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1.  Characterization of genome-wide TFCP2 targets in hepatocellular carcinoma: implication of targets FN1 and TJP1 in metastasis 
Transcription factor CP2 (TFCP2) is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) and correlated with the progression of the disease. Here we report the use of an integrated systems biology approach to identify genome-wide scale map of TFCP2 targets as well as the molecular function and pathways regulated by TFCP2 in HCC.
We combined Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) on chip along with gene expression microarrays to study global transcriptional regulation of TFCP2 in HCC. The biological functions, molecular pathways, and networks associated with TFCP2 were identified using computational approaches. Validation of selected target gene expression and direct binding of TFCP2 to promoters were performed by ChIP -PCR and promoter reporter.
TFCP2 fostered a highly aggressive and metastatic phenotype in different HCC cells. Transcriptome analysis showed that alteration of TFCP2 in HCC cells led to change of genes in biological functions involved in cancer, cellular growth and proliferation, angiogenesis, cell movement and attachment. Pathways related to cell movement and cancer progression were also enriched. A quest for TFCP2-regulated factors contributing to metastasis, by integration of transcriptome and ChIP on chip assay, identified fibronectin 1 (FN1) and tight junction protein 1 (TJP1) as targets of TFCP2, and as key mediators of HCC metastasis. Promoter reporter identified the TFCP2-responsive region, and located the motifs of TFCP2-binding sites in the FN1 promoter, which then was confirmed by ChIP-PCR. We further showed that FN1 inhibition blocks the TFCP2-induced increase in HCC cell aggression, and that overexpression of TFCP2 can rescue the effects of FN1 inhibition. Knock down of TJP1 could also rescue, at least in part, the aggressive effect of TFCP2 knockdown in HCC cells.
The identification of global targets, molecular pathways and networks associated with TFCP2, together with the discovery of the effect of TFCP2 on FN1 and TJP1 that are involved in metastasis, adds to our understanding of the mechanisms that determine a highly aggressive and metastatic phenotype in hepatocarcinogenesis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13046-015-0121-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4311423  PMID: 25609232
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Metastasis; Fibronectin 1; Tight junction protein 1; Transcription factor CP2
2.  Development and Characterization of a Novel Fusion Protein of a Mutated Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor and Human Serum Albumin in Pichia pastoris 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e115840.
The purpose of the present work was to develop a novel, long-acting and potent human serum albumin/granulocyte colony stimulating factor (HSA/G-CSF) therapeutic fusion protein. The novel fusion protein, called HMG, was constructed by genetically fusing mutated human derived G-CSF (mG-CSF) to the C-terminal of HSA and then prepared in Pichia pastoris. The molecular mass of HMG was about 85 kDa and the isoelectric point was 5.3. Circular dichroism spectroscopy suggested that mG-CSF retained nearly all of its native secondary structure, regardless of fusion. The binding capabilities of mG-CSF moiety to G-CSF receptor and HSA moiety to warfarin showed very little change after fusing. The bioactivity of HMG (11.0×106 IU/mg) was more than twice that of rHSA/G-CSF (4.6×106 IU/mg). A mutation was made at the 718th amino acid of HMG, substituting Ala for Thr, to investigate the glycosylation of HMG expressed in P. pastoris. Data indicated that HMG was modified at Thr718, speculatively with the addition of a mannose chain. In conclusion, a novel HSA/G-CSF fusion protein was successfully constructed based on a mutated G-CSF. This protein showed more potent bioactivity than rHSA/G-CSF and thus may be a suitable long-acting G-CSF.
PMCID: PMC4275271  PMID: 25535738
3.  Calcium Inhibits Promotion by Hot Dog of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Mucin-Depleted Foci in Rat Colon 
Epidemiology suggests that processed meat is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but few experimental studies support this association. We have shown that a model of cured meat made in a pilot workshop promotes preneoplastic lesions, mucin-depleted foci (MDF) in the colon of rats. This study had two aims: to check if real store-bought processed meats also promote MDF, and to test if calcium carbonate, which suppresses heme-induced promotion, can suppress promotion by processed meat. A 14-day study was done to test the effect of nine purchased cured meats on fecal and urinary biomarkers associated with heme-induced carcinogenesis promotion. Fecal water from rats given hot dog or fermented raw dry sausage was particularly cytotoxic. These two cured meats were thus given to rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, to evaluate their effect on colorectal carcinogenesis. After a 100-d feeding period, fecal apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) were assayed and colons were scored for MDF. Hot dog diet increased fecal ATNC and the number of MDF per colon compared with the no-meat control diet (3.0±1.7 vs. 1.2±1.4, P<0.05). In a third study, addition of calcium carbonate (150 μmol/g) to the hot dog diet decreased the number of MDF/colon and fecal ATNC compared with the hot dog diet without calcium carbonate (1.2 ± 1.1 vs. 2.3 ± 1.4, respectively, P<0.05). This is the first experimental evidence that a widely consumed processed meat promotes colon carcinogenesis in rats. It also shows that dietary prevention of this detrimental effect is possible.
