Non-lattice fragments are often indicative of structural anomalies in ontological systems and, as such, represent possible areas of focus for subsequent quality assurance work. However, extracting the non-lattice fragments in large ontological systems is computationally expensive if not prohibitive, using a traditional sequential approach. In this paper we present a general MapReduce pipeline, called MaPLE (MapReduce Pipeline for Lattice-based Evaluation), for extracting non-lattice fragments in large partially ordered sets and demonstrate its applicability in ontology quality assurance. Using MaPLE in a 30-node Hadoop local cloud, we systematically extracted non-lattice fragments in 8 SNOMED CT versions from 2009 to 2014 (each containing over 300k concepts), with an average total computing time of less than 3 hours per version. With dramatically reduced time, MaPLE makes it feasible not only to perform exhaustive structural analysis of large ontological hierarchies, but also to systematically track structural changes between versions. Our change analysis showed that the average change rates on the non-lattice pairs are up to 38.6 times higher than the change rates of the background structure (concept nodes). This demonstrates that fragments around non-lattice pairs exhibit significantly higher rates of change in the process of ontological evolution.
AIM: To investigate the impact of enteral nutrition (EN) on the body composition and metabolism in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD).
METHODS: Sixty-one patients diagnosed with CD were enrolled in this study. They were given only EN (enteral nutritional suspension, TPF, non-elemental diet) support for 4 wk, without any treatment with corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, infliximab or by surgical operation. Body composition statistics such as weight, body mass index, skeletal muscle mass (SMM), fat mass, protein mass and inflammation indexes such as C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and CD activity index (CDAI) were recorded before and after EN support.
RESULTS: The 61 patients were divided into three groups according to CDAI before and after EN support: A (active phase into remission via EN, n = 21), B (remained in active phase before and after EN, n = 19) and C (in remission before and after EN, n = 21). Patients in group A had a significant increase in SMM (22.11 ± 4.77 kg vs 23.23 ± 4.49 kg, P = 0.044), protein mass (8.01 ± 1.57 kg vs 8.44 ± 1.45 kg, P = 0.019) and decrease in resting energy expenditure (REE) per kilogram (27.42 ± 5.01 kcal/kg per day vs 22.62 ± 5.45 kcal/kg per day, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between predicted and measured REE in active CD patients according to the Harris-Benedict equation. There was no linear correlation between the measured REE and CRP, ESR or CDAI in active CD patients.
CONCLUSION: EN could decrease the hypermetabolism in active CD patients by reducing the inflammatory response.
Crohn’s disease; Enteral nutrition; Body composition; Metabolism
Growth in sucrose medium was previously found to trigger the expression of functions involved in the plant associated life style of the endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638. Therefore, comparative transcriptome analysis between cultures grown in sucrose or lactate medium was used to gain insights in the expression levels of bacterial functions involved in the endophytic life style of strain 638. Growth on sucrose as a carbon source resulted in major changes in cell physiology, including a shift from a planktonic life style to the formation of bacterial aggregates. This shift was accompanied by a decrease in transcription of genes involved in motility (e.g. flagella biosynthesis) and an increase in the transcription of genes involved in colonization, adhesion and biofilm formation. The transcription levels of functions previously suggested as being involved in endophytic behavior and functions responsible for plant growth promoting properties, including the synthesis of indole-acetic acid, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, also increased significantly for cultures grown in sucrose medium. Interestingly, despite an abundance of essential nutrients transcription levels of functions related to uptake and processing of nitrogen and iron became increased for cultures grown on sucrose as sole carbon source. Transcriptome data were also used to analyze putative regulatory relationships. In addition to the small RNA csrABCD regulon, which seems to play a role in the physiological adaptation and possibly the shift between free-living and plant-associated endophytic life style of Enterobacter sp. 638, our results also pointed to the involvement of rcsAB in controlling responses by Enterobacter sp. 638 to a plant-associated life style. Targeted mutagenesis was used to confirm this role and showed that compared to wild-type Enterobacter sp. 638 a ΔrcsB mutant was affected in its plant growth promoting ability.
Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) favor tumor growth and metastasis in vivo and in vitro. Neovascularization is involved in several pathological conditions, including tumor growth and metastasis. Previous studies have demonstrated that human bone marrow MSC-derived conditioned medium (hBM-MSC-CM) can promote tumor growth by inducing the expression of vascular epidermal growth factor (VEGF) in tumor cells. However, the effect of BM-MSCs on tumor lymph vessel formation has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, the effect of BM-MSCs on processes involved in lymph vessel formation, including tube formation, migration and proliferation, was investigated in human-derived lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLECs). It was identified that hBM-MSC-CM promoted the tube formation and migration of HDLECs. In addition, tumor cells were revealed to participate in lymph vessel formation. In the present study, the SGC-7901, HGC-27 and GFP-MCF-7 cell lines were treated with hBM-MSC-CM. The results demonstrated that the expression of the lymph-associated markers, prospero homeobox protein 1 and VEGF receptor-3, were increased in the SGC-7901 and HGC-27 cell lines, but not in the GFP-MCF-7 cells. The tube formation assay demonstrated that the HGC-27 cells treated with hBM-MSC-CM for 20 days underwent tube formation. These findings indicate that hBM-MSC-CM can promote tube formation in HDLECs and HGC-27 cells, which may be associated with lymph vessel formation during tumor growth and metastasis.
mesenchymal stem cell; lymph vessel; tumor growth
Cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells show tremendous promise for the replacement of myocardium and contractile function lost to infarction. However, until recently, no methods were available to directly determine whether these stem cell-derived grafts actually couple with host myocardium and fire synchronously following transplantation in either intact or injured hearts. To resolve this uncertainty, our group has developed techniques for the intravital imaging of hearts engrafted with stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes that have been modified to express the genetically encoded protein calcium sensor, GCaMP. When combined with the simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram, this protocol allows one to make quantitative assessments as to the presence and extent of host–graft electrical coupling as well as the timing and pattern of graft activation. As described here, this system has been employed to investigate the electromechanical integration of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in a guinea pig model of cardiac injury, but analogous approaches should be applicable to other human graft cell types and animal models.
Human pluripotent stem cells; Zinc finger nuclease; GCaMP3; Cardiac repair; Intravital imaging; Electromechanical coupling
Peatlands contain large amount of carbon stock that is vulnerable to release into the atmosphere. Mostly because of human impact, the peatlands at Zoige Wetlands face severe degradation, and the groundwater table is now lower than before, which has increased the population of the plateau zokor, a burrowing rodent. However, the impact of these changes on ecosystem carbon flows has not been studied. To investigate how the plateau zokor and the groundwater level alter the ecosystem respiration of the Zoige peatlands, we sampled the CO2 flux of hummocks shaped by the zokors and compared it with the CO2 flux of undisturbed sites with different groundwater table levels. The soil organic carbon (SOC), soil water content (SWC) and soil temperature at 5 cm (T5) were measured. SOC showed no significant difference among the four sampling sites and did not correlate with the CO2 flux, while SWC was found to partly determine the CO2 flux. A linear equation could adequately describe the relationship between the natural logarithm of the ecosystem respiration and the soil temperature. It is demonstrated that descending groundwater table might accelerate ecosystem respiration and the CO2 flux from hummocks was higher than the CO2 flux from the control site in the non-growing season. With rising temperature, the CO2 flux from the control site accelerated faster than that from the hummocks. Our results show that ecosystem respiration was significantly lower from hummocks than at the control site in the growing season. The results on the impact of zokors on greenhouse gas emissions presented in this paper provide a useful reference to help properly manage not only this, but other litter-burrowing mammals at peatland sites.
Different ethnic groups have distinct mutation spectrums associated with inheritable deafness. In order to identify the mutations responsible for congenital hearing loss in the Tibetan population, mutation screening for 98 deafness-related genes by microarray and massively parallel sequencing of captured target exons was conducted in one Tibetan family with familiar hearing loss. A homozygous mutation, TMPRSS3: c.535G>A, was identified in two affected brothers. Both parents are heterozygotes and an unaffected sister carries wild type alleles. The same mutation was not detected in 101 control Tibetan individuals. This missense mutation results in an amino acid change (p.Ala179Thr) at a highly conserved site in the scavenger receptor cysteine rich (SRCR) domain of the TMPRSS3 protein, which is essential for protein-protein interactions. Thus, this mutation likely affects the interactions of this transmembrane protein with extracellular molecules. According to our bioinformatic analyses, the TMPRSS3: c.535G>A mutation might damage protein function and lead to hearing loss. These data suggest that the homozygous mutation TMPRSS3: c.535G>A causes prelingual hearing loss in this Tibetan family. This is the first TMPRSS3 mutation found in the Chinese Tibetan population.
