A large amount of soil loss is caused by a small number of extreme events that are mainly responsible for the time compression of geomorphic processes. The aim of this study was to analyze suspended sediment transport during extreme erosion events in a mountainous watershed. Field measurements were conducted in Wangjiaqiao, a small agricultural watershed (16.7 km2) in the Three Gorges Area (TGA) of China. Continuous records were used to analyze suspended sediment transport regimes and assess the sediment loads of 205 rainfall–runoff events during a period of 16 hydrological years (1989–2004). Extreme events were defined as the largest events, ranked in order of their absolute magnitude (representing the 95th percentile). Ten extreme erosion events from 205 erosion events, representing 83.8% of the total suspended sediment load, were selected for study. The results of canonical discriminant analysis indicated that extreme erosion events are characterized by high maximum flood-suspended sediment concentrations, high runoff coefficients, and high flood peak discharge, which could possibly be explained by the transport of deposited sediment within the stream bed during previous events or bank collapses.
The extracellular matrix plays a critical role in neural crest (NC) cell migration. In this study, we characterize the contribution of the novel GPI-linked matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) zebrafish mmp17b. Mmp17b is expressed post-gastrulation in the developing NC. Morpholino inactivation of mmp17b function, or chemical inhibition of MMP activity results in aberrant NC cell migration with minimal change in NC proliferation or apoptosis. Intriguingly, a GPI anchored protein with metalloproteinase inhibitor properties, Reversion-inducing-Cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK), which has previously been implicated in NC development, is expressed in close apposition to NC cells expressing mmp17b, raising the possibility that these two gene products interact. Consistent with this possibility, embryos silenced for mmp17b show defective development of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), a crest-derived structure affected in RECK mutant fish sensory deprived (sdp). Taken together, this study has identified the first pair of MMP, and their putative MMP inhibitor RECK that functions together in NC cell migration.
Epigenetic aberrations have been reported in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study of patients with unresectable HCC and chronic liver disease, epigenetic therapy with the histone deacetylase inhibitor belinostat was assessed. The objectives were to determine dose-limiting toxicity and maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), to assess pharmacokinetics in phase I, and to assess activity of and explore potential biomarkers for response in phase II.
Patients and Methods
Major eligibility criteria included histologically confirmed unresectable HCC, European Cooperative Oncology Group performance score ≤ 2, and adequate organ function. Phase I consisted of 18 patients; belinostat was given intravenously once per day on days 1 to 5 every 3 weeks; dose levels were 600 mg/m2 per day (level 1), 900 mg/m2 per day (level 2), 1,200 mg/m2 per day (level 3), and 1,400 mg/m2 per day (level 4). Phase II consisted of 42 patients. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS), and the main secondary end points were response according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) and overall survival (OS). Exploratory analysis was conducted on pretreatment tumor tissues to determine whether HR23B expression is a potential biomarker for response.
Belinostat pharmacokinetics were linear from 600 to 1,400 mg/m2 without significant accumulation. The MTD was not reached at the maximum dose administered. Dose level 4 was used in phase II. The median number of cycles was two (range, one to 12). The partial response (PR) and stable disease (SD) rates were 2.4% and 45.2%, respectively. The median PFS and OS were 2.64 and 6.60 months, respectively. Exploratory analysis revealed that disease stabilization rate (complete response plus PR plus SD) in tumors having high and low HR23B histoscores were 58% and 14%, respectively (P = .036).
Epigenetic therapy with belinostat demonstrates tumor stabilization and is generally well-tolerated. HR23B expression was associated with disease stabilization.
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are tumors originated from neuroendocrine cells in the body. The localization and the detection of the extent of NETs are important for diagnosis and treatment, which should be individualized according to the tumor type, burden, and symptoms. Molecular imaging of NETs with high sensitivity and specificity is achieved by nuclear medicine method using single photon-emitting and positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. Somatostatin receptor imaging (SRI) using SPECT or PET as a whole-body imaging technique has become a crucial part of the management of NETs. The radiotherapy with somatostatin analogues labeled with therapeutic beta emitters, such as lutetium-177 or yttrium-90, has been proved to be an option of therapy for patients with unresectable and metastasized NETs. Molecular imaging can deliver an important message to improve the outcome for patients with NETs by earlier diagnosis, better choice of the therapeutic method, and evaluation of the therapeutic response.
