Seed set is usually low and differs for different crosses of flower lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.). The reasons remain unknown, and this has a negative impact on lotus breeding. To determine the causes, we carried out two crosses of flower lotus, that is, “Jinsenianhua” × “Qinhuaihuadeng” and “Qinhuaihuadeng” × “Jinsenianhua” and pollen viability, pistil receptivity, and embryo development were investigated. The pollen grains collected at 05:00-06:00 hrs had the highest viability, and the viabilities of “Jinsenianhua” and “Qinhuaihuadeng” were 20.6 and 15.7%, respectively. At 4 h after artificial pollination, the number of pollen grains germinating on each stigma reached a peak: 63.0 and 17.2 per stigma in “Jinsenianhua” × “Qinhuaihuadeng” and “Qinhuaihuadeng” × “Jinsenianhua”, respectively. At 1 d after artificial pollination, the percentages of normal embryos in the two crosses were 55.0 and 21.9%, respectively; however, at 11 d after pollination, the corresponding percentages were 20.8 and 11.2%. Seed sets of the two crosses were 17.9 and 8.0%, respectively. The results suggested that low pistil receptivity and embryo abortion caused low seed set in “Qinhuaihuadeng” × “Jinsenianhua”, whereas low fecundity of “Jinsenianhua” × “Qinhuaihuadeng” was mainly attributable to embryo abortion.
Ages at natural menarche and menopause are influenced by several genetic factors. This study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype and the age at menarche and natural menopause in Chinese females. In the current study, 398 (elderly group, aged 47–80 years) and 825 (young group, aged 15–25 years) Chinese females were enrolled under informed content. Ages at natural menarche and menopause were obtained by questionnaires. ApoE genotypes were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. In the elderly group, the number of pregnancies and live births and breastfeeding were associated with the age at menopause (P = 0.008, P = 0.002, and P = 0.023, respectively). One-way ANOVA analysis revealed that the ApoE genotype was significantly associated with age at natural menopause (ANM; P = 0.010). Compared with ApoE ε3/3 carriers, ApoE ε3/4 females showed a 1.8-year delay in ANM (P = 0.002). Single ApoE allele-positive/allele-negative analysis also showed that the age at menopause of ApoE ε4 carriers was delayed compared with those who were not carriers (P = 0.023). In the young group, no statistical difference was found in the age of menarche between the carriers of ApoE ε3/3 and ε3/4. Single ApoE allele-positive/allele-negative analysis showed that the age at menarche in ApoE ε4 carriers was slightly earlier than in those who were not carriers (P = 0.048). Meanwhile, univariate association analysis revealed that the ApoE genotypes were not significantly associated with the age at menarche using age as a covariate in the pooled group (young + elderly) (P = 0.143). We demonstrated that the ApoE genotype is significantly linked to the age at natural menopause.
ApoE genotype; Age at menopause; Age at menarche
The associations between the aortic dimensions (of the aortic sinus, aortic annulus and aortic arch) and physiological variables have not been established in the Chinese population. The present study examined the associations among physiological variables to determine the aortic root and arch dimensions echocardiographically. The diameters of the aortic sinus, annulus and arch were measured in 1,010 subjects via 2-D echocardiography with a 3.5-MHz transducer in a trans-thoracic position. The images of the aortic sinus and aortic annulus were obtained from a standard parasternal long-axis view. The maximum diameter of the valve orifice was measured at the end of systole. The aortic arch dimension was visualized in the long-axis using a suprasternal notch window and the maximum transverse diameter was measured. Epidata 3.0, Excel 2007 and SPSS version 17.0 were used to collect and analyze the data. A total of 1,010 subjects were enrolled. The mean age was 55.0±17.0 years (range of 18 to 90 years). The body surface area (BSA) was the best predictor of all the studied physiological variables and may be used to predict aortic sinus, annulus and arch dimensions independently (r=0.54, 0.37 and 0.39, respectively). Gender, blood pressure, age and BSA are significant predictors of the aortic dimensions. Of these, BSA was the best predictor.
aortic root; arch dimension; chinese population
Chronic inflammation plays a crucial role in the progression of vascular calcification (VC). This study was designed to investigate whether the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) pathway is involved in the progression of VC in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) during inflammation.
Methods and Results
Twenty-eight ESRD patients were divided into control and inflamed groups according to plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) level. Surgically removed tissues from the radial arteries of patients receiving arteriovenostomy were used in the experiments. The expression of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) of the radial artery were increased in the inflamed group. Hematoxylin-eosin and alizarin red S staining revealed parallel increases in foam cell formation and calcium deposit formation in continuous cross-sections of radial arteries in the inflamed group compared to the control, which were closely correlated with increased LDLr, sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), bone morphogenetic proteins-2 (BMP-2), and collagen I protein expression, as shown by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent staining. Confocal microscopy confirmed that inflammation enhanced the translocation of the SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP)/SREBP-2 complex from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi, thereby activating LDLr gene transcription. Inflammation increased alkaline phosphatase protein expression and reduced α-smooth muscle actin protein expression, contributing to the conversion of the vascular smooth muscle cells in calcified vessels from the fibroblastic to the osteogenic phenotype; osteogenic cells are the main cellular components involved in VC. Further analysis showed that the inflammation-induced disruption of the LDLr pathway was significantly associated with enhanced BMP-2 and collagen I expression.
