Plant RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase 1 (RDR1) is an important element of the RNA silencing pathway in the plant defense against viruses. RDR1 expression can be elicited by viral infection and salicylic acid (SA), but the mechanisms of signaling during this process remains undefined. The involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) in RDR1 induction in the compatible interactions between Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) and Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana benthamiana, and Arabidopsis thaliana was examined. TMV inoculation onto the lower leaves of N. tabacum induced the rapid accumulation of H2O2 and NO followed by the increased accumulation of RDR1 transcripts in the non-inoculated upper leaves. Pretreatment with exogenous H2O2 and NO on upper leaf led to increased RDR1 expression and systemic TMV resistance. Conversely, dimethylthiourea (an H2O2 scavenger) and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)- 4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (an NO scavenger) partly blocked TMV- and SA-induced RDR1 expression and increased TMV susceptibility, whereas pretreatment with exogenous H2O2 and NO failed to diminish TMV infection in N. benthamiana plants with naturally occurring RDR1 loss-of-function. Furthermore, in N. tabacum and A. thaliana, TMV-induced H2O2 accumulation was NO-dependent, whereas NO generation was not affected by H2O2. These results suggest that, in response to TMV infection, H2O2 acts downstream of NO to mediate induction of RDR1, which plays a critical role in strengthening RNA silencing to restrict systemic viral infection.
Fruit set of plants largely depends on the biosynthesis and crosstalk of phytohormones. To date the role of cytokinins (CKs) in the fruit development is less understood. Here, we showed that parthenocarpic fruit could be induced by 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea (CPPU, an active CK) in tomato (Solanumlycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom). The fresh weight of CPPU-induced parthenocarpic fruits was comparable with that induced by GA3. Importantly, CPPU-induced parthenocarpy was found to be compromised by simultaneous application of paclobutrazol (a GA biosynthesis inhibitor), and this effect could be restored by exogenous GA3. Like pollination, CPPU-induced fruit showed enhanced accumulation of GA1+3 and indole-3-acetic (IAA), which were accompanied by elevated expression of GA biosynthesis genes like SlGPS, SlGA20ox1, SlGA20ox2 and SlGA3ox1, and IAA biosynthesis gene ToFZY. Elevated GAs level in CPPU-induced fruits was also associated with down-regulation of GA inactivation genes, namely SlGA2ox1,2,3,4,5 in comparison with untreated control. These results suggested that CKs may induce parthenocarpy in tomato partially through modulation of GA and IAA metabolisms.
The identification of deregulated modules (such as induced by oncogenes) is a crucial step for exploring the pathogenic process of complex diseases. Most of the existing methods focus on deregulation of genes rather than the links of the path among them. In this study, we emphasize on the detection of deregulated links, and develop a novel and effective regulatory path-based approach in finding deregulated modules. Observing that a regulatory pathway between two genes might involve in multiple rather than a single path, we identify condition-specific core regulatory path (CCRP) to detect the significant deregulation of regulatory links. Using time-series gene expression, we define the regulatory strength within each gene pair based on statistical dependence analysis. The CCRPs in regulatory networks can then be identified using the shortest path algorithm. Finally, we derive the deregulated modules by integrating the differential edges (as deregulated links) of the CCRPs between the case and the control group. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, we apply the method to expression data associated with different states of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2). The experimental results show that the genes as well as the links in the deregulated modules are significantly enriched in multiple KEGG pathways and GO biological processes, most of which can be validated to suffer from impact of this oncogene based on previous studies. Additionally, we find the regulatory mechanism associated with the crucial gene SNAI1 significantly deregulated resulting from the activation of HER2. Hence, our method provides not only a strategy for detecting the deregulated links in regulatory networks, but also a way to identify concerning deregulated modules, thus contributing to the target selection of edgetic drugs.