ADSCs are a great cell source for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, the development of methods to appropriately manipulate these cells in vitro remains a challenge. Here the proliferation and differentiation of ADSCs on microfabricated surfaces with varying geometries were investigated. To create the patterned substrates, a maskless biofabrication method was developed based on dynamic optical projection stereolithography. Proliferation and early differentiation of ADSCs were compared across three distinct multicellular patterns, namely stripes (ST), symmetric fork (SF), and asymmetric fork (AF). The ST pattern was designed for uniaxial cell alignment while the SF and AF pattern were designed with altered cell directionality to different extents. The SF and AF patterns generated similar levels of regional peak stress, which were both significantly higher than those within the ST pattern. No significant difference in ADSC proliferation was observed among the three patterns. In comparison to the ST pattern, higher peak stress levels of the SF and AF patterns were associated with up-regulation of the chondrogenic and osteogenic markers SOX9 and RUNX2. Interestingly, uniaxial cell alignment in the ST pattern seemed to increase the expression of SM22α and smooth muscle α-actin, suggesting an early smooth muscle lineage progression. These results indicate that geometric cues that promote uniaxial alignment might be more potent for myogenesis than those with increased peak stress. Overall, the use of these patterned geometric cues for modulating cell alignment and form-induced stress can serve as a powerful and versatile technique towards controlling differentiation in ADSCs.
Adipose derived stem cells; Multicellular forms; Alignment; Form-induced stress; Differentiation
Conventional endovascular treatment may have limitations for vertebral dissecting aneurysm involving the origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). We report our experiences of treating vertebral dissecting aneurysm with PICA origin involvement by placing a stent from the distal vertebral artery (VA) to the PICA to save the patency of the PICA.
Stenting from the distal VA to the PICA was attempted to treat ruptured VA dissecting aneurysm involving the PICA origin with sufficient contralateral VA in eight patients.
The procedure was successfully performed in seven patients with one failure because of PICA origin stenosis, which was treated with two overlapping stents. In the seven patients, PICAs had good patency on postoperative angiography and transient lateral brainstem ischemia represents a procedure-related complication. Follow-up angiographies were performed in seven patients and showed recanalization of the distal VA in three patients without evidence of aneurysmal filling. There was no evidence of aneurysm rupture during the follow-up period, and eight patients had favorable outcomes (mRS, 0 - 1).
Placing a stent from the distal VA to the PICA with VA occlusion may present an alternative to conventional endovascular treatment for vertebral dissecting aneurysm with PICA origin involvement with sufficient contralateral VA.
vertebral artery; posterior inferior cerebellar artery; stent; dissecting aneurysm
Although mumps-containing vaccines were introduced in China in 1990s, mumps continues to be a public health concern due to the lack of decline in reported mumps cases. To assess the mumps vaccine effectiveness (VE) in Guangzhou, China, we performed a 1:1 matched case-control study. Among children in Guangzhou aged 8 mo to 12 y during 2006 to 2012, we matched one healthy child to each child with clinically diagnosed mumps. Cases with clinically diagnosed mumps were identified from surveillance sites system and healthy controls were randomly sampled from the Children’s Expanded Programmed Immunization Administrative Computerized System in Guangzhou. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate VE. We analyzed the vaccination information for 1983 mumps case subjects and 1983 matched controls and found that the overall VE for 1 dose of mumps vaccine, irrespective of the manufacture, was 53.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 41.0–63.5%) to children aged 8 mo to 12 y. This post-marketing mumps VE study found that immunization with one dose of the mumps vaccine confers partial protection against mumps disease. Evaluation of the VE for the current mumps vaccines, introduction of a second dose of mumps vaccine, and assessment of modifications to childhood immunization schedules is essential.
