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1.  Functional characterization of an arrestin gene on insecticide resistance of Culex pipiens pallens 
Parasites & Vectors  2012;5:134.
Background
Continuous and excessive application of insecticides has resulted in the rapid development of insecticide resistance in several mosquito species, including Culex pipiens pallens. Previous studies in our laboratory found that arrestin gene expression was higher in the deltamethrin-resistant (DR) strain than in the deltamethrin-susceptible (DS) strain of Cx. pipiens pallens. Similarly, other studies reported that arrestin was highly expressed in permethrin-resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus and in dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-resistant Drosophila melanogaster.
Methods
Full-length cDNAs of an arrestin gene were cloned from Cx. pipiens pallens via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE). The mRNA levels of the arrestin gene in the whole life cycle of DR and DS strains of Cx. pipiens pallens were investigated via quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, the relationship between arrestin and deltamethrin (DM) resistance were identified using genetic overexpression strategies and arrestin RNAi in mosquito cells. Cell viability was analyzed with cholecystokinin octapeptide after DM treatment. Moreover, the mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 6A1 (CYP6A1) and opsin in the transfected cells and controls were analyzed.
Results
Complete arrestin gene sequence was cloned and expressed throughout the life cycle of Cx. pipiens pallens. Moreover, arrestin was significantly upregulated in the DR strain, compared with that in the DS strain at the egg, pupae, and adult stages. Arrestin overexpression comparably increased the mosquito cell viability, whereas arrestin knockdown by siRNA decreased mosquito cell viability with deltamethrin (DM) treatment. Meanwhile, the mRNA levels of CYP6A1 and opsin were upregulated in mosquito cells transfected with arrestin and downregulated in mosquito cells with arrestin knockdown.
Conclusion
This study presented the first evidence that arrestin might be associated with insecticide resistance in Cx. pipiens pallens.
doi:10.1186/1756-3305-5-134
PMCID: PMC3425237  PMID: 22768923
Insecticide resistance; Arrestin; Gene cloning; Transfection; SiRNA; Cell viability
2.  Proteomic analysis of the effect of iptakalim on human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation 
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica  2009;30(2):175-183.
Aim:
To investigate the anti-proliferative effect of iptakalim (Ipt), a newly selective KATP channel opener, in endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) using proteomic analysis.
Methods:
Human PASMCs were incubated with ET-1 (10−8 mol/L) and ET-1 (10−8 mol/L) plus iptaklim (10−5 mol/L) for 24 h. Analysis via 2-DE gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS was employed to display the different protein profiles of whole-cell protein from cultures of control, ET-1 treatment alone, and treatment with ET-1 and iptaklim combined. Real time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis were used to confirm the proteomic analysis.
Results:
When iptakalim inhibited the proliferative effect of ET-1 in human PASMCs by opening the KATP channels, the expression of different groups of cellular proteins was changed, including cytoskeleton-associated proteins, plasma membrane proteins and receptors, chaperone proteins, ion transport–associated proteins, and glycolytic and metabolism-associated proteins. We found that iptakalim could inhibit the proliferation of human PASMCs partly by affecting the expression of Hsp60, vimentin, nucleoporin P54 (NUP54) and Bcl-XL by opening the KATP channel.
Conclusion:
The data suggest that a wide range of signaling pathways may be involved in abolishing ET-1-induced proliferation of human PASMCs following iptakalim treatment.
doi:10.1038/aps.2008.30
PMCID: PMC4002473  PMID: 19169269
pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells; KATP channel opener; iptakalim; proteomics; proliferation

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