Brassinosteroids (BRs), a group of naturally occurring plant steroidal compounds, are essential for plant growth, development and stress tolerance. Recent studies showed that BRs could induce systemic tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses; however, the molecular mechanisms by which BRs signals lead to responses in the whole plant are largely unknown. In this study, 24-epibrassinosteroid (EBR)-induced systemic tolerance in Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinyan No. 4 was analyzed through the assessment of symptoms of photooxidative stress by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging pulse amplitude modulation. Expression of defense/stress related genes were induced in both treated local leaves and untreated systemic leaves by local EBR application. With the suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) library using cDNA from the phloem sap of EBR-treated plants as the tester and distilled water (DW)-treated plants as the driver, 14 transcripts out of 260 clones were identified. Quantitative Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) validated the specific up-regulation of these transcripts. Of the differentially expressed transcripts with known functions, transcripts for the selected four cDNAs, which encode an auxin-responsive protein (IAA14), a putative ankyrin-repeat protein, an F-box protein (PP2), and a major latex, pathogenesis-related (MLP)-like protein, were induced in local leaves, systemic leaves and roots after foliar application of EBR onto mature leaves. Our results demonstrated that EBR-induced systemic tolerance is accompanied with increased transcript of genes in the defense response in other organs. The potential role of phloem mRNAs as signaling components in mediating BR-regulated systemic resistance is discussed.
To analyze proteomic and signal transduction alterations in irradiated melanoma cells.
We combined stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) with highly sensitive shotgun tandem mass spectrometry (MS) to create an efficient approach for protein quantification. Protein-protein interaction was used to analyze relationships among proteins.
Energy metabolism protein levels were significantly different in glycolysis and not significantly different in oxidative phosphorylation after irradiation. Conversely, tumor suppressor proteins related to cell growth and development were downregulated, and those related to cell death and cell cycle were upregulated in irradiated cells.
Our results indicate that irradiation induces differential expression of the 29 identified proteins closely related to cell survival, cell cycle arrest, and growth inhibition. The data may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of uveal melanoma and guide appropriate radiotherapy.
melanoma cell; 2D-LC-MS/MS; stable isotope labeling with amino acids; proteomic analysis; X-ray irradiation; protein-protein interaction
Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. The post-operative recurrence and metastasis are the leading causes of breast cancer-related mortality. In this study, we tried to explore the role of circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection combination PET/CT technology evaluating the prognosis and treatment response of patients with breast cancer; meanwhile, we attempted to assess the concept of “biological complete remission” (bCR) in this regard. A 56-year-old patient with breast cancer (T2N1M1, stage IV left breast cancer, with metastasis to axillary lymph nodes and lungs) received 6 cycles of salvage treatment with albumin-bound paclitaxel plus capecitabine and trastuzumab. Then, she underwent CTC detection and PET/CT for efficacy evaluation. CTC detection combination PET/CT is useful for the evaluation of the biological efficacy of therapies for breast cancer. The bCR of the patient appeared earlier than the conventional clinical imaging complete remission and promised the histological (pathological) complete remission. The integrated application of the concepts including bCR, imageological CR, and histological CR can achieve the early and accurate assessment of biological therapeutic reponse and prognosis of breast cancer.
Breast cancer; circulating tumor cell; PET/CT; biological complete remission
Heavy metal pollution often occurs together with organic contaminants. Brassinosteroids (BRs) induce plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses, including phenanthrene (PHE) and cadmium (Cd) stress. However, the role of BRs in PHE+Cd co-contamination-induced stress amelioration is unknown. Here, the interactive effects of PHE, Cd, and 24-epibrassinolide (EBR; a biologically active BR) were investigated in tomato plants. The application of Cd (100 µM) alone was more phytotoxic than PHE applied alone (100 µM); however, their combined application resulted in slightly improved photosynthetic activity and pigment content compared with Cd alone after a 40 d exposure. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species and membrane lipid peroxidation were induced by PHE and/or Cd; however, the differences in effect were insignificant between Cd and PHE+Cd. The foliar application of EBR (0.1 µM) to PHE- and/or Cd-stressed plants alleviated photosynthetic inhibition and oxidative stress by causing enhancement of the activity of the enzymes and related transcript levels of the antioxidant system, secondary metabolism, and the xenobiotic detoxification system. Additionally, PHE and/or Cd residues were significantly decreased in both the leaves and roots after application of EBR, more specifically in PHE+Cd-stressed plants when treated with EBR, indicating a possible improvement in detoxification of these pollutants. The findings thus suggest a potential interaction of EBR and PHE for Cd stress alleviation. These results advocate a positive role for EBR in reducing pollutant residues for food safety and also strengthening phytoremediation.
Brassinosteroids; food safety; heavy metal; photosynthesis; phytoremediation; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
A sample of the β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure has been grown by dry thermal oxidation of GaN on a sapphire substrate. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the β-Ga2O3 layer was formed epitaxially on GaN. The valence band offset of the β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure is measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the valence band of the β-Ga2O3/GaN structure is 1.40 ± 0.08 eV.
