Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) depends on HSC self-renewing proliferation and functional maintenance, which can be negatively affected by HSC differentiation, apoptosis, and senescence. Therefore, inhibition of HSC senescence may promote HSC expansion. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) on the expansion of human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) CD133+ cells because activation of p38 has been implicated in the induction of HSC senescence under various physiological and pathological conditions. Our results showed that ex vivo expansion of hUCB CD133+ cells activated p38, which was abrogated by the p38 specific inhibitor SB203580 (SB). Inhibition of p38 activity with SB promoted the expansion of CD133+ cells and CD133+CD38− cells. In addition, hUCB CD133+ cells expanded in the presence of SB for 7 days showed about threefold increase in the clonogenic function of HSCs and engraftment in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice after transplantation compared to the input cells. In contrast, the cells expanded without SB exhibited a significant reduction in these HSC functions. The enhancement of ex vivo expansion of hUCB HSCs is primarily attributable to SB-mediated inhibition of HSC senescence. In addition, inhibition of HSC apoptosis and upregulation of CXCR4 may also contribute to the enhancement. However, p38 inhibition had no significant effect on HSC differentiation and proliferation. These findings suggest that inhibition of p38 activation may represent a novel strategy to promote ex vivo expansion of hUCB HSCs.
Human umbilical cord blood; Hematopoietic stem cells; Ex vivo expansion; p38; Senescence
Blood oxygenation level- dependent (BOLD) and cerebral blood flow (CBF)-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to measure primary visual cortex responses to photic stimulation in 23 children (12.4 ± 0.7 years old) with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and 21 clinical controls (11 ± 1.0 years old). The objectives were to investigate the effect of SCA on detection of brain activation with fMRI and to explore the relationship between fMRI responses and global cognitive function. The BOLD responses were diminished in children with SCA. Clinical indicators of disease severity were greatest in patients without detectable visual cortex activation, but blood hemoglobin concentration and resting CBF were not predictive of BOLD signal amplitude in the SCA patients. Unexpectedly, the BOLD signal amplitude was positively associated (rs≥0.8, p≤0.05) with Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence scores, suggesting that fMRI may help clarify medical, hemodynamic, and neural factors that mediate adverse effects of SCA on neurocognitive function.
sickle cell anemia; functional magnetic resonance imaging; brain activation; cognitive function; blood oxygenation level- dependent; cerebral blood flow
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a group of progressive,clonal, neoplastic bone marrow disorders characterized by hematopoietic stem cell dysregulation and abnormalities in the immune system. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) appear to modulate the immune system at the very first step of the immune response through the inhibition of dendritic cells (DCs) differentiation and maturation. However, it is still unclear whether the effects of MSC on the development of DCs will be altered with disease state. In addition, it is not clear whether there are differences in the effects between low-risk and high-risk MDS-MSC on DCs development. In this study, our data confirm that MDS-MSC mediate a potent inhibition of DCs differentiation. Additionaly, MDS-MSC greatly alter DCs functions, including endocytosis, IL-12 secretion, their ability to inhibit T cell proliferation. Moreover, our results show that there are major differences in DCs development and function between low-risk and high-risk MDS-MSC. Compared to high-risk MDS-MSC, low-risk MDS-MSC is characterized by a poor ability to inhibit DCs differentiation and maturation; and correspondingly, less dysfunctional DC endocytosis, mildly decreased IL-12 secretion, and a reduction in DC-mediated inhibition of T cell proliferation. Finally, our results demonstrate that MDS-MSC derived TGF-β1 is largely responsible for the inhitory effects. These results elucidate the different immunoregulatory role of MSC in low-risk and high-risk MDS on DCs development, which may be important for understanding the pathogenesis of MDS and the development of novel immune therapies for the treatment of MDS.