The ankle-brachial index (ABI), defined as the ratio of systolic pressure in the ankle arteries and that in the brachial artery, was a useful noninvasive method to detect arterial stenoses. There had been a lot of researches about clinical regularities of ABI; however, mechanism studies were less addressed. For the purpose of a better understanding of the correlation between vascular stenoses and ABI, a computational model for simulating blood pressure and flow propagation in various arterial stenosis circumstances was developed with a detailed compartmental description of the heart and main arteries. Particular attention was paid to the analysis of effects of vascular stenoses in different large-sized arteries on ABI in theory. Moreover, the variation of ABI during the increase of the stenosis severity was also studied. Results showed that stenoses in lower limb arteries, as well as, brachial artery, caused different variations of blood pressure in ankle and brachial arteries, resulting in a significant change of ABI. Furthermore, the variation of ABI became faster when the severity of the stenosis increased, validating that ABI was more sensitive to severe stenoses than to mild/moderate ones. All these in findings revealed the reason why ABI was an effective index for detecting stenoses, especially in lower limb arteries.
This paper proposes a novel bayesian phase I/II design featuring using a hybrid mTPI method in phase I for targeting the MTD level and a randomization allocation schema for adaptively assigning patients to desirable doses in phase II. The mechanism of simultaneously escalating dose in phase I and expanding promising doses to phase II is inherited from a design proposed in literature. Extensive simulation studies indicate that our proposed design can vastly save sample size and efficiently assign more patients to optimal dose when compared to two competing designs.
In vitro, a new protocol of plant regeneration in rose was achieved via protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) induced from the root-like organs named rhizoids that developed from leaf explants. The development of rhizoids is a critical stage for efficient regeneration, which is triggered by exogenous auxin. However, the role of cytokinin in the control of organogenesis in rose is as yet uncharacterized. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanism of cytokinin-modulated rhizoid formation in Rosa canina. Here, we found that cytokinin is a key regulator in the formation of rhizoids. Treatment with cytokinin reduced callus activity and significantly inhibited rhizoid formation in Rosa canina. We further isolated the full-length cDNA of a type-A response regulator gene of cytokinin signaling, RcRR1, from which the deduced amino acid sequence contained the conserved DDK motif. Gene expression analysis revealed that RcRR1 was differentially expressed during rhizoid formation and its expression level was rapidly up-regulated by cytokinin. In addition, the functionality of RcRR1 was tested in Arabidopsis. RcRR1 was found to be localized to the nucleus in GFP-RcRR1 transgenic plants and overexpression of RcRR1 resulted in increased primary root length and lateral root density. More importantly, RcRR1 overexpression transgenic plants also showed reduced sensitivity to cytokinin during root growth; auxin distribution and the expression of auxin efflux carriers PIN genes were altered in RcRR1 overexpression plants. Taken together, these results demonstrate that RcRR1 is a functional type-A response regulator which is involved in cytokinin-regulated rhizoid formation in Rosa canina.
AIM: To achieve a better understanding of the origination of neuroendocrine (NE) cells in gastric adenocarcinoma.
METHODS: In this study, 120 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma were obtained. First, frozen section-immunohistochemistrical samples were selected from a large quantity of neuroendocrine cells. Second, laser capture microdissection was used to get target cells from gastric adenocarcinoma and whole genome amplification was applied to get a large quantity of DNA for further study. Third, genome-wide microsatellite abnormalities [microsatellite instability (MSI), loss of heterozygosity (LOH)] and p53 mutation were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single-strand conformation polymer- phism-silver staining and PCR-sequencing in order to identify the clonality of NE cells.