Inflammation accelerated the progression of VC in ESRD patients by disrupting the LDLr pathway, which may represent a novel mechanism involved in the progression of both VC and atherosclerosis.
Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a rare tumor mainly arising in the kidney. Here we report the case of a 55-year-old woman with malignant epithelioid angiomyolipoma with p53 gene mutation. After 7 years from radical nephrectomy of the left kidney, the patient developed multiple lung metastases that showed morphologic features overlapping those of the previously lesion, which was misdiagnosed as renal cell carcinoma. Both renal and pulmonary tumors were reevaluated by immunohistochemical assay, which were showed positive for HMB-45 and p53 protein (95%), but negative for epithelial markers and S-100 protein. A correct diagnosis of malignant epithelioid angiomyolipoma was made on the basis of those results. Meanwhile exon 8 mutation of p53 gene was detected in the renal tumor by microdissection-PCR-SSCP and sequencing technique indicating that p53 gene mutation may play an important role in malignant transformation. The patient was died of respiratory failure after 15 years’ follow-up. This is the second report of renal malignant angiomyolipoma with p53 gene mutation.
Kidney; Angiomyolipoma; Epithelioid; Malignant; Metastases; p53 gene mutation
Breeding programs for the water lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) are hampered by an inability to account for variation in seed set associated with crosses between different cultivars. We studied seed set in two reciprocal crosses between lotus cultivars (‘Guili’ × ‘Aijiangnan’ and ‘Molingqiuse’ × ‘Qinhuaiyanzhi') to obtain insights into factors that govern fecundity in these experimental hybrids. Pollen viability, stigma receptivity and embryo development were compared for each hybrid and reciprocal cross.
Pollen viability of the individual cultivars ranged from 4.1% to 20.2%, with the highest level (>11.9%) for all cultivars observed from the earliest collected grains (05:00–06:00 a.m.). Stigmatic pollen germination peaked at 4 h after pollination and varied from 4.8 to 60.6 grains per stigma among the crosses. Production of normal embryos ranged from 7.6% to 58.8% at 1 d after pollination and from 0 to 25% by 11 d after pollination. Seed set in crosses (0.2–23.3%) was generally lower than in open-pollinated plants (8.4–26.5%). Similar to the germination results, seed set was substantially reduced in both reciprocal crosses.
These results suggested that poor pollen fertility, low stigma receptivity, and embryo abortion were responsible for the failure of the crosses ‘Molingqiuse’ × ‘Qinhuaiyanzhi’, ‘Qinhuaiyanzhi’ × ‘Molingqiuse’, and ‘Aijiangnan’ × ‘Guili’.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether compound zhi zhu xiang (CZZX) exerts anxiolytic-like effects in rats. The animals were orally administered CZZX (0.75, 1.5, and 3 g/kg daily) for 10 days and tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM), Vogel conflict test (VCT), and open field. Repeated treatment with CZZX (3 g/kg/day, p.o.) significantly increased the percentage of both entries into and time spent on the open arms of the EPM compared with saline controls. In the VCT, repeated treatment with CZZX (1.5 and 3 g/kg/day, p.o.) significantly increased the number of punished licks. The drug did not change the total entries into the open arms of the EPM or interfere with water consumption or nociceptive threshold, discarding potential confounding factors in the two tests. In the open field, locomotion was not reduced, discarding the possible sedative effect of CZZX. In the binding assay, the binding of [3H] Ro 15-1788 (flumazenil) to the benzodiazepine binding site in washed crude synaptosomal membranes from rat cerebral cortex was affected by CZZX. These data indicate an anxiolytic-like profile of action for CZZX without sedative side effects, and this activity may be mediated by benzodiazepine binding site modulation at γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptors.
Objective: To assess whether the TaqIB polymorphism of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) in Chinese population, we performed a meta-analysis in this paper. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, the Science Citation Index (SCI), the China Biological Medicine database (CBM), the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and the Wanfang database for relevant articles. Data were extracted, and pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: The literature search yielded 448 studies, in which 10 case-control studies including 1 694 cases and 1 456 controls matched the selection criteria. The combined B1 and B2 allele frequencies were 0.587 and 0.413, respectively. The pooled OR was 1.10 (95% CI, 0.89–1.34) for comparing the B1B1 or B1B2 carriers with B2B2 carriers, and was 1.27 (95% CI, 1.09–1.49) in the B1B1 carriers versus B2B2 or B1B2 carriers. Conclusions: In the present study, the TaqIB polymorphism of CETP was found to be associated with CAD in the Chinese population.