mumps; vaccine effectiveness; matched case-control studies; children; China
This study investigated the effects of acarbose addition on changes in ruminal fermentation characteristics and the composition of the ruminal bacterial community in vitro using batch cultures. Rumen fluid was collected from the rumens of three cannulated Holstein cattle fed forage ad libitum that was supplemented with 6 kg of concentrate. The batch cultures consisted of 8 mL of strained rumen fluid in 40 mL of an anaerobic buffer containing 0.49 g of corn grain, 0.21 g of soybean meal, 0.15 g of alfalfa and 0.15g of Leymus chinensis. Acarbose was added to incubation bottles to achieve final concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/mL. After incubation for 24 h, the addition of acarbose linearly decreased (p<0.05) the total gas production and the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, total volatile fatty acids, lactate and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It also linearly increased (p<0.05) the ratio of acetate to propionate, the concentrations of isovalerate, valerate and ammonia-nitrogen and the pH value compared with the control. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene showed that the addition of acarbose decreased (p<0.05) the proportion of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria and increased (p<0.05) the percentage of Bacteroidetes, Fibrobacteres, and Synergistetes compared with the control. A principal coordinates analysis plot based on unweighted UniFrac values and molecular variance analysis revealed that the structure of the ruminal bacterial communities in the control was different to that of the ruminal microbiota in the acarbose group. In conclusion, acarbose addition can affect the composition of the ruminal microbial community and may be potentially useful for preventing the occurrence of ruminal acidosis and the accumulation of LPS in the rumen.
Acarbose; Ruminal Microbiota; Pyrosequencing; In vitro Fermentation
Objective: LGGs (low-grade gliomas) are sometimes encountered by chance during radiological examinations. These incidentally discovered LGGs (IDLGGs) were relatively under-studied in the literature. The purpose of current study is to review a cohort of patients with IDLGGs surgically treated in our institution for their clinical and histological aspects and determine their IDH1 and 1p19q status. Methods: All patients with hemispheric LGGs receiving operation in our institution between 2001 and 2004 were reviewed. Clinical, radiological and treatment data of the patients were collected and IDLGGs were retrieved and compared with symptomatic LGGs. Histological review was carried out and formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues of IDLGGs were examined for IDH1/IDH2 mutation and 1p/19q codeletion. Results: Twenty three IDLGGs (10.4%) were identified while 196 patients had symptomatic LGGs. The reasons for patients with IDLGGs having radiological examination included trauma (47.8%), dizziness (26.1%), unrelated headache (21.7%), and health checkup (4.4%). Clinically, patients with IDLGGs had higher preoperative KPS (P < 0.001), smaller tumor volume (P = 0.014), lower frequency of eloquent areas involvement (P < 0.001) and higher rate of complete resection (P = 0.037) comparing to those with symptomatic LGGs. Histologically, there is a preponderance of oligodendroglial differentiation with 6 oligodendrogliomas and 11 oligoastrocytomas but there were also 6 astrocytomas. IDH1 mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion were detected in 95.7% (22/23) and 69.6% (16/23) of IDLGGs, respectively. The latter encompassed all but one of the cases of oligodendroglial tumors. Patients with IDLGGs had longer overall survival than those with symptomatic LGGs (P = 0.027). Conclusions: We conclude that the majority of IDLGGs are IDH1 mutated and are predominantly oligodendroglial tumors. With a median follow-up of 9.3 years to our series, we conclude that patients with IDLGGs had better prognosis than those with symptomatic LGGs. The favorable prognosis of IDLGGs may be accounted by the higher practicability of extensive resection, non-eloquent tumor location and smaller tumor volume. Frequent IDH1 mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion in IDLGGs may also contribute to the favorable prognosis of this subgroup of patients.
Low-grade glioma; incidental; surgery; pathology; prognosis
AIM: To investigate the effect of GW4064 on the expression of adipokines and their receptors during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and in HepG2 cells.