PMCID: PMC3788046  PMID: 23712585
Processed meat; colorectal cancer; preneoplastic lesions; prevention; calcium
4.  Long non-coding RNA PVT1 is associated with tumor progression and predicts recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma patients 
Oncology Letters  2014;9(2):955-963.
PVT1, which maps to chromosome 8q24, is a copy number amplification-associated long non-coding RNA. Overexpression of PVT1 is a powerful predictor of tumor progression and patient survival in a diverse range of cancer types. However, the association between PVT1 and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the expression pattern of PVT1, and its clinical significance in HCC. Between 2003 and 2012, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the expression levels of PVT1 in two independent cohorts: Cohort one, 58 HCC resection samples; and cohort 2, 214 HCC transplant samples. Additionally, the correlation between PVT1 expression levels and clinical parameters and outcomes was analyzed. The relative expression levels of PVT1 were significantly higher in cancerous tissues compared with the corresponding non-cancerous tissues (cohort one, P=0.0016; cohort two, P=0.0274). Furthermore, overexpression of PVT1 was associated with a higher serum α-fetoprotein expression level (P=0.011) and a higher recurrence rate (P=0.004). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that the patients with high PVT1 expression exhibited poor recurrence-free survival (P=0.021), and multivariate analysis demonstrated that high levels of PVT1 expression are an independent predictor for HCC recurrence (P=0.042; hazard ratio, 1.653). Thus, the high expression levels of PVT1 in HCC may serve as a novel biomarker for predicting tumor recurrence in HCC patients, and as a potential therapeutic target.
PMCID: PMC4301564  PMID: 25624916
hepatocellular carcinoma; long non-coding RNA; PVT1; recurrence; progression
5.  Structure-Based Rational Design of Prodrugs To Enable Their Combination with Polymeric Nanoparticle Delivery Platforms for Enhanced Antitumor Efficacy** 
Drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) are of particular interest for efficient cancer therapy due to their improved drug delivery and therapeutic index in various types of cancer. However, the encapsulation of many chemotherapeutics into delivery NPs is often hampered by their unfavorable physicochemical properties. Here, we employed a drug reform strategy to construct a small library of SN-38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin)-derived prodrugs, in which the phenolate group was modified with a variety of hydrophobic moieties. This esterification fine-tuned the polarity of the SN-38 molecule and enhanced the lipophilicity of the formed prodrugs, thereby inducing their self-assembly into biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PEG-PLA) nanoparticulate structures. Our strategy combining the rational engineering of prodrugs with the pre-eminent features of conventionally used polymeric materials should open new avenues for designing more potent drug delivery systems as a therapeutic modality.
PMCID: PMC4225468  PMID: 25196427
antitumor activity; drug delivery; nanoparticles; prodrugs; SN-38
6.  New strategies for prevention and treatment of splenic artery steal syndrome after liver transplantation 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(41):15367-15373.
AIM: To explore a prophylactic procedure to prevent splenic artery steal syndrome (SASS), as well as a therapeutic intervention to correct it.
METHODS: Forty-three liver transplant patients were enrolled in a non-randomized controlled trial, with the eligible criterion that the diameter of the splenic artery is more than 5 mm and/or 1.5 times of the diameter of the hepatic artery. The procedure of splenic artery banding was performed in 28 of the 43 patients, with the other 15 patients studied as a control group. SASS and other complications were compared between these two groups. A new therapeutic intervention, temporary incomplete blockade of the splenic artery with a balloon, was performed to treat SASS in this study.
RESULTS: The incidence of SASS was decreased by banding the splenic artery (0/28 vs 5/15, P = 0.006), and the same result was observed in total complications associated with prophylactic procedures (2/28 vs 6/15, P = 0.014). Five patients in the control group developed SASS within 5 d after OLT, 2 of whom were treated by coil embolization of the splenic artery, whereas the other 3 by temporary blockade of the splenic artery. Reappeared or better hepatic arteries with improved systolic amplitude and increased diastolic flow were detected by Doppler ultrasonography in all the 5 patients. Local splenic ischemic necrosis and nonanastomotic biliary stricture were diagnosed respectively in one patient treated by coil embolization, and no collateral complication was detected in patients treated by temporary blockade of the splenic artery.
CONCLUSION: SASS should be avoided during the operation by banding the splenic artery. Temporary blockade of the splenic artery is a new safe and effective intervention for SASS.
PMCID: PMC4223271  PMID: 25386086
Organ transplantation; Liver transplantation; Splenic artery steal syndrome; Vascular complication; Angiography
7.  Serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 for prediction of malignancy and invasiveness in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: A meta-analysis 
Biomedical Reports  2014;3(1):43-50.