Oxidative stress induces not only senescence but also autophagy in a variety of mammalian cells. However, the relationship between these two has not been well established and thus, was investigated in the present study using WI38 human diploid fibroblasts (WI38 cells) as a model system. Our results showed that exposure of WI38 cells to H2O2 induced both senescence and autophagy. Downregulation of autophagy protein 5 (Atg5) with Atg5 siRNA inhibited not only autophagy but also senescence induced by H2O2. Further studies showed that Atg5 regulates H2O2-induced senescence primarily by up-regulating the expression of p21 at the level of post-transcription. In addition, we examined the mechanisms by which H2O2 induces autophagy in WI38 cells. Our results revealed that H2O2 increases autophagy independent of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) negative feedback pathway. Instead, the induction of autophagy by H2O2 depends on the induction of intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase α (p38 MAPKα) pathway.
Oxidative stress; Reactive oxygen species; Autophagy; Senescence; p21; p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase α
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are a group of progressive, clonal, neoplastic bone marrow disorders characterized by hematopoietic stem cell dysregulation and abnormalities in the immune system. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have gained further interests after the demonstration of an immunoregulatory role. Nevertheless, the immunoregulatory function of MDS bone marrow derived MSC (MDS-MSC) remains poorly defined. In addition, it is not clear whether there are differences in the regulatory functions between low-risk and high-risk MDS-MSC. In this study, we obtain and expand MSC from bone marrow of patients with MDS. Our results show that there are significant differences in the immunoregulatory functions between low-risk and high-risk MDS-MSC. Compare to low-risk MDS-MSC, high-risk MDS-MSC is associated with the presence of increased TGF-β1, higher apoptosis, higher immunosuppressive rate and a poor ability of hematopoietic support. In addition, our results find that there are great differences in the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Tregs inducible rate between high-risk MDS-MSC and low-risk MDS-MSC. Compared to high-risk MDS-MSC, the inducible rate of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Tregs of low-risk MDS-MSC is lower. At last, we find that MDS-MSC derived TGF-β1 is largely responsible for the increase in CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Tregs based on knockdown studies. These results elucidate the different immunoregulatory role of MSC in low-risk and high-risk MDS, which may be important for understand the pathogenesis of MDS and the development of novel immunomodulatory strategies for the treatment of MDS.
Continuous and excessive application of insecticides has resulted in the rapid development of insecticide resistance in several mosquito species, including Culex pipiens pallens. Previous studies in our laboratory found that arrestin gene expression was higher in the deltamethrin-resistant (DR) strain than in the deltamethrin-susceptible (DS) strain of Cx. pipiens pallens. Similarly, other studies reported that arrestin was highly expressed in permethrin-resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus and in dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-resistant Drosophila melanogaster.
Full-length cDNAs of an arrestin gene were cloned from Cx. pipiens pallens via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE). The mRNA levels of the arrestin gene in the whole life cycle of DR and DS strains of Cx. pipiens pallens were investigated via quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, the relationship between arrestin and deltamethrin (DM) resistance were identified using genetic overexpression strategies and arrestin RNAi in mosquito cells. Cell viability was analyzed with cholecystokinin octapeptide after DM treatment. Moreover, the mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 6A1 (CYP6A1) and opsin in the transfected cells and controls were analyzed.
Complete arrestin gene sequence was cloned and expressed throughout the life cycle of Cx. pipiens pallens. Moreover, arrestin was significantly upregulated in the DR strain, compared with that in the DS strain at the egg, pupae, and adult stages. Arrestin overexpression comparably increased the mosquito cell viability, whereas arrestin knockdown by siRNA decreased mosquito cell viability with deltamethrin (DM) treatment. Meanwhile, the mRNA levels of CYP6A1 and opsin were upregulated in mosquito cells transfected with arrestin and downregulated in mosquito cells with arrestin knockdown.
This study presented the first evidence that arrestin might be associated with insecticide resistance in Cx. pipiens pallens.
Insecticide resistance; Arrestin; Gene cloning; Transfection; SiRNA; Cell viability
Corrigendum to Acta Cryst. (2012), E68, o1366.
The title and Scheme in the paper by Wang et al. [Acta Cryst. (2012), E68, o1366] are corrected.