METHODS: The mRNA expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma 2 (PPAR-γ2), adiponectin, leptin, resistin, adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2), and the long isoform of leptin receptor (OB-Rb) and protein levels of adiponectin, leptin, and resistin were determined using fluorescent real-time PCR and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, on days 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes exposed to GW4064. Moreover, mRNA expression of AdipoR2 and OB-Rb was also examined using fluorescent real-time PCR at 0, 12, 24, and 48 h in HepG2 cells treated with GW4064.
RESULTS: The mRNA expression of FXR, PPAR-γ2, adiponectin, leptin, resistin, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, and OB-Rb and protein levels of adiponectin, leptin, and resistin increased along with differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes (P < 0.05 for all). The mRNA expression of FXR, PPAR-γ2, adiponectin, leptin, and AdipoR2 in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, and AdipoR2 and OB-Rb in HepG2 cells was significantly increased after treatment with GW4064, when compared with the control group (P < 0.05 for all). A similar trend was observed for protein levels of adipokines (including adiponectin, leptin and resistin). However, the expression of resistin, AdipoR1, and OB-Rb in 3T3-L1 cells did not change after treatment with GW4064.
CONCLUSION: The FXR agonist through regulating, at least partially, the expression of adipokines and their receptors could offer an innovative way for counteracting the progress of metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Farnesoid X receptor; Adipokines; Adipokine receptors; 3T3-L1 cells; HepG2 cells; Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Smilax glabra Roxb. has been used for a long time as both food and folk medicine. In the present study, phenolic-enriched extract of S. glabra (PEESG) was extracted with 70% ethanol and purified by HP-20 column chromatography. Its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated by radical scavenging assay, reducing power determination, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells assays, respectively. PEESG exhibited obviously scavenging capacity for DPPH and ABTS radicals, as well as significant reducing power for ferric ion. Particularly, PEESG (12.5–50 μg/mL) showed a significantly higher efficiency for scavenging ABTS than that of ascorbic acid and no significant difference with ascorbic acid for DPPH scavenging. PEESG also possessed a significant suppression effect on proinflammatory mediators production, such as nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. In addition, the main ingredients of PEESG were identified using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry (U-HPLC-ESI-MS). Seventeen components, including 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid, neoastilbin, astilbin, neoisoastilbin, isoastilbin, engetin and isoengeletin were identified. These findings strongly suggest the potential of PEESG as a natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.
MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) has been suggested to play a significant role in the prognosis of carcinoma. The recognition of novel biomarkers for the prediction of cancer outcomes is urgently required. However, the potential prognostic value of miR-21 in various types of human malignancy remains controversial. The present meta-analysis summarises and analyses the associations between miR-21 status and overall survival (OS) in a variety of tumours.
Eligible published studies were identified by searching the PubMed and Chinese Biomedicine databases. The patients’ clinical characteristics and survival results were pooled, and a pooled hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) was used to calculate the strength of this association. A random-effects model was adopted, and then, meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed. In addition, an analysis of publication bias was also conducted.
Twenty-seven eligible articles (including 31 studies) were identified that included survival data for 3273 patients. The pooled HR suggested that high miR-21 was clearly related to worse overall survival (HR = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.81-2.86), with a heterogeneity measure index of I2 = 76.0%, p = 0.001, showing that miR-21 might be a considerable prognostic factor for poor survival in cancer patients.
MiR-21 might be a potentially useful biomarker for predicting cancer prognosis in future clinical applications.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-819) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
miR-21; Cancer; Prognosis; Meta-analysis
Breast cancer patients with positive estrogen receptor (ER) have a better prognosis. However, no prognostic miRNA signature was reported in the ER-positive breast cancer. The aim of the study was to identify and assess the prognostic significance of a miRNA signature in ER-positive breast cancer.
Two cohorts from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset were used as training (n =596) and testing set (n =319). Differential expression profiling was identified in the training set. And the prognostic value of the miRNA signature was then assessed in the two cohorts.
A total of 14 miRNAs were observed to be associated with the status of ER by significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) in the training set. Patients were characterized as high score or low score group according to the calculated risk scores from each miRNA. And patients in high score group had worse overall survival compared with those in low score group both in the training and testing set.