The clinical importance of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) of the pancreas has been increasing due to the large number of newly diagnosed cases. A meta-analysis was used to assess the accuracy of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) for the identification of malignant and invasive IPMN. A literature search of PubMed and Web of Knowledge was conducted. Studies included in the analysis addressed the diagnostic accuracy of serum CEA and CA19-9 and pooled estimates of sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative-likelihood ratios (PLR and NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated using random-effects models. Predefined subgroup analysis was performed. Fifteen studies (published between 2001 and 2013) were analyzed, including a total of 1,629 patients. Pooled estimates of CEA in malignant and invasive IPNM prediction were: Pooled sensitivity, 18 and 18%; pooled specificity, 93 and 95%; PLR, 2.83 and 3.54; NLR, 0.89 and 0.89; and DOR, 3.35 and 3.6, respectively. Pooled estimates of CA19-9 in malignant and invasive IPMN prediction were: Pooled sensitivity, 40 and 52%; pooled specificity, 89 and 88%; PLR, 2.93 and 3.78; NLR, 0.74 and 0.6; and DOR, 4.34 and 6.33, respectively. In conclusion, serum CEA has low sensitivity and high specificity for malignant and invasive IPMN. Serum CA19-9 is a useful non-invasive preoperative tool for differentiating between invasive and benign IPMN and should be taken into account in the decision to perform surgery.
PMCID: PMC4251113  PMID: 25469245
sensitivity; specificity; carcinoembryonic antigen; carbohydrate antigen 19-9; intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms; positive-likelihood ratio; negative-likelihood ratio; diagnostic odds ratio
8.  Gastrin and D1 Dopamine Receptor Interact to Induce Natriuresis and Diuresis 
Hypertension  2013;62(5):927-933.
Oral NaCl produces a greater natriuresis and diuresis than the intravenous infusion of the same amount of NaCl. Gastrin is the major gastrointestinal hormone taken up by renal proximal tubule (RPT) cells. We hypothesized that renal gastrin and dopamine receptors interact to synergistically increase sodium excretion, an impaired interaction of which may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. In Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, infusion of gastrin induced natriuresis and diuresis, which was abrogated in the presence of a gastrin (CCKBR; CI-988) or D1-like receptor antagonist (SCH23390). Similarly, the natriuretic and diuretic effects of fenoldopam, a D1-like receptor agonist, were blocked by SCH23390, as well as by CI-988. However, the natriuretic effects of gastrin and fenoldopam were not observed in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The gastrin/D1-like receptor interaction was also confirmed in RPT cells. In RPT cells from WKY but not SHRs, stimulation of either D1-like or gastrin receptor inhibited Na+-K+-ATPase activity, an effect that was blocked in the presence of SCH23390 or CI-988. In RPT cells from WKY and SHRs, CCKBR and D1 receptor (D1R) co-immunoprecipitated, which was increased after stimulation of either D1R or CCKBR in RPT cells from WKY rats; stimulation of one receptor increased RPT cell membrane expression of the other receptor, effects that were not observed in SHRs. These data suggest that there is a synergism between CCKBR and D1-like receptors to increase sodium excretion. An aberrant interaction between the renal CCKBR and D1-like receptors (e.g., D1R) may play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension.
PMCID: PMC3915294  PMID: 24019399
Gastrin receptor; D1 dopamine receptor; kidney, hypertension; renal proximal tubule
9.  Stereotactic body radiation therapy for post-pulmonary lobectomy isolated lung metastasis of thoracic tumor: survival and side effects 
BMC Cancer  2014;14(1):719.
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an alternative treatment for patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or metastatic pulmonary tumors. However, for isolated lung metastasis (ILM) of thoracic malignances after pulmonary lobectomy, reported outcomes of SBRT have been limited. This study evaluates the role of SBRT in the treatment of such patients.
A retrospective search of the SBRT database was conducted in three hospitals. The parameters analyzed in the treated patients were local control, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and the treatment-related side-effects.
In total, 23 patients with single ILM after pulmonary lobectomy treated with SBRT were identified and the median follow-up time was 14 months (range: 6.0-47.0 months). Local recurrences were observed in two patients during follow-up and the 1-year local control rate was 91.3%. Median PFS and OS for the studied cohort were 10.0 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.1-14.9 months] and 21.0 months (95% CI 11.4-30.6 months), respectively. Acute radiation pneumonitis (RP) of grade 2 or worse was observed in five (21.7%) and three (13.0%) patients, respectively. Other treatment-related toxicities included chest wall pain in one patient (4.3%) and acute esophagitis in two patients (8.7%). By Pearson correlation analysis, the planning target volume (PTV) volume and the volume of the ipsilateral lung exposed to a minimum dose of 5 Gy (IpV5) were significantly related to the acute RP of grade 2 or worse in present study (p < 0.05). The optimal thresholds of the PTV and IpV5 to predict RP of acute grade 2 or worse RP were 59 cm3 and 51% respectively, according to the receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis, with sensitivity/specificity of 75.0%/80.0% and 62.5%/80.0%.