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein; Coronary artery disease; Polymorphism; Chinese population
The effects of CO2 enrichment on growth and development of Impatiens hawkeri, an important greenhouse flower, were investigated for the purpose of providing scientific basis for CO2 enrichment to this species in greenhouse. The plants were grown in CO2-controlled growth chambers with 380 (the control) and 760 (CO2 enrichment) μmol·mol−1, respectively. The changes in morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and leaf ultrastructure of Impatiens were examined. Results showed that CO2 enrichment increased flower number and relative leaf area compared with the control. In addition, CO2 enrichment significantly enhanced photosynthetic rate, contents of soluble sugars and starch, activities of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), but reduced chlorophyll content and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Furthermore, significant changes in chloroplast ultrastructure were observed at CO2 enrichment: an increased number of starch grains with an expanded size, and an increased ratio of stroma thylakoid to grana thylakoid. These results suggest that CO2 enrichment had positive effects on Impatiens, that is, it can improve the visual value, promote growth and development, and enhance antioxidant capacity.
In the title compound, [Cu(C4H4O5)(C5H8N2)2(H2O)]·2H2O, the CuII cation assumes a distorted octahedral coordination geometry formed by two 3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole ligands, one oxydiacetate (ODA) dianion and one coordinated water molecule. The tridentate ODA ligand chelates to the Cu cation in a facial configuration with a longer Cu—O bond [2.597 (3) Å], and both chelating rings display envelope conformations. In the molecule, the two pyrazole rings are twisted with respect to each other at a dihedral angle of 57.5 (3)°. Extensive intermolecular O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding is present in the crystal structure.
In the title compound, [Ni(C4H4O4S)(C6H6N4S2)(H2O)]·H2O, the NiII cation assumes a distorted octahedral coordination geometry formed by a diaminobithiazole (DABT) ligand, a thiodiacetate (TDA) dianion and a coordinated water molecule. The tridentate TDA chelates to the Ni cation in a facial configuration, and both chelating rings display the envelope conformations. The two thiazole rings of the DABT ligand are twisted with respect to each other, making a dihedral angle of 9.96 (9)°. Extensive O—H⋯O, N—H⋯O and weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonding is present in the crystal structure.
The title compound, [Zn(C7H3NO4)(C6H6N4S2)(H2O)]·4H2O, assumes a distorted octahedral coordination geometry around the Zn2+ cation, formed by a diaminobithiazole (DABT) molecule, a pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate anion and a water molecule. The pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate anion chelates to the ZnII atom with a facial configuration. Within the chelating DABT ligand, the two thiazole rings are twisted by a dihedral angle of 14.52 (8)° with respect to each other. O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds occur in the crystal structure.
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of Chinese medicine formula-Yu Zhang Dan (YZD, composed of Herba Lysimachiae, Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati, Radix Curcumae) on the model rats with hepatic fibrosis. Forty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used in the present study, and they were separated randomly into 4 groups: a normal control group (Group A, n=5), a model control (Group B, n=15), a high dose of YZD (Group C, n=10), and a low dose of YZD (Group D, n=10). Hepatic fibrosis in rats was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The variation of the serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hyaluronate acid (HA), laminin (LN), type • • procollagen peptide (P• •NP), L-Glutathione (GSH) was respectively measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA) and detection of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and smooth muscle alpha actin (α-SMA) was conducted with immunohistochemistry. The ALT, AST HA, LN and PIII NP levels in the serum of the model control group were significantly higher than those of the normal control group (P<0.05), and both of the high dose of YZD and low dose of YZD significantly decreased the ALT, AST HA, LN and PIII NP levels of the model rats (P<0.05). The TGF-β1 and α-SMA levels of the model control group were significantly higher than those of the normal control group (P<0.05), and both of the high dose of YZD and low dose of YZD significantly decreased the TGF-β1 levels of the model rats (P<0.05) , and only the high dose of YZD significantly decreased the α-SMA levels of the model rats (P<0.05). The expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA in the liver tissues of the rats were in the cytoplasm of the cells. It may be through decreasing the ALT, AST, HA, LN and PIII NP levels in the serum of the model rats and decreasing the expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA in the liver tissues of the model rats that YZD significantly relieved the hepatic fibrosis.