RESULTS: The total incidence rate of MSI was 27.4%, while LOH was 17.9%. Ten cases had a highest concordance for the two types of cells. The other samples had similar microsatellite changes, except for cases 7 and 10. Concordant p53 mutations exhibited in sample 4, 14, 21 and 27, and there were different mutations between two kinds of cells in case 7. In case 17, mutation took place only in adenocarcinoma cells. p53 mutation was closely related with degree of differentiation, tumor-node-metastasis stage, vessel invasion and lymph node metastasis. In brief, NE and adenocarcinoma cells showed the same MSI, LOH or p53 mutation in most cases (27/30). In the other three cases, different MSI, LOH or p53 mutation occurred.
CONCLUSION: NE and the gastric adenocarcinoma cells may mainly derive from the same stem cells, but the remaining cases showing different origin needs further investigation.
Neuroendocrine differentiation; Clonal analysis; Gastric adenocarcinoma; Neuroendocrine cells
To verify the ancient theory of rather missing the acupoint than missing the meridian, acupuncture at nonacupoint on meridian and acupuncture at nonacupoint off meridian were performed, respectively. The blood perfusion (BP) on the calf around bladder meridian area was measured with a laser Doppler perfusion imager before, during, and after acupuncture. The whole scanning field was divided into seven subareas, and mean BP on each area was calculated. The ratio of mean BP between a subarea and a reference subarea was gotten, and then the change rate was calculated as ratio change rate (RCR). The results showed that RCR on bladder meridian area and around Chengshan (BL57) during or after acupuncture at nonacupoint on meridian was significantly higher than that at nonacupoint off meridian, which supports the ancient theory. Such differences may be attributable to some factors that can facilitate the signals transmission and produce a better acupuncture effect, such as richer nerve terminals, blood vessels, and mast cells which can produce stronger signals on the acupoints and the low hydraulic resistance channel along meridians which plays a role of signal transmitting channel to get a better effect of acupuncture.
B7-H3 is a member of the B7-family of co-stimulatory molecules, which has been shown to be broadly expressed in various tumor tissues, and which plays an important role in adaptive immune responses. The role of B7-H3 in osteosarcoma, however, remains unknown. In this study we used immunohistochemistry to analyze B7-H3 expression in 61 primary osteosarcoma tissues with case-matched adjacent normal tissues, and 37 osteochondroma and 20 bone fibrous dysplasia tissues. B7-H3 expression was expressed in 91.8% (56/61) of the osteosarcoma lesions, and the intensity of B7-H3 expression in osteosarcoma was significantly increased compared with adjacent normal tissues, osteochondroma and bone fibrous dysplasia tissues (p<0.001). Patients with high tumor B7-H3 levels had a significantly shorter survival time and recurrence time than patients with low tumor B7-H3 levels (p<0.001). Moreover, tumor B7-H3 expression inversely correlated with the number of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells (p<0.05). In vitro, increasing expression of B7-H3 promotes osteosarcoma cell invasion, at least in part by upregulating matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). In conclusion, our study provides the first evidence of B7-H3 expression in osteosarcoma cells as a potential mechanism controlling tumor immunity and invasive malignancy, and which is correlated with patients’ survival and metastasis.