Our study revealed a miRNA signature including 14 miRNAs associated with ER status which could act as a prognostic marker in ER-positive breast cancer.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13046-014-0094-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Breast cancer; ER status; miRNA signature; prognosis
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising cancer therapeutic target due to its selective apoptosis-inducing effect in cancer cells. To efficiently deliver TRAIL to the tumor cells, an oncolytic adenovirus (p55-hTERT-HRE-TRAIL) carrying the TRAIL coding sequence was constructed. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of p55-hTERT-HRE-TRAIL on the growth and metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We observed that infection of the recombinant adenovirus resulted in expression of TRAIL and massive cell death in a TNBC cell line MDA-MB-231. This effect is much weaker in MCF-10A, which is a normal breast cell line. Administration of P55-HTERT-HRE-TRAIL significantly reduced orthotopic breast tumor growth and extended survival in a metastatic model. Our results suggest the oncolytic adenovirus armed with P55-HTERT-HRE-TRAIL, which exhibited enhanced anti-tumor activity and improved survival, is a promising candidate for virotherapy of TNBC.
tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL); triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC); adenovirus; virotherapy
: To determine the risk factors associated with persistent airflow limitation in patients with asthma.
s: This study was designed and carried out in the department of respiratory medicine, fourth People’s Hospital of Jinan City, Shandong province, China between Jan 2012 and Dec 2012. Three hundred and six asthma patients participating in the study were divided into persistent airflow limitation group (PAFL) and no persistent airflow limitation group (NPAFL). The patients participated in pulmonary function tests and sputum induction examination. The clinical data including age, gender, onset age, disease course, smoking history, family history, regular corticosteroid inhalation, hospitalization history and presence of atopy were collected.
: In 306 patients, 128 (40.5%) were included in PAFL group and 178(59.5%) in NPAFL group. Multivariate analysis demonstrated smoking (≥10 pack-years; OR, 7.1; 95% CI, 1.8 to 31.2), longer asthma duration (≥ 20years) (OR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.7 to 28.5), absence of regular corticosteroid inhalation (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 14.5) and neutrophil in induced sputum≥65% (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.8) were independent risk factors for PAFL.
: Smoking, longer asthma duration and increased neutrophil in induced sputum are risk factors for PAFL, while regular corticosteroid inhalation is protective factor. Smoking cessation and regular corticosteroid inhalation may play an important role in preventing the occurrence of persistent airflow limitation group (PAFL).
Risk factors; Persistent airflow limitation; Asthma
This study assessed the prevalence, species and subtypes of Cryptosporidium in goats from Guangdong Province, Hubei Province, Shandong Province, and Shanghai City of China. Six hundred and four fecal samples were collected from twelve goat farms, and the overall infection rate was 11.4% (69/604). Goats infected with Cryptosporidium were found in eleven farms across four provincial areas, and the infection rate ranged from 2.9% (1/35) to 25.0% (9/36). Three Cryptosporidium species were identified. Cryptosporidium xiaoi (45/69, 65.2%) was the dominant species, followed by C. parvum (14/69, 20.3%) and C.
ubiquitum (10/69, 14.5%). The infection rate of Cryptosporidium spp. was varied with host age and goat kids were more susceptible to be infected than adult goats. Subtyping C.
parvum and C.
ubiquitum positive samples revealed C. parvum subtype IIdA19G1 and C. ubiquitum subtype XIIa were the most common subtypes. Other C. parvum subtypes were detected as well, such as IIaA14G2R1, IIaA15G1R1, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA17G2R1. All of these subtypes have also been detected in humans, suggesting goats may be a potential source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis. This was the first report of C. parvum subtypes IIaA14G2R1, IIaA15G1R1 and IIaA17G2R1 infecting in goats and the first molecular identification of C.
parvum and its subtypes in Chinese goats.