SBRT for post-lobectomy ILM was effective and well tolerated. The major reason for disease progression was distant failure but not local recurrence. The PTV and IpV5 are potential predictors of acute RP of grade 2 or higher and should be considered in treatment planning for such patients.
PMCID: PMC4189164  PMID: 25260301
Stereotactic body radiation therapy; Thoracic tumor; Post-lobectomy isolated lung metastasis; Clinical outcomes
10.  MiR-126-3p suppresses tumor metastasis and angiogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting LRP6 and PIK3R2 
The deregulation of microRNAs has been reported to play a pivotal role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MiR-126-3p has been reported to be associated with poor prognosis in HCC. However the underlying mechanism of miR-126-3p in HCC remains unclear.
The expression levels of miR-126-3p in HCC tissues and cells were detected by RT-PCR. Transwell assay and capillary tube formation assay were applied to assess the metastasis and angiogenesis in vitro. Nude mice subcutaneous tumor model was used to perform in vivo study. Dual- luciferase reporter assay was conducted to confirm the direct binding of miR-126-3p and target genes. The changes of biomarker protein levels were examined by western blot and Immunohistochemistry.
We observed that the miR-126-3p expression levels in HCC tissues and cells were significantly down-regulated. Through gain- and loss- of function studies, we showed that miR-126-3p dramatically inhibited HCC cells from migrating and invading extracellular matrix gel and suppressed capillary tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-126-3p significantly reduced the volume of tumor and microvessel density in vivo. LRP6 and PIK3R2 were identified as targets of miR-126-3p. Silencing LRP6 and PIK3R2 had similar effects of miR-126-3p restoration on metastasis and angiogenesis individually in HCC cells. Furthermore, the miR-126-3p level was inversely correlated with LRP6 and PIK3R2 in HCC tissues. In addition, the rescue experiments indicated that the metastasis and angiogenesis functions of miR-126-3p were mediated by LRP6 and PIK3R2.
Our results demonstrates that deregulation of miR-126-3p contributes to metastasis and angiogenesis in HCC. The restoration of miR-126-3p expression may be a promising strategy for HCC therapy.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12967-014-0259-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4189615  PMID: 25240815
MiR-126-3p; Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); Metastasis; Angiogenesis; LRP6; PIK3R2
11.  Population Structure of Clinical Vibrio parahaemolyticus from 17 Coastal Countries, Determined through Multilocus Sequence Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e107371.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. Although this bacterium has been the subject of much research, the population structure of clinical strains from worldwide collections remains largely undescribed, and the recorded outbreaks of V. parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis highlight the need for the subtyping of this species. We present a broad phylogenetic analysis of 490 clinical V. parahaemolyticus isolates from 17 coastal countries through multilocus sequence analysis (MLST). The 490 tested isolates fell into 161 sequence types (STs). The eBURST algorithm revealed that the 161 clinically relevant STs belonged to 8 clonal complexes, 11 doublets, and 94 singletons, showing a high level of genetic diversity. CC3 was found to be a global epidemic clone of V. parahaemolyticus, and ST-3 was the only ST with an international distribution. recA was observed to be evolving more rapidly, exhibiting the highest degree of nucleotide diversity (0.028) and the largest number of polymorphic nucleotide sites (177). We also found that the high variability of recA was an important cause of differences between the results of the eBURST and ME tree analyses, suggesting that recA has a much greater influence on the apparent evolutionary classification of V. parahaemolyticus based on the current MLST scheme. In conclusion, it is evident that a high degree of genetic diversity within the V. parahaemolyticus population and multiple sequence types are contributing to the burden of disease around the world. MLST, with a fully extractable database, is a powerful system for analysis of the clonal relationships of strains at a global scale. With the addition of more strains, the pubMLST database will provide more detailed and accurate information, which will be conducive to our future research on the population structure of V. parahaemolyticus.