The mechanism by which cells decide to skip mitosis to become polyploid is largely undefined. Here we used a high-content image-based screen to identify small-molecule probes that induce polyploidization of megakaryocytic leukemia cells and serve as perturbagens to help understand this process. We found that dimethylfasudil (diMF, H-1152P) selectively increased polyploidization, mature cell-surface marker expression, and apoptosis of malignant megakaryocytes. A broadly applicable, highly integrated target identification approach employing proteomic and shRNA screening revealed that a major target of diMF is Aurora A kinase (AURKA), which has not been studied extensively in megakaryocytes. Moreover, we discovered that MLN8237 (Alisertib), a selective inhibitor of AURKA, induced polyploidization and expression of mature megakaryocyte markers in AMKL blasts and displayed potent anti-AMKL activity in vivo. This research provides the rationale to support clinical trials of MLN8237 and other inducers of polyploidization in AMKL. Finally, we have identified five networks of kinases that regulate the switch to polyploidy.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the principal cause of invasive cervical cancer and benign genital lesions. There are currently 30 HPV types linked to cervical cancer. HPV infection also leads to other types of cancer. We developed a 61-plex analysis of these 30 HPV types by examining two genes, E6 and L1, using MassARRAY matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) (PCR-MS). Two hundred samples from homosexual males (HM) were screened by PCR-MS and MY09/MY11 primer set-mediated PCR (MY-PCR) followed by sequencing. One hundred thirty-five formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cervical cancer samples were also analyzed by PCR-MS, and results were compared to those of the commercially available GenoArray (GA) assay. One or more HPV types were identified in 64.5% (129/200) of the samples from HM. Comprising all 30 HPV types, PCR-MS detected 51.9% (67/129) of samples with multiple HPV types, whereas MY-PCR detected only one single HPV type in these samples. All PCR-MS results were confirmed by MY-PCR. In the cervical cancer samples, PCR-MS and GA detected 97% (131/135) and 90.4% (122/135) of HPV-positive samples, respectively. PCR-MS and GA results were fully concordant for 122 positive and 4 negative samples. The sequencing results for the 9 samples that tested negative by GA were completely concordant with the positive PCR-MS results. Multiple HPV types were identified in 25.2% (34/135) and 55.6% (75/135) of the cervical cancer samples by GA and PCR-MS, respectively, and results were confirmed by sequencing. The new assay allows the genotyping of >1,000 samples per day. It provides a good alternative to current methods, especially for large-scale investigations of multiple HPV infections and degraded FFPE samples.
Pulmonary tuberculoma is a special form of secondary pulmonary tuberculosis, with a poor response to drug treatment. We used the method of drug administration via percutaneous lung puncture “holing” to treat pulmonary tuberculoma and observe its short- and long-term efficacy, summing up our 10-year clinical experience.
A total of 54 patients with pulmonary tuberculoma were included in this study. They themselves were taken as the control group. Three to six months of conventional anti-tuberculosis treatment was conducted firstly. Then those patients with no changes of sizes in tuberculoma were recommended to receive drug administration via percutaneous lung puncture. Isoniazid (INH, 0.1 g) and amikacin (AMK, 0.2 g) were injected into tuberculoma (once or twice per week, 10 times as a course of treatment).
After two months of drug treatment by lung puncture, the sputum smear test showed the negative conversion rate of tubercle bacillus was 87% (13/15), and the positive conversion rate was 8% (3/39). The tuberculosis bacillus culture indicated that the negative conversion rate was 100% (7/7). The reexamination after one year showed the negative conversion rate of tubercle bacillus in the sputum smear test was 80% (4/5). About 58% (31/54) of tuberculoma disappeared or significantly reduced, in which, 40% (21/54) of tuberculoma disappeared. The tuberculoma diameter reduced from 3.6 cm × 2.8 cm to 1.7 cm × 1.1 cm on average. Side-effects included postoperative pneumothorax 9% (5/54), hemoptysis 7% (4/54) and fever 11% (6/54). A total of 34 patients were followed up for five years, and the disappearance rate of tuberculoma was up to 47% (16/34), with no recurrence.
The drug administration via percutaneous lung puncture—“holing” in pulmonary tuberculoma takes a significant effect obviously, good short- and long-term effects and less side effects.
Percutaneous lung puncture; pulmonary tuberculoma; holing
Objective. To observe effects of the thermal stimulation by moxibustion at different temperatures on cardiac function in brachycardia rat model and on mast cells in the local site of moxibustion at the Ximen Acupoint and to compare the differences of the effects of moxibustion at different temperatures. Method. Establish the brachycardia rat model with propranolol and observe effects of the thermal stimulation by moxibustion at different temperatures (38°C and 46°C). Results. The thermal stimulation by moxibustion at 2 temperatures may increase HR, MAP, LVSP, and +dp/dtmax and reduce t-dp/dtmax in brachycardia rats; the 46°C moxibustion group shows greater regulating effects on cardiac function in rats than that in the 38°C
moxibustion group (P < 0.05). The thermal stimulation by moxibustion at 2 temperatures may promote degranulation of mast cells in the local site of moxibustion at the Ximen Acupoint; the degranulation rate in the 46°C moxibustion group is higher than that in the 38°C moxibustion group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. There is a certain association between the effect on the target organ and the effect in the local site of moxibustion. The moxibustion effect possibly resulted from local mast cells degranulation and different thermoreceptors activated by the thermal stimulation at different temperatures.