Chinese medicinal herbs; Yu Zhang Dan (YZD); Hepatic fibrosis
In the title compound, [Zn(C4H5O2)Cl(C6H6N4S2)]·H2O, the ZnII cation is coordinated by a bidentate diaminobithiazole (DABT) ligand, a but-2-enoate anion and a Cl− anion in a distorted tetrahedral geometry. Within the DABT ligand, the two thiazole rings are twisted to each other at a dihedral angle of 4.38 (10)°. An intramolecular N—H⋯O interaction occurs. The centroid–centroid distance of 3.6650 (17) Å and partially overlapped arrangement between nearly parallel thiazole rings of adjacent complexes indicate the existence of π–π stacking in the crystal structure. Extensive O—H⋯Cl, O—H⋯O, N—H⋯Cl and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding helps to stabilize the crystal structure.
Crg1 and Crg2 are regulators of G-protein signaling homologs found in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Crg1 negatively regulates pheromone responses and mating through direct inhibition of Gα subunits Gpa2 and Gpa3. It has also been proposed that Crg2 has a role in mating, as genetic crosses involving Δcrg2 mutants resulted in formation of hyperfilaments. We found that mutation of Gpa2 and Gpa3 partially suppressed the hyperfilamentation, mutation of Gpa3 alleviated Δcrg2-specfic cell swelling, and mutation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase Cpk1 blocked both processes. These findings indicate that Gpa2 and Gpa3 function downstream of Crg2 and that Gpa3 is also epistatic to Crg2 in a Cpk1-dependent morphogenesis process linked to mating. Significantly, we found that Δcrg2 mutants formed enlarged capsules that mimic cells expressing a constitutively active GPA1(Q284L) allele and that the levels of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) were also elevated, suggesting that Crg2 also negatively regulates the Gpa1-cAMP signaling pathway. We further showed that Crg2 interacted with Gpa3 and Gpa1, but not Gpa2, in a pulldown assay and that Crg2 maintained a higher in vitro GTPase-activating protein activity toward Gpa3 and Gpa1 than to Gpa2. Finally, we found that dysregulation of cAMP due to the Crg2 mutation attenuated virulence in a murine model of cryptococcosis. Taken together, our study reveals Crg2 as an RGS (regulator of G-protein signaling) protein of multiregulatory function, including one that controls mating distinctly from Crg1 and one that serves as a novel inhibitor of Gpa1-cAMP signaling.
The peroxisomal matrix proteins involved in many important biological metabolism pathways in eukaryotic cells are encoded by nucleal genes, synthesized in the cytoplasm and then transported into the organelles. Targeting and import of these proteins depend on their two peroxisomal targeting signals (PTS1 and PTS2) in sequence as we have known so far. The vectors of the fluorescent fusions with PTS, i.e., green fluorescence protein (GFP)-PTS1, GFP-PTS2 and red fluorescence protein (RFP)-PTS1, were constructed and introduced into Magnaporthe oryzae Guy11 cells. Transformants containing these fusions emitted fluorescence in a punctate pattern, and the locations of the red and green fluorescence overlapped exactly in RFP-PTS1 and GFP-PTS2 co-transformed strains. These data indicated that both PTS1 and PTS2 fusions were imported into peroxisomes. A probable higher efficiency of PTS1 machinery was revealed by comparing the fluorescence backgrounds in GFP-PTS1 and GFP-PTS2 transformants. By introducing both RFP-PTS1 and GFP-PTS2 into Δmgpex6 mutants, the involvement of MGPEX6 gene in both PTS1 and PTS2 pathways was proved. In addition, using these transformants, the inducement of peroxisomes and the dynamic of peroxisomal number during the pre-penetration processes were investigated as well. In summary, by the localization and co-localization of PTS1 and PTS2, we provided a useful tool to evaluate the biological roles of the peroxisomes and the related genes.
Peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS); Peroxisomal localization; MGPEX6 gene; Magnaporthe oryzae
Perturbation of pheromone signaling modulates not only mating but also virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans, an opportunistic human pathogen known to encode three Gα, one Gβ, and two Gγ subunit proteins. We have found that Gαs Gpa2 and Gpa3 exhibit shared and distinct roles in regulating pheromone responses and mating. Gpa2 interacted with the pheromone receptor homolog Ste3α, Gβ subunit Gpb1, and RGS protein Crg1. Crg1 also exhibited in vitro GAP activity toward Gpa2. These findings suggest that Gpa2 regulates mating through a conserved signaling mechanism. Moreover, we found that Gγs Gpg1 and Gpg2 both regulate pheromone responses and mating. gpg1 mutants were attenuated in mating, and gpg2 mutants were sterile. Finally, although gpa2, gpa3, gpg1, gpg2, and gpg1 gpg2 mutants were fully virulent, gpa2 gpa3 mutants were attenuated for virulence in a murine model. Our study reveals a conserved but distinct signaling mechanism by two Gα, one Gβ, and two Gγ proteins for pheromone responses, mating, and virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans, and it also reiterates that the link between mating and virulence is not due to mating per se but rather to certain mating-pathway components that encode additional functions promoting virulence.