PMCID: PMC4165897  PMID: 25225911
12.  Community Knowledge and Experience of Mosquitoes and Personal Prevention and Control Practices in Lhasa, Tibet 
Since 2009, great public attention has been paid in Lhasa City (Tibet, China) to mosquito bites and accompanying inflammatory complications. However, the potential contribution of knowledge levels, experiences, disease control and preventive practices (KEP) towards mosquitoes has not received much attention. To investigate community KEP concerning mosquitoes in Lhasa, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken in four sub-districts of urban Lhasa in 2012. Questionnaires were designed to collect information regarding socio-demographics and KEP concerning the harmful effects of mosquitoes on participants. The scoring for KEP was developed after consultation of literature. A total of 591 eligible questionnaires were examined. The majority of respondents were female (61.8%) with a mean age of 46 years. Nearly all of the respondents were of Tibetan nationality (97.4%) and living in registered native households (92.7%), who have less than primary school education. The averages of overall score, knowledge score, experience score, and practice score were 9.23, 4.53, 1.80, 2.90, respectively. The registered household with the highest overall score, knowledge score and practice score was non-native. Female subjects with monthly incomes between 1000 and 3000 RMB had higher experience scores. The correlation analysis revealed that significant positive linear correlations existed between knowledge and experience, knowledge and practices, and experience and practices towards mosquitoes. Past experiences with mosquitoes can result in a better knowledge of effective mosquito control practices in the present and the future. Though the average of overall scores related to mosquitoes is high among the participants in Lhasa, however, the knowledge about the ecological habits of mosquitoes should be strengthened. The findings in this study may help to develop strategies and measures of mosquito and mosquito-borne diseases in the future, not only in Lhasa, but also in similar altitude, latitude and longitude regions worldwide.
PMCID: PMC4199058  PMID: 25250847
knowledge; experience; prevention and control practice; mosquito; public health; Tibet
13.  Microparticles: new light shed on the understanding of venous thromboembolism 
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica  2014;35(9):1103-1110.
Microparticles are small membrane fragments shed primarily from blood and endothelial cells during either activation or apoptosis. There is mounting evidence suggesting that microparticles perform a large array of biological functions and contribute to various diseases. Of these disease processes, a significant link has been established between microparticles and venous thromboembolism. Advances in research on the role of microparticles in thrombosis have yielded crucial insights into possible mechanisms, diagnoses and therapeutic targets of venous thromboembolism. In this review, we discuss the definition and properties of microparticles and venous thromboembolism, provide a synopsis of the evidence detailing the contributions of microparticles to venous thromboembolism, and propose potential mechanisms, by which venous thromboembolism occurs. Moreover, we illustrate a possible role of microparticles in cancer-related venous thromboembolism.
PMCID: PMC4155535  PMID: 25152025
microparticle; blood cell; endothelial cell; venous thromboembolism; intercellular communication; inflammation; cancer
14.  ''Minimizing tacrolimus'' strategy and long-term survival after liver transplantation 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(32):11363-11369.
AIM: To investigate the effect of the ‘‘minimizing tacrolimus’’ strategy on long-term survival of patients after liver transplantation (LT).
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 319 patients who received LT between January 2009 and December 2011 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine. Following elimination of ineligible patients, 235 patients were included in the study. The relationship between early tacrolimus (TAC) exposure and survival period was analyzed by Kaplan Meier curves. Adverse effects related to TAC were evaluated by the χ2 test. Routine monitoring of blood TAC concentration (TC) was performed using the PRO-TracTM II Tacrolimus Elisa Kit (Diasorin, United States).
RESULTS: Of 235 subjects enrolled in the study, 124 (52.8%) experienced adverse effects due to TAC. When evaluating mean TC, the survival time of patients with a mean TC < 5 ng/mL was significantly shorter than that in the other groups (911.3 ± 131.6 d vs 1381.1 ± 66.1 d, 911.3 ± 131.6 d vs 1327.3 ± 47.8 d, 911.3 ± 131.6 d vs 1343.2 ± 83.1 d, P < 0.05), while the survival times of patients with a mean TC of 5-7, 7-10 and 10-15 ng/mL were comparable. Adverse effects due to TAC in all four groups were not significantly different. When comparing the standard deviation (SD) of TC among the groups, the survival time of patients with a SD of 2-4 was significantly longer than that in the other groups (1388.8 ± 45.4 d vs 1029.6 ± 131.3 d, 1388.8 ± 45.4 d vs 1274.9 ± 57.0 d, P < 0.05), while in patients with a SD < 2 and SD > 4, the survival time was not statistically different. Adverse effects experienced in all three groups were not statistically different. In Cox regression analysis, male patients and those with a primary diagnosis of benign disease, mean TC > 5 ng/mL and TC SD 2-4 had better outcomes.
CONCLUSION: The early ‘‘minimizing tacrolimus’’ strategy with a mean TC of 5-10 ng/mL and SD of 2-4 was beneficial in terms of long-term survival after LT.
PMCID: PMC4145777  PMID: 25170223
Tacrolimus; Liver transplantation; Outcome; Minimizing tacrolimus; Immunosuppressive drug
15.  Transferred BCR/ABL DNA from K562 Extracellular Vesicles Causes Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Immunodeficient Mice 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e105200.