Lipid droplets (LDs), which are important storage structures for neutral lipids and organelles of diverse functions, participate in various cellular activities. In this study, BALB/c mice, fed a regular or a high-fat diet, were exposed to the synthetic perfluorinated compound, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). PFOA-exposed mice had altered serum lipid and lipoprotein levels, and hydropic degeneration or ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes. Moreover, we report for the first time that LDs accumulate in hepatic nuclei after PFOA exposure. As PFOA resembles fatty acids (FA) in its structure, this chemical may interfere with the transportation and metabolism of FA as well as LDs in the cell. This abnormal localization of LDs in the nucleus may be related to the cause of PFOA toxicity.
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is hallmarked by a high degree of heterogeneity. To address this heterogeneity, a classification scheme was developed based on gene expression patterns of 1538 tumours. Five, biologically distinct subgroups — Epi-A, Epi-B, Mes, Stem-A and Stem-B — exhibited significantly distinct clinicopathological characteristics, deregulated pathways and patient prognoses, and were validated using independent datasets. To identify subtype-specific molecular targets, ovarian cancer cell lines representing these molecular subtypes were screened against a genome-wide shRNA library. Focusing on the poor-prognosis Stem-A subtype, we found that two genes involved in tubulin processing, TUBGCP4 and NAT10, were essential for cell growth, an observation supported by a pathway analysis that also predicted involvement of microtubule-related processes. Furthermore, we observed that Stem-A cell lines were indeed more sensitive to inhibitors of tubulin polymerization, vincristine and vinorelbine, than the other subtypes. This subtyping offers new insights into the development of novel diagnostic and personalized treatment for EOC patients.
cell line model for subtype; functional genomic screen; molecular subtype; ovarian cancer; tubulin
Objectives. To compare the effects of moxibustion at two different temperatures (38°C and 46°C) on the blood cholesterol level in a mice model of acute hyperlipidemia, to detect the different expression levels of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) in the dorsal root ganglions of the wild mice, and to explore the correlation between TRPV1 and moxibustion's cholesterol-lowering effects. Method. Two different mice models were used: C57BL/6J wild type (WT) and TRPV1 gene knockout (TRPV1−/−). Each model was randomly divided into control group and model group with three subgroups after acute hyperlipidemia was established: model control group, 38°C moxibustion group, and 46°C moxibustion group. The mice in 38°C group and 46°C group were subject to moxibustion. After the therapy, the cholesterol concentration in serum was measured, and the expression of TRPV1 was quantified. Results. In WT mice, moxibustion caused a decrease in blood cholesterol level and upregulation of TRPV1 at the mRNA level, which was significantly greater in the 46°C group. In contrast, in TRPV1−/− mice, the differences of cholesterol-lowering effects of moxibustion were lost. Conclusions. Temperature is one of the important factors affecting the effects of moxibustion, and the cholesterol -lowering effect of moxibustion is related to the activation of TRPV1.