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been regarded as the primary genetic regulators of several important biological processes. However, the biological functions of lncRNAs in radiation-induced lung damage remain largely unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the potential effects of lncRNAs on radiation-induced lung injury (RILI). Female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 12 Gy single doses of total body irradiation (TBI). LncRNA microarray screening was conducted at 24 h post-irradiation (IR) to investigate the differentially-expressed lncRNAs during RILI. Following the subsequent bioinformatics analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) validation, one of the verified differentially-expressed long intergenic radiation-responsive ncRNAs (LIRRs), LIRR1, was selected for further functional study. The normal human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cell line was used as the cell model. The recombinant eukaryotic expression vector for the lncRNA was designed, constructed and transfected using lipofectamine. RT-PCR, clonogenic and flow cytometry assays, immunofluorescence detection and western blot analysis were performed to reveal the role of the lncRNA in the radiosensitivity regulation of the RILI target cells. In lung tissues 24 h after 12 Gy TBI, six of the identified differentially-expressed LIRRs near the coding genes were validated using quantitative (q)PCR. The upregulation of two LIRRs was observed and confirmed using qPCR. LIRR1 was chosen for further functional study. Following the stable transfection of LIRR1, identified through G418 screening, increased radiosensitivity, evident cell cycle G1 phase arrest and increased γ-H2AX foci formation were observed in the bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cell line subsequent to IR. LIRR1 overexpression also led to decreased expression of the KU70, KU80 and RAD50 DNA repair proteins, marked activation of p53, decreased mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) expression, and substantially induced p21 and suppressed cyclin-dependent kinase 2 in BEAS-2B following IR. Subsequent to the use of Pifithrin-α, a specific inhibitor of p53 activation, increased MDM2 expression was observed in the LIRR1-overexpressing cells, suggesting that LIRR1 could mediate the DNA damage response (DDR) signaling in a p53-dependent manner. The present study provides a novel mechanism for RILI, using the concept of lncRNAs.
long non-coding RNA; radiation-induced lung injury; radiosensitivity; cell cycle; DNA damage response; p53
Interleukin (IL)-23 is one of the newly identified inflammatory cytokines, and inflammation is also known to be related to the development of gastric cancer (GC). The role of IL-23 in gastric cancer, however, is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the expression and possible role of IL-23A in human GC.
The expression of IL-23A and IL-17A in human GC tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry, and the relationship between IL-23A expression and clinical characteristics of GC was investigated. The serum concentration of IL-23A and IL-17A was also tested by ELISA. The source and role of IL-23A in GC were studied in vitro by Flowcytometry, MTS (Owen’s reagent) assay and Western blot.
IL-23A, IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) and IL-17A were all overexpressed in human GC tissues, and the level of IL-23A was well correlated with IL-17A in GC tissues as well as in patient’s serum. Macrophages and GC cells were the main source of IL-23A secretion upon stimulation of H. pylori lysate. Furthermore, we found that IL-23A promoted proliferation of GC cell lines via IL-17A/IL-17 receptor antagonist (IL-17RA) /nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling.
The high expression of IL-23A is associated with GC. IL-23A can promoted GC cells growth by inducing the secretion of IL-17A in tumor microenvironment. Our results suggest that the serum concentration of IL-23A is a good biomarker of poor clinical prognosis in GC patients.
Interleukin-23A; Interleukin-17A; Nuclear factor-κB; Gastric cancer
Accumulating evidence indicates that Smad4 (DPC4) plays a fundamental role in the development and prognosis of several types of cancer. The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate whether the loss of Smad4 staining could serve as a prognostic marker.
A comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted using major useful databases to determine the relationship between the immunohistochemical detection of Smad4 and the survival of patients with various cancers. We used hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CIs) as the effect estimation to evaluate the association of Smad4 with overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) or recurrence-free survival (RFS). The relationship between the clinical characteristics of patients and Smad4 was also evaluated using the odds ratio (OR).
A total of 7570 patients from 26 studies were included in the analysis. The pooled results showed that loss of Smad4 staining was a negative predictor of OS with an HR of 1.97 (95% CI: 1.55–2.51; Pheterogeneity<0.001) and CSS/RFS (HR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.30–2.54; Pheterogeneity<0.001). In addition, loss of Smad4 staining was more likely to be found in older (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.09–2.61; Pheterogeneity = 0.648) colorectal cancer patients with a late tumor stage (OR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.71–3.10; Pheterogeneity = 0.218) and in gastric cancer patients with lymph node metastasis (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.03–4.34; Pheterogeneity = 0.038).