The crystal structure of the title compound, C12H11NO2, represents a new orthorhombic polymorph II of the previously reported orthorhombic form I [Zhang et al. (2009 ▶) Acta Cryst. E65, o3160]. In polymorph II, the six-membered rings form a dihedral angle of 13.8 (1)° [71.6 (1)° in I], and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link molecules into chains along , whereas the crystal structure of I features hydrogen-bonded centrosymmetric dimers.
Functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging in children being treated for retinoblastoma showed that patterns of visual activation and diffusion parameters in associated white matter pathways reflected neural changes caused by disease and treatment.
To use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate visual system development in children being treated for retinoblastoma.
Informed consent was obtained for all participants (N = 42) in this institutional review board–approved study. Participants were imaged with a 1.5-T scanner while under propofol sedation. Diagnostic brain and orbital imaging was followed by investigational functional neuroimaging, which included fMRI during photic stimulation through closed eyelids, to measure functional activation in the visual cortex, and DTI, to evaluate diffusion parameters of white matter tracts in the corpus callosum and the periventricular optic radiations. Analysis included 115 examinations of 39 patients with a median age of 16.4 months and age range from 1.5 to 101.5 months at first evaluation.
The blood oxygen level–dependent signal was predominantly negative and located in the anterior visual cortex. Activation was affected by tumor lateralization (unilateral or bilateral), macular involvement, and retinal detachment. Patients who had undergone unilateral enucleation showed cortical dominance corresponding to the projection from the nasal hemiretina in the unaffected eye. Diffusion parameters followed a normal developmental trajectory in the optic radiations and corpus callosum, but variability was greater in the splenium than in the genu of the corpus callosum.
Longitudinal functional neuroimaging demonstrated important effects of disease and treatment. Therefore, fMRI and DTI may be useful for characterizing the impact of retinoblastoma on the developing visual system and improving the prediction of visual outcome in survivors.
In the title compound, [Cu(NO3)2(C18H16N2O2)2]n, the CuII ion lies on an inversion center and is six-coordinated in a Jahn–Teller-distored octahedral geometry defined by four N atoms of the pyridine derivative forming a square plane, above and below which are the O atoms of the nitrate anion. The ligand links the metal atoms linto a linear chain running along the a axis. One of the nitrate O atoms is equally disordered over two sets of sites.
MsbA is an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter from E. coli involved in trafficking lipid A across the inner membrane. ABC transporters harness the free energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to drive the uphill translocation of substrates against their concentration gradients. A model of protein motion coupling energy input to work was inspired by crystallographic snapshots of MsbA. Central to this model is a switch in the accessibility of a transmembrane chamber, implicated in substrate binding, from an inward- to an outward-facing configuration. Here, we used spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to systematically explore rearrangements in MsbA structure during the ATP hydrolysis cycle. Spin label accessibility and local dynamics were determined in liposomes for the nucleotide-free intermediate and the transition state of ATP hydrolysis. The changes in the EPR parameters between these two intermediates fit a global pattern consistent with alternating access of the chamber. In the transition state of ATP hydrolysis, spin labels on the cytoplasmic side report increased dynamic restrictions and reduced water accessibility while those on the extracellular side report increased water penetration. Furthermore, spin label mobility and accessibility as well as their changes are consistent with those expected based on the crystal structures. The reversal in chamber hydration is likely to reduce the free energy of amphipathic substrate binding and promote translocation across the membrane.