To identify risk factors for HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) and to provide a theoretical basis for prevention interventions. Between December 2011 and August 2012, a case–control study was conducted among MSM who underwent voluntary counselling and testing for HIV. Confirmed HIV-positive MSM were included in the case group, and HIV-negative MSM were included in the control group. Information on possible risk factors was collected by a survey questionnaire and a qualitative interview. The results of a conditional logistic regression showed that the following were influencing factors for HIV infection: average monthly income between 2001 and 3000 Yuan (odds ratio (OR)=6.341, 95% CI: 1.714–12.544), only sometimes using condoms when having anal sex with men in the last 6 months (OR=7.601, 95% CI: 1.359–23.083), having HIV-positive sex partners (OR=5.273, 95% CI: 1.572–17.691), rectal trauma with bleeding in the last 6 months (OR=2.947, 95% CI: 1.308–6.638), not using condoms at last sexual encounter (OR=1.278, 95% CI: 1.012–5.595), engaging in commercial sex (OR=5.925, 95% CI: 1.923–13.890) and having more than 16 sex partners in the last 6 months (OR=1.175, 95% CI: 1.021–1.353). These seven factors were the risk factors of HIV infection (OR>1). However, having anal sex less than 10 times in the previous 1 month (OR=0.002, 95% CI: 0.000–0.287) was a protective factor against HIV infection among MSM (OR<1), and insertive (OR=0.116, 95% CI: 0.000–0.236) (OR<1) anal intercourse influenced HIV infection. Interventions should be targeted at MSM whose average monthly income is between 2001 and 3000 Yuan, and who engage in commercial sex. In addition, the importance of using condoms at every sexual encounter should be emphasised in health education, as should the treatment of rectal trauma with bleeding. Finally, MSM should decrease the number of sex partners and frequency of anal sex to decrease the rate of HIV infection.
case–control study; HIV infection; influencing factors; men who have sex with men (MSM)
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is highly endemic in mainland China, where human cases account for 90% of the total global cases. Zibo City is one of the most serious affected areas in Shandong Province China with the HFRS incidence increasing sharply from 2009 to 2012. However, the hotspots of HFRS in Zibo remained unclear. Thus, a spatial analysis was conducted with the aim to explore the spatial, spatial-temporal and seasonal patterns of HFRS in Zibo from 2009 to 2012, and to provide guidance for formulating regional prevention and control strategies.
The study was based on the reported cases of HFRS from the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System. Annualized incidence maps and seasonal incidence maps were produced to analyze the spatial and seasonal distribution of HFRS in Zibo City. Then spatial scan statistics and space-time scan statistics were conducted to identify clusters of HFRS.
There were 200 cases reported in Zibo City during the 4-year study period. One most likely cluster and one secondary cluster for high incidence of HFRS were identified by the space-time analysis. And the most likely cluster was found to exist at Yiyuan County in October to December 2012. The human infections in the fall and winter reflected a seasonal characteristic pattern of Hantaan virus (HTNV) transmission. The secondary cluster was detected at the center of Zibo in May to June 2009, presenting a seasonal characteristic of Seoul virus (SEOV) transmission.
To control and prevent HFRS in Zibo city, the comprehensive preventive strategy should be implemented in the southern areas of Zibo in autumn and in the northern areas of Zibo in spring.
Advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), a KIT oncogene-driven tumor, on imatinib mesylate (IM) treatment may develop secondary KIT mutations to confer IM-resistant phenotype. Second-line sunitinib malate (SU) therapy is largely ineffective for IM-resistant GISTs with secondary exon 17 (activation-loop domain) mutations. We established an in vitro cell-based platform consisting of a series of COS-1 cells expressing KIT cDNA constructs encoding common primary±secondary mutations observed in GISTs, to compare the activity of several commercially available tyrosine kinase inhibitors on inhibiting the phosphorylation of mutant KIT proteins at their clinically achievable plasma steady-state concentration (Css). The inhibitory efficacies on KIT exon 11/17 mutants were further validated by growth inhibition assay on GIST48 cells, and underlying molecular-structure mechanisms were investigated by molecular modeling. Our results showed that SU more effectively inhibited mutant KIT with secondary exon 13 or 14 mutations than those with secondary exon 17 mutations, as clinically indicated. On contrary, at individual Css, nilotinib and sorafenib more profoundly inhibited the phosphorylation of KIT with secondary exon 17 mutations and the growth of GIST48 cells than IM, SU, and dasatinib. Molecular modeling analysis showed fragment deletion of exon 11 and point mutation on exon 17 would lead to a shift of KIT conformational equilibrium toward active form, for which nilotinib and sorafenib bound more stably than IM and SU. In current preclinical study, nilotinib and sorafenib are more active in IM-resistant GISTs with secondary exon 17 mutation than SU that deserve further clinical investigation.