Our previous study showed that besides mRNAs and microRNAs, there are DNA fragments within extracellular vesicles (EVs). The BCR/ABL hybrid gene, involved in the pathogenesis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), could be transferred from K562 EVs to neutrophils and decrease their phagocytic activity in vitro. Our present study provides evidence that BCR/ABL DNAs transferred from EVs have pathophysiological significance in vivo. Two months after injection of K562 EVs into the tail vein of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, they showed some characteristics of CML, e.g., feeble, febrile, and thin, with splenomegaly and neutrophilia but with reduced neutrophil phagocytic activity. These findings were also observed in immunodeficient NOD/SCID mice treated with K562 EVs; BCR/ABL mRNA and protein were found in their neutrophils. The administration of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of de novo mRNA synthesis, prevented the abnormalities caused by K562 EVs in NOD/SCID mice related to CML, including neutrophilia and bone marrow hyperplasia. As a specific inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, imatinib blocked the activity of tyrosine kinases and the expression of phospho-Crkl, induced by the de novo BCR/ABL protein caused by K562 EVs bearing BCR/ABL DNA. Our current study shows the pathophysiological significance of transferred tumor gene from EVs in vivo, which may represent an important mechanism for tumorigenesis, tumor progression, and metastasis.
PMCID: PMC4136837  PMID: 25133686
16.  MiR-152 May Silence Translation of CaMK II and Induce Spontaneous Immune Tolerance in Mouse Liver Transplantation 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e105096.
Spontaneous immune tolerance in mouse liver transplantation has always been a hotspot in transplantation-immune research. Recent studies revealed that regulatory T cells (Tregs), hepatic satellite cells and Kupffer cells play a potential role in spontaneous immune tolerance, however the precise mechanism of spontaneous immune tolerance is still undefined. By using Microarray Chips, we investigated different immune regulatory factors to decipher critical mechanisms of spontaneous tolerance after mouse liver transplantation. Allogeneic (C57BL/6-C3H) and syngeneic (C3H-C3H) liver transplantation were performed by 6-8 weeks old male C57BL/6 and C3H mice. Graft samples (N = 4 each group) were collected from 8 weeks post-operation mice. 11 differentially expressed miRNAs in allogeneic grafts (Allografts) vs. syngeneic grafts (Syngrafts) were identified using Agilent Mouse miRNA Chips. It was revealed that 185 genes were modified by the 11 miRNAs, furthermore, within the 185 target genes, 11 of them were tightly correlated with immune regulation after Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis and Genbank data cross-comparison. Verified by real-time PCR and western blot, our results indicated that mRNA expression levels of IL-6 and TAB2 were respectively down regulated following miR-142-3p and miR-155 augment. In addition, increased miR-152 just silenced mRNA of CaMK II and down-regulated translation of CaMK II in tolerated liver grafts, which may play a critical role in immune regulation and spontaneous tolerance induction of mouse liver transplantation.
PMCID: PMC4136864  PMID: 25133393
17.  Meta-analysis of best corrected visual acuity after treatment for myopic choroidal neovascularisation 
To compare the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) between Verteporfin with photodynamic therapy (PDT) and intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) in patients with myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV).
Published literature from Medline, Premedline, Embase and the Cochrane Library from inception until November 2013 were retrieved. All studies evaluating the BCVA between Verteporfin with PDT and intravitreal anti-VEGF for myopic CNV were included. The results were pooled using mean difference (MD), a corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI).
Finally, five studies enrolled 349 eyes were included in the meta-analysis. We inferred that the BCVA of myopic CNV after the treatment of anti-VEGF was significantly better compared with Verteporfin with PDT (MD=0.25, 95%CI:0.17-0.33, Z=5.97, P<0.00001).
This meta-analysis suggests that intravitreal anti-VEGF could have a better BCVA after treatment than Verteporfin with PDT for myopic CNV.
PMCID: PMC4137214  PMID: 25161950
myopic choroidal neovascularization; Verteporfin with photodynamic therapy; anti–vascular endothelial growth factor; meta-analysis
18.  Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of Rv3705c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis  
The cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Rv3705c from M. tuberculosis are described.
The conserved protein Rv3705c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as a precipitant. The Rv3705c crystals exhibited space group P6122 or P6522, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 198.0, c = 364.1 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°, and diffracted to a resolution of 3.3 Å.
PMCID: PMC4118811  PMID: 25084389
Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Rv3705c
19.  Association of height with peripheral arterial disease in type 2 diabetes 
To investigate whether height is associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Research design and methods
This was an observational study performed in 4,528 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Anthropometric measures and the ankle-brachial index (ABI) were performed on each subject. PAD was defined as those patients with a history of revascularization or amputation due to ischemia, or an ABI <0.9.