ABC transporter; electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR); site-directed spin labeling; MsbA
Driven by the energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis, ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters alternate between inward- and outward-facing conformations allowing vectorial movement of substrates. Conflicting models have been proposed to describe the conformational motion underlying this switch in access of the transport pathway. One model, based on three crystal structures of the lipid flippase MsbA, envisions a large amplitude motion that disengages the nucleotide binding domains and repacks the transmembrane helices. To test this model and place the crystal structures in a mechanistic context, we use spin labeling and Double Electron Electron Resonance (DEER) spectroscopy to define the nature and amplitude of MsbA conformational change during ATP hydrolysis cycle. For this purpose, spin labels were introduced at sites selected to provide a distinctive pattern of distance changes unique to the crystallographic transformation. Distance changes in liposomes, induced by the transition from nucleotide-free MsbA to the highest energy intermediate, fit a simple pattern whereby residues on the cytoplasmic side undergo 20–30Å closing motion while a 7–10Å opening motion is observed on the extracellular side. The transmembrane helices undergo relative movement to create the outward opening consistent with that implied by the crystal structures. DEER distance distributions reveal asymmetric backbone flexibility on the two sides of the transporter that correlates with asymmetric opening of the substrate binding chamber. Together with extensive accessibility analysis, our results suggest that these structures capture features of the motion that couples ATP energy expenditure to work providing a framework for the mechanism of substrate transport.
ABC transporter; MsbA; double electron-electron resonance (DEER); site-directed spin labeling; electron paramagnetic resonance
Pyrethroid insecticides have been extensively used in China and worldwide for public health pest control. Accurate resistance monitoring is essential to guide the rational use of insecticides and resistance management. Here we examined the nucleotide diversity of the para-sodium channel gene, which confers knockdown resistance (kdr) in Culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes in China. The sequence analysis of the para-sodium channel gene identified L1014F and L1014S mutations. We developed and validated allele-specific PCR and the real-time TaqMan methods for resistance diagnosis. The real-time TaqMan method is more superior to the allele-specific PCR method as evidenced by higher amplification rate and better sensitivity and specificity. Significant positive correlation between kdr allele frequency and bioassay-based resistance phenotype demonstrates that the frequency of L1014F and L1014S mutations in the kdr gene can be used as a molecular marker for deltamethrin resistance monitoring in natural Cx. pipiens pallens populations in the East China region. The laboratory selection experiment found that L1014F mutation frequency, but not L1014S mutation, responded to deltamethrin selection, suggesting that the L1014F mutation is the key mutation conferring resistance to deltamethrin. High L1014F mutation frequency detected in six populations of Cx. pipens pallens suggests high prevalence of pyrethroid resistance in Eastern China, calling for further surveys to map the resistance in China and for investigating alternative mosquito control strategies.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes a latent infection in B cells in the blood, and the latent EBV load in healthy individuals is generally stable over time, maintaining a “set point.” It is unknown if the EBV load changes after long-term antiviral therapy in healthy individuals. We treated volunteers with either valacyclovir (valaciclovir) or no antiviral therapy for 1 year and measured the amount of EBV DNA in B cells every 3 months with a novel, highly sensitive assay. The number of EBV-infected B cells decreased in subjects receiving valacyclovir (half-life of 11 months; P = 0.02) but not in controls (half-life of 31 years; P = 0.86). The difference in the slopes of the lines for the number of EBV-infected B cells over time for the valacyclovir group versus the control group approached significance (P = 0.054). In contrast, the number of EBV DNA copies per B cell remained unchanged in both groups (P = 0.62 and P = 0.92 for the control and valacyclovir groups, respectively). Valacyclovir reduces the frequency of EBV-infected B cells when administered over a long period and, in theory, might allow eradication of EBV from the body if reinfection does not occur.
The cation of the salt, C18H18N2O2
−, lies about a twofold rotation axis. The pyridinium ring is almost coplanar with the phenylene ring [dihedral angle between rings = 5.69 (9)°]. The crystal structure shows π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.70 (1) Å] between the pyridinium rings and the phenylene rings, generating a linear chain structure. The cation also forms two N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to two nitrate groups.
The molecule of the title compound, C18H16N2O2, lies about a center of inversion. The central phenylene ring is aligned at 62.7 (1)° with respect to the pyridyl ring. In the crystal, weak intermolecular C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link molecules into sheets parallel to (104). C—H⋯O interactions are also present.
Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare brain structure morphology of survivors of posterior fossa brain tumor (PFBT) with that of normal sibling controls to investigate disease- or cancer treatment–induced changes. Two different spatial normalization approaches that are available in public domain software (free-form deformation (FFD) and discrete cosine transform (DCT)) were compared for accuracy of normalization in the PFBT patients. Anatomical landmark matching demonstrated that spatial normalization was more accurate with FFD than with DCT. Voxel-based morphometry of the FFD-normalized magnetic resonance images from PFBT survivors and sibling controls detected reduced gray matter density in the thalamus and entorhinal cortex and reduced white matter density in the internal capsule, hypothalamus, corpus callosum, and cuneus of the occipital lobe in the PFBT survivors. Identification of these morphologic lesions may help localize the neural substrates of disease- or therapy-induced cognitive deficits in survivors of childhood cancer.
We have determined the structural changes that accompany the formation of a stable complex between a destabilized mutant of T4 lysozyme (T4L) and the small heat-shock protein α-crystallin. Using pairs of fluorescence or spin label probes to fingerprint the T4L tertiary fold, we demonstrate that binding disrupts tertiary packing in the two domains as well as across the active site cleft. Furthermore, increased distances between i and i+4 residues of helices support a model in which the bound structure is not native-like but significantly unfolded. In the confines of the oligomer, T4L has a preferential orientation with residues in the more hydrophobic C-terminal domain sequestered in a buried environment while residues in the N-terminal domain are exposed to the aqueous solvent. Furthermore, EPR spectral lineshapes of sites in the N-terminal domain are narrower than in the folded, unbound T4L reflecting an unstructured backbone and an asymmetric pattern of contacts between T4L and α-crystallin. The net orientation is not affected by the location of the destabilizing mutation consistent with the notion that binding is not triggered by recognition of localized unfolding. Together, the structural and thermodynamic data indicate that the stably bound conformation of T4L is unfolded and support a model in which the two-modes of substrate binding originate from two discrete binding sites on the chaperone.
α-crystallin; Small heat-shock proteins; Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy; Fluorescence spectroscopy; site-directed spin labeling
Bortezomib, an inhibitor of the 26S proteasome, is currently approved for treatment of multiple myeloma and is being studied for therapy of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We found that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive B cells with type III latency were more susceptible to killing by bortezomib than those with type I latency. Bortezomib induced apoptosis of EBV lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) by inducing cleavage of caspases 8 and 9; apoptosis was inhibited by pretreatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor. Bortezomib reduced the levels of the p50 and p65 components of the canonical NF-κB pathway and reduced the level of p52 in the noncanonical NF-κB pathway, which is induced by EBV LMP1. Bortezomib inhibited expression of cIAP-1, cIAP-2, and XIAP, which are regulated by NF-κB and function as inhibitors of apoptosis. Bortezomib did not inhibit expression of several other antiapoptotic proteins, including Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Finally, bortezomib significantly prolonged the survival of severe combined immunodeficiency mice inoculated with LCLs. These findings suggest that bortezomib may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of certain EBV-associated lymphomas.
We measured the amplitude of conformational motion in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter MsbA upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding and following ATP turnover by pulse double electron-electron resonance and fluorescence homotransfer. The distance constraints from both methods reveal large-scale movement of opposite signs in the periplasmic and cytoplasmic part of the transporter upon ATP hydrolysis. LPS induces distinct structural changes that are inhibited by trapping of the transporter in an ATP post-hydrolysis intermediate. The formation of this intermediate involves a 33-Å distance change between the two ABCs, which is consistent with a dimerization-dissociation cycle during transport that leads to their substantial separation in the absence of nucleotides. Our results suggest that ATP-powered transport entails LPS sequestering into the open cytoplasmic chamber prior to its translocation by alternating access of the chamber, made possible by 10–20-Å conformational changes.