The relationship between adipose and bone tissues is still being debated. The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether the distribution and volume of abdomen adipose tissue are correlated to trabecular bone mineral density in the lumbar spine. In this cross-sectional study, 320 Chinese women, being divided into two groups according to age ≥55 years and <55 years, were evaluated with quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the spine to simultaneously evaluate the average trabecular BMD of L2–L4, VAT, and SAT. Possible covariates of height, weight, age, and comorbidities were considered. In the <55-year-old sample, multiple linear regression analyses indicated that VAT volume was negatively correlated to trabecular BMD (P value = 0.0003) and SAT volume had no correlation to trabecular BMD. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between VAT or SAT and BMD in the ≥55-year-old sample. Our results indicate that high VAT volume is associated with low BMD in Chinese women aged <55 years and SAT has no relation with BMD.
Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) have been successfully used for genome modification in various cell types and species. However, construction of an effective ZFN remained challenging. Previous studies all focused on obtaining specific zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) first via bacterial 2-hybrid approach, and then fusing selected ZFPs to FokI nuclease domain. These assembled ZFNs have high rate of failing to cleave target sites in vivo. In this study, we developed a simultaneous screening and validation system to obtain effective ZFNs directly in yeast AH109. This system is based on Gal4 reporter system carrying a unique intermediate reporter plasmid with two 30-bp Gal4 homology arms and a ZFN target site. DNA double strand breaks introduced on target sequence by ZFNs were repaired by single strand annealing (SSA) mechanism, and the restored Gal4 drove reporter genes expression. Taking the advantage of OPEN (Oligomerized Pool ENgineering) selection, we constructed 3 randomized ZFNs libraries and 9 reporter strains for each target gene. We tested this system by taking goat α s1-casein as target gene following three-step selection. Consequently, 3 efficient pairs of ZFNs were obtained from positive colonies on selective medium. The ZFNs achieved a 15.9% disruption frequency in goat mammary epithelial cells. In conclusion, we created a novel system to obtain effective ZFNs directly with simultaneous screening and validation.
Recombinant human endostatin (rh-endostatin) is a novel antiangiogenesis drug developed in China. Previous experiments have shown that rh-endostatin can inhibit the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells and some types of tumor cells. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety profiles of combination therapy of rh-endostatin and neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer patients in a prospective, randomized, controlled, phase II trial.
Sixty-eight patients with core-biopsy confirmed breast cancer were allocated randomly to two groups to receive 3 cycles of intravenous administration of either neoadjuvant DE (docetaxel: 75 mg/m2, d1, epirubicin: 75 mg/m2, d1, every 3 weeks), or neoadjuvant DE combined with rh-endostatin (7.5 mg/m2, d1-d14, every 3 weeks). The primary end point was clinical response based upon Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, and the secondary end point was safety and quality of life.
All patients were assessable for toxicity and 64 (94.2%) were assessable for efficacy evaluation. The objective response rate was 67.7% for chemotherapy (n = 31) and 90.9% for rh-endostatin plus chemotherapy (n = 33) (P = 0.021). A retrospective subset analysis revealed that rh-endostatin was more effective in premenopausal patients and patients with ECOG score of zero (P = 0.002 and P = 0.049, respectively). Five patients in the rh-endostatin plus chemotherapy arm achieved pathologic complete response compared with 2 in the chemotherapy arm (P = 0.428). No significant difference was identified in quality of life score and side effects (P > 0.05).
