors, most survivors report both good present and expected future life satisfaction. Risk factors for psychological distress and poor HRQOL are female sex, lower educational attainment, unmarried status, annual household income less than $20,000, unemployment, lack of health insurance, presence of a major medical condition, and treatment with cranial radiation and/or surgery. Cranial irradiation impacted neurocognitive outcomes, especially in brain tumor survivors. Psychological distress also predicted poor health behaviors, including smoking, alcohol use, fatigue, and altered sleep. Psychological distress and pain predicted use of complementary and alternative medicine. Overall, most survivors are psychologically healthy and report satisfaction with their lives. However, certain groups of childhood cancer survivors are at high risk for psychological distress, neurocognitive dysfunction, and poor HRQOL, especially in physical domains. These findings suggest targeting interventions for groups at highest risk for adverse outcomes and examining the positive growth that remains despite the trauma of childhood cancer.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2008.21.1433
PMCID: PMC2677925  PMID: 19255309
6.  Treatment of atypical central neurocytoma in a child with high dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue 
Journal of Neuro-Oncology  2009;97(3):429-437.
The authors describe a 9 month old female with recurrent atypical central neurocytoma and leptomeningeal spread treated with high dose chemotherapy, autologous stem cell rescue, and adjuvant therapy. She had a complete response to therapy and was disease free at 4 years of age until a recurrence 6 months later. The use of intensive chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell rescue for atypical neurocytoma may be considered as an adjunct to surgical therapy in young patients with atypical neurocytoma not amenable to radiation therapy.
doi:10.1007/s11060-009-0029-8
PMCID: PMC2858278  PMID: 19924515
Atypical central neurocytoma; Autologous stem cell rescue; Myeloablative chemotherapy

Results 1-6 (6)