Clinical multidrug resistance in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections and cancer chemotherapy can result from the expression of pumps that extrude toxic molecules from the cell. A subclass of these pumps—ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters—use energy from ATP to remove a wide range of molecules. MsbA is a conserved ABC transporter from Gram-negative bacteria with sequence similarity to human multi-drug ABC transporters. MsbA flips the building block of the outer membrane, lipid A, across the inner membrane. The input of ATP energy occurs in two dedicated nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs), whose configuration in intact transporters is controversial. We determined the amplitude of MsbA conformational motion that couples energy expenditure to substrate movement across the membrane. Using molecular probes introduced into the protein sequence, we found that ATP hydrolysis fuels a relative motion of the NBDs close to 30 Å. The movement of the NBDs is coupled to reorientation of the chamber, which binds the lipid substrate from cytoplasmic-facing to extracellular-facing through large amplitude motion on either side of the transporters. In addition to revealing the structural mechanics of transport, these results challenge current models deduced from studies of substrate-specific ABC importers that envisions the two NBDs in contact throughout the ATP hydrolysis cycle.
Analysis of the conformational changes that occur in a conserved ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter challenges current models of this clinically important class of molecules.
Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7), which belongs to the betaherpesvirus subfamily, infects mainly CD4+ T cells in vitro and infects children during infancy. After the primary infection, HHV-7 becomes latent. HHV-7 contains two genes (U12 and U51) that encode putative homologs of cellular G-protein-coupled receptors. To analyze the biological function of the U12 gene, we cloned the gene and expressed the U12 protein in cells. The U12 gene encoded a calcium-mobilizing receptor for the EBI1 ligand chemokine-macrophage inflammatory protein 3β (ELC/MIP-3β) but not for other chemokines, suggesting that the chemokine selectivity of the U12 gene product is distinct from that of the known mammalian chemokine receptors. These studies revealed that U12 activates distinct transmembrane signaling pathways that may mediate biological functions by binding with a β-chemokine, ELC/MIP-3β.
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), which belongs to the betaherpesvirus subfamily and infects mainly T cells in vitro, causes acute and latent infections. Two variants of HHV-6 have been distinguished on the basis of differences in several properties. We have determined the complete DNA sequence of HHV-6 variant B (HHV-6B) strain HST, the causative agent of exanthem subitum, and compared the sequence with that of variant A strain U1102. A total of 115 potential open reading frames (ORFs) were identified within the 161,573-bp contiguous sequence of the entire HHV-6 genome, including some genes with remarkable differences in amino acid identity. All genes with <70% identity between the two variants were found to contain deleted regions when ORFs that could not be expressed were excluded from the comparison. Except in the case of U47, these differences were found in immediate-early/regulatory genes, DR2, DR7, U86/90, U89/90, and U95, which may represent characteristic differences of variants A and B. Also, we have successfully typed 14 different strains belonging to variant A or B by PCR using variant-specific primers; the results suggest that the remarkable differences observed were conserved evolutionarily as variant-specific divergence.
Some viruses including herpesviruses have undergone evolution to benefit viral infection and propagation by pirating and modifying host genes such as chemokine genes. Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), acutely or persistently infects mononuclear cells in vitro. DNA sequence analysis of HHV-6 has revealed that the putative protein encoded by an open reading frame (ORF) of the U83 gene in HHV-6 variant B resembled a human chemokine. We have cloned the U83 gene and analyzed the biological function of this gene. The U83 gene contained an ORF encoding a 113-amino-acid peptide, starting at the first methionine and containing a possible signal peptide and the typical cysteine residues characteristic of the chemokines. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis of mRNA and immunofluorescent-antibody testing of infected cells both indicated that the encoded protein was a late protein. The ORF U83 gene fused to the Fc gene was expressed as a fusion protein in COS-7 cells by transfection, and the fusion protein was purified from the supernatant of transfected cells to test its biological function. The purified protein was capable of inducing transient calcium mobilization in THP-1 cells and of chemotactically activating THP-1 cells. These findings suggested that the U83 protein might play an important role in HHV-6 propagation in vivo by activating and trafficking mononuclear cells to sites of viral replication, thus aiding the development of superbly efficient virus production mechanisms.