The combination of rh-endostatin with chemotherapy produced a higher tumor response rate without increasing toxicity in breast cancer patients.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier, NCT00604435
Breast cancer; Recombinant human endostatin; Neoadjuvant chemotherapy; Clinical trial
The multidrug resistance (MDR) 1 gene encodes a 170-kDa membrane transporter called P-glycoprotein, which plays an important role in protecting cells against lipophilic xenobiotics by the way of an ATP-dependent cellular efflux mechanism. Three polymorphisms of MDR1, 3435C > T located in exon 26, 1236C > T in exon 12 and 2677G > T/A in exon 21 were the most extensively studied and were identified functionally important and ethnically diverse mapping to the gene region. Considering the potential influence of altering MDR1 activity, it is plausible that MDR1 polymorphisms might play a role in the development of cancer. Although the effects of MDR1 polymorphisms on susceptibility to human cancer have been investigated in many studies, the results still remain conflicting.
To resolve these conflicts, we performed a quantitative synthesis of the association between these three polymorphisms and cancer risk, including 52 studies (15789 cases and 20274 controls) for 3435C > T polymorphism, 10 studies (2101 cases and 2842 controls) for 1236C > T polymorphism and 18 studies (3585 cases and 4351 controls) for 2677G > T/A polymorphism.
The stratified analyses for 3435C > T polymorphism, individuals with T-allele in 3435C > T had significantly higher ALL risks (TT versus CC: OR =1.286, 95% CI =1.123-1.474); significantly elevated risks were observed among Caucasian populations (TT versus CC: OR =1.276, 95% CI =1.112-1.464). When restricting the analysis to the source of controls, we found that HB (hospital-based) genetic models had higher risks (TT versus CC: OR =1.307, 95% CI =1.046-1.632), as well as in PB (population-based) genetic models (TT versus CC: OR =1.294, 95% CI =1.079-1.55).
The T/A-allele frequency of 2677G > T/A polymorphism was associated with higher risk of cancer (TT + TA + AA vs. GG: OR =1.348, 95% CI =1.031-1.762), significantly elevated risks were observed among Asian populations (TT + TA + AA vs. GG: OR =1.642, 95% CI =1.340-2.012), and elevated risks could be associated with PB models (TT + TA + AA vs. GG: OR =1.641, 95% CI =1.018-2.646).
Our meta-analysis suggested that 3435C > T polymorphism and 2677G > T/A polymorphism were associated with cancer risk when all studies were pooled together, while 1236C > T polymorphism not.
MDR1; Polymorphism; Cancer risk; Meta-analysis
The migration of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is essential to the hepatic fibrotic response, and recently High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) has been shown up-regulated during liver fibrosis. Nevertheless, whether HMGB1 can modulate the proliferation and migration of HSCs is poorly understood, as well as the involved intracellular signaling. In this study, we examined the effect of HMGB1 on proliferation, migration, pro-fibrotic function of HSCs and investigated whether toll-like family of receptor 4 (TLR4) dependent signal pathway is involved in the intracellular signaling regulation.
Modified transwell chamber system to mimic the space of Disse was used to evaluate the migration of human primary HSCs, and the protein expressions of related signal factors were evaluated by western blot. Cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay, the pro-fibrotic functions of HSCs by qRT-PCR and ELISA respectively. Recombinant human HMGB1 could significantly promote migration of HSCs under both haptotactic and chemotactic stimulation, especially the latter. Human TLR4 neutralizing antibody could markedly inhibit HMGB1-induced migration of HSCs. HMGB1 could enhance the phosphorylation of JNK and PI3K/Akt, and TLR4 neutralizing antibody inhibited HMGB1-enhanced phosphorylation of JNK and PI3K/Akt and activation of NF-κB. JNK inhibitor (SP600125) and PI3K inhibitor (LY 294002) significantly inhibited HMGB1-induced proliferation and migration of HSCs, and also reduced HMGB1-enhanced related collagen expressions and pro-fibrotic cytokines production.
HMGB1 could significantly enhance migration of HSCs in vitro, and TLR4-dependent JNK and PI3K/Akt signal pathways are involved in the HMGB1-induced proliferation, migration and pro-fibrotic effects of HSCs, which indicates HMGB1 might be an effective target to treat liver fibrosis.