A total of 23.3 % of T2DM patients had PAD (men 22.9 % and women 23.7 %). The mean age and height were 57.8 ± 12.5 years and 170.5 cm for men, and 60.0 ± 11.7 years and 158.9 cm for women, respectively. The ABI and frequency of PAD were higher with decreasing height quartiles. An inverse association was observed between height- and gender-adjusted risk of PAD. This relationship remained unchanged following further adjustment for potential confounders. Subjects in the shortest stature group had of 1.174 times higher risk of PAD for men and 1.143 times for women, compared with those in the tallest stature group. The multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (95 % CI) of PAD for a 10-cm height increase were 0.85 (95 % CI 0.78–0.94).
A short stature seems to be associated with higher risk of PAD in Chinese diabetic patients. However, the cross-sectional nature of the study limits conclusions regarding the direction or causality. Further longitudinal study is warranted in this and other ethnic groups.
PMCID: PMC4282709  PMID: 25038904
Diabetes mellitus; Height; Peripheral arterial disease
20.  Long-term exposure to decabrominated diphenyl ether impairs CD8 T-cell function in adult mice 
Cellular and Molecular Immunology  2014;11(4):367-376.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that accumulate to high levels in human populations that are subject to occupational or regional industry exposure. PBDEs have been shown to affect human neuronal, endocrine and reproductive systems, but their effect on the immune system is not well understood. In this study, experimental adult mice were intragastrically administered 2,2′,3,3′,4,4′,5,5′,6,6′-decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) at doses of 8, 80 or 800 mg/kg of body weight (bw) at 2-day intervals. Our results showed that continuous exposure to BDE-209 resulted in high levels of BDE-209 in the plasma that approached the levels found in people who work in professions with high risks of PDBE exposure. Reduced leukocytes, decreased cytokine (IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α) production and lower CD8 T-cell proliferation were observed in the mice exposed to BDE-209. Additionally, mice with long-term BDE-209 exposure had lower numbers of antigen-specific CD8 T cells after immunization with recombinant Listeria monocytogenes expressing ovalbumin (rLm-OVA) and the OVA-specific CD8 T cells had reduced functionality. Taken together, our study demonstrates that continuous BDE-209 exposure causes adverse effects on the number and functionality of immune cells in adult mice.
PMCID: PMC4085518  PMID: 24705197
BDE-209; CD8 T cells; continuous exposure; immunotoxicity; T-cell functions
21.  Comparing mortality and myocardial infarction between coronary artery bypass grafting and drug-eluting stenting in patients with diabetes mellitus and multivessel coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis 
Archives of Medical Science : AMS  2014;10(3):411-418.
We aim to compare the midterm outcomes between coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in diabetic patients who had multivessel coronary artery diseases (CAD).
Material and methods
A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify the related clinical studies with a follow-up for 1 year at least. The endpoints were death, myocardial infarction, and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE).
Finally, the analysis of ten studies involving 5,264 patients showed that patients with CABG had worse baseline characteristics, a higher rate of stable angina pectoris, a higher percentage of triple-vessel disease, higher incidence of chronic total occlusion and a higher SYNTAX score. However, there was no significant difference in mortality between the two groups. Additionally, the rates of myocardial infarction and MACCE were markedly decreased in the CABG group.
The strategy of CABG is better than PCI for diabetic patients with multivessel CAD. The CABG can significantly reduce the rates of myocardial infarction and MACCE and is comparable in mortality despite the worse baseline characteristics.
PMCID: PMC4107246  PMID: 25097568
coronary artery bypass grafting; percutaneous coronary intervention; coronary artery diseases
22.  A Critical Role for ZDHHC2 in Metastasis and Recurrence in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:832712.
It has been demonstrated that loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was frequently observed on chromosomes 8p22-p23 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and was associated with metastasis and prognosis of HCC. However, putative genes functioning on this chromosomal region remain unknown. In this study, we evaluated LOH status of four genes on 8p22-p23 (MCPH1, TUSC3, KIAA1456, and ZDHHC2). LOH on ZDHHC2 was associated with early metastatic recurrence of HCC following liver transplantation and was correlated with tumor size and portal vein tumor thrombi. Furthermore, our results indicate that ZDHHC2 expression was frequently decreased in HCC. Overexpression of ZDHHC2 could inhibit proliferation, migration, and invasion of HCC cell line Bel-7402 in vitro. These results suggest an important role for ZDHHC2 as a tumor suppressor in metastasis and recurrence of HCC.
PMCID: PMC4068081  PMID: 24995331
23.  Association between previously identified loci affecting telomere length and coronary heart disease (CHD) in Han Chinese population 
To replicate previously confirmed telomere-length loci in a Chinese Han population with coronary heart disease (CHD), and investigate these loci and the possibility of and age at onset of CHD.
Patients and methods
1514 CHD patients and 2470 normal controls were recruited. Medical data including age, sex, body mass index, lipid profiles, history of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia were collected from all the participants. Seven previously identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to leucocyte telomere length were genotyped, including rs10936599 in TERC, rs2736100 in TERT, rs7675998 in NAF1, rs9420907 in OBFC1, rs8105767 in ZNF208, rs755017 in RTEL1, and rs11125529 in ACYP2.