Based on these results, our meta-analysis provided evidence that loss of Smad4 staining could act as an unfavorable biomarker in the prognosis of various cancers and should be used as a powerful tool in future clinical trials.
The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) realized in two-dimensional electron systems under a magnetic field is one of the most remarkable discoveries in condensed matter physics. Interestingly, it has been proposed that FQHE can also emerge in time-reversal invariant spin systems, known as the chiral spin liquid (CSL) characterized by the topological order and the emerging of the fractionalized quasiparticles. A CSL can naturally lead to the exotic superconductivity originating from the condense of anyonic quasiparticles. Although CSL was highly sought after for more than twenty years, it had never been found in a spin isotropic Heisenberg model or related materials. By developing a density-matrix renormalization group based method for adiabatically inserting flux, we discover a FQHE in a isotropic kagome Heisenberg model. We identify this FQHE state as the long-sought CSL with a uniform chiral order spontaneously breaking time reversal symmetry, which is uniquely characterized by the half-integer quantized topological Chern number protected by a robust excitation gap. The CSL is found to be at the neighbor of the previously identified Z2 spin liquid, which may lead to an exotic quantum phase transition between two gapped topological spin liquids.
Media portraying violence is part of daily exposures. The extent to which violent media exposure impacts brain and behavior has been debated. Yet there is not enough experimental data to inform this debate. We hypothesize that reaction to violent media is critically dependent on personality/trait differences between viewers, where those with the propensity for physical assault will respond to the media differently than controls. The source of the variability, we further hypothesize, is reflected in autonomic response and brain functioning that differentiate those with aggression tendencies from others. To test this hypothesis we pre-selected a group of aggressive individuals and non-aggressive controls from the normal healthy population; we documented brain, blood-pressure, and behavioral responses during resting baseline and while the groups were watching media violence and emotional media that did not portray violence. Positron Emission Tomography was used with [18F]fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) to image brain metabolic activity, a marker of brain function, during rest and during film viewing while blood-pressure and mood ratings were intermittently collected. Results pointed to robust resting baseline differences between groups. Aggressive individuals had lower relative glucose metabolism in the medial orbitofrontal cortex correlating with poor self-control and greater glucose metabolism in other regions of the default-mode network (DMN) where precuneus correlated with negative emotionality. These brain results were similar while watching the violent media, during which aggressive viewers reported being more Inspired and Determined and less Upset and Nervous, and also showed a progressive decline in systolic blood-pressure compared to controls. Furthermore, the blood-pressure and brain activation in orbitofrontal cortex and precuneus were differentially coupled between the groups. These results demonstrate that individual differences in trait aggression strongly couple with brain, behavioral, and autonomic reactivity to media violence which should factor into debates about the impact of media violence on the public.
Aberrant methylation of the global genome has been investigated as a prognostic indicator in various cancers, but the results are controversial and ambiguous.
Methods and Findings
This meta-analysis presents pooled estimates of the evidence to elucidate this issue. We searched the electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library (up to August 2013) to identify all of the relevant studies. The association between the level of surrogates' indexes of genome-wide hypomethylation (LINE-1, Alu and Sat–α) and the overall survival (OS) of cancer patients was examined. In addition, the pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with their 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated to estimate the influences through fixed-effects and random-effects model. Finally, twenty studies with total population of 5447 met the inclusion criteria. The results indicate that the summary HRs for the studies employing LINE-1, Alu, and Sat-α repetitive elements also show that the global DNA hypomethylation have significant desirable effects on the tumour prognostic value. The pooled HRs (and CIs) of LINE-1, Alu and Sat-α were 1.83 (1.38–2.44), 2.00 (1.16–3.45), and 2.92 (1.04–8.25), with a heterogeneity measure index of I2 (and p-value) shows of 66.6% (p = 0.001), 57.1% (p = 0.053) and 68.2% (p = 0.076) respectively. The meta-regression and subgroup analysis indicated that the percentage of hypomethylated sample of cancer patients is one source of heterogeneity.
Our meta-analysis findings support the hypothesis that the global DNA hypomethylation is associated with a detrimental prognosis in tumour patients.