No significant difference in genotype frequencies from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium test was noted for all tested SNPs both in the CHD patients and the normal controls. No polymorphism was observed for rs9420907, and AA genotype was noted in both the CHD patients and the controls. Neither the genotype nor the allele frequencies of rs2736100, rs8105767, rs11125529, and rs2967374 were significantly different between the CHD patients and the normal controls. For rs10936599 and rs755017, statistical difference was found for the allele frequency but not genotype. Distributions of genotype and allele were significantly different between the two groups for rs7675998. The odds ratio for carriers of CHD was 2.127 (95% confidence interval: 1.909–2.370) for the A allele of rs7675998. By one-way analysis of variance test, rs7675998 was associated with the onset age of CHD. CHD patients with the AA genotype of rs7675998 had significantly lower onset age (P<0.05).
In a Chinese Han population, NAF1 gene encoding proteins with known function in telomere biology may influence both the possibility of and the age at onset of CHD, as previously reported in European studies.
PMCID: PMC4041376  PMID: 24904205
coronary heart disease; gene; leucocyte telomere length
24.  Whole brain radiotherapy plus simultaneous in-field boost with image guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for brain metastases of non-small cell lung cancer 
Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) plus sequential focal radiation boost is a commonly used therapeutic strategy for patients with brain metastases. However, recent reports on WBRT plus simultaneous in-field boost (SIB) also showed promising outcomes. The objective of present study is to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of WBRT plus SIB with image guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) for inoperable brain metastases of NSCLC.
Twenty-nine NSCLC patients with 87 inoperable brain metastases were included in this retrospective study. All patients received WBRT at a dose of 40 Gy/20 f, and SIB boost with IG-IMRT at a dose of 20 Gy/5 f concurrent with WBRT in the fourth week. Prior to each fraction of IG-IMRT boost, on-line positioning verification and correction were used to ensure that the set-up errors were within 2 mm by cone beam computed tomography in all patients.
The one-year intracranial control rate, local brain failure rate, and distant brain failure rate were 62.9%, 13.8%, and 19.2%, respectively. The two-year intracranial control rate, local brain failure rate, and distant brain failure rate were 42.5%, 30.9%, and 36.4%, respectively. Both median intracranial progression-free survival and median survival were 10 months. Six-month, one-year, and two-year survival rates were 65.5%, 41.4%, and 13.8%, corresponding to 62.1%, 41.4%, and 10.3% of intracranial progression-free survival rates. Patients with Score Index for Radiosurgery in Brain Metastases (SIR) >5, number of intracranial lesions <3, and history of EGFR-TKI treatment had better survival. Three lesions (3.45%) demonstrated radiation necrosis after radiotherapy. Grades 2 and 3 cognitive impairment with grade 2 radiation leukoencephalopathy were observed in 4 (13.8%) and 4 (13.8%) patients. No dosimetric parameters were found to be associated with these late toxicities. Patients received EGFR-TKI treatment had higher incidence of grades 2–3 cognitive impairment with grade 2 leukoencephalopathy.
WBRT plus SIB with IG-IMRT is a tolerable and effective treatment for NSCLC patients with inoperable brain metastases. However, the results of present study need to be examined by the prospective investigations.
PMCID: PMC4035738  PMID: 24884773
Whole brain radiotherapy; Simultaneous in-field boost; Brain metastases; Non-small cell lung cancer
25.  Pulsed electromagnetic field improves cardiac function in response to myocardial infarction 
Extracorporeal pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has been shown the ability to improve regeneration in various ischemic episodes. Here, we examined whether PEMF therapy facilitate cardiac recovery in rat myocardial infarction (MI), and the cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying PEMF-related therapy was further investigated. The MI rats were exposed to active PEMF for 4 cycles per day (8 minutes/cycle, 30 ± 3 Hz, 5 mT) after MI induction. The data demonstrated that PEMF treatment significantly inhibited cardiac apoptosis and improved cardiac systolic function. Moreover, PEMF treatment increased capillary density, the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxic inducible factor-1α in infarct border zone. Furthermore, the number and function of circulating endothelial progenitor cells were advanced in PEMF treating rats. In vitro, PEMF induced the degree of human umbilical venous endothelial cells tubulization and increased soluble pro-angiogenic factor secretion (VEGF and nitric oxide). In conclusion, PEMF therapy preserves cardiac systolic function, inhibits apoptosis and trigger postnatal neovascularization in ischemic myocardium.
PMCID: PMC4058309  PMID: 24936220
Pulsed electromagnetic field; cardiac function; angiogenesis; apoptosis; ischemic myocardium

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