β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure; Band offset; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are potent regulators of photosynthesis and crop yield in agricultural crops; however, the mechanism by which BRs increase photosynthesis is not fully understood. Here, we show that foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) resulted in increases in CO2 assimilation, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation, and leaf area in cucumber. H2O2 treatment induced increases in CO2 assimilation whilst inhibition of the H2O2 accumulation by its generation inhibitor or scavenger completely abolished EBR-induced CO2 assimilation. Increases of light harvesting due to larger leaf areas in EBR- and H2O2-treated plants were accompanied by increases in the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (ΦPSII) and photochemical quenching coefficient (q
P). EBR and H2O2 both activated carboxylation efficiency of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate oxygenase/carboxylase (Rubisco) from analysis of CO2 response curve and in vitro measurement of Rubisco activities. Moreover, EBR and H2O2 increased contents of total soluble sugar, sucrose, hexose, and starch, followed by enhanced activities of sugar metabolism such as sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase, and invertase. Interestingly, expression of transcripts of enzymes involved in starch and sugar utilization were inhibited by EBR and H2O2. However, the effects of EBR on carbohydrate metabolisms were reversed by the H2O2 generation inhibitor diphenyleneodonium (DPI) or scavenger dimethylthiourea (DMTU) pretreatment. All of these results indicate that H2O2 functions as a secondary messenger for EBR-induced CO2 assimilation and carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber plants. Our study confirms that H2O2 mediates the regulation of photosynthesis by BRs and suggests that EBR and H2O2 regulate Calvin cycle and sugar metabolism via redox signaling and thus increase the photosynthetic potential and yield of crops.
Metabolism; Photosynthesis; Reactive oxygen species; Rubisco; Sucrose
The present investigation was undertaken with the objective of developing a solid formulation containing nitrendipine nanocrystals for oral delivery. Nitrendipine nanocrystals were prepared using a tandem precipitation–homogenization process. Then, spray drying, a cost-effective method very popular in industrial situations, was employed to convert the nanocrystals into a solid form. The parameters of the preparation process were investigated and optimized. The optimal process was as follows: firstly, nitrendipine/acetone solution (100 mg/ml) was added to a polyvinyl alcohol solution (1 mg/ml) at 10°C, then the pre-suspension was homogenized for 20 cycles at 1,000 bar. Both differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that nitrendipine was present in crystalline form. The in vitro dissolution rate of the nanocrystals was significantly increased compared with the physical mixture and commercial tablet. The in vivo testing demonstrated that the Cmax of the nanocrystals was approximately 15-fold and 10-fold greater than that of physical mixture and commercial tablet, respectively. In addition, the AUC0→24 of the nanocrystals was approximately 41-fold and 10-fold greater than that of physical mixture and commercial tablet, respectively.
bioavailability; dissolution; nanocrystals; nanotechnology; nitrendipine
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) can evade the immune response and establish chronic infection under natural and experimental conditions. Some genes related to antigen processing and presentation and to cytokine regulation are known to be involved in this response, but the precise mechanism through which each gene responds to CSFV infection remains unclear.
In this study, the amplification standard curve and corresponding linear regression equations for the genes SLA-2, TAP1, SLA-DR, Ii, CD40, CD80, CD86, IFN-α, and IFN-β were established successfully. Real-time RT-PCR was used to quantify the immune response gene transcription in PK-15 cells post CSFV infection. Results showed that: (1) immune response genes were generally down-regulated as a result of CSFV infection, and (2) the expression of SLA-2, SLA-DR, Ii and CD80 was significantly decreased (p<0.001).
We conclude that in vitro infection with CSFV inhibits the transcription of host immune response genes. These findings may facilitate the development of effective strategies for controlling CSF.
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV); Immune response genes; Real-time RT-PCR
AIM: To determine the expression of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in pancreatic tumor and the effects of cytosine phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides 2216 (CPG ODN2216) on biological behavior of pancreatic carcinoma cell line PANC-1 and explore their clinical significance.
METHODS: The immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to determine the expression of TLR9 protein in pancreatic cancer tissues, and immunofluorescence staining was performed to detect the TLR9 protein expression in pancreatic carcinoma cell line PANC-1. To assess the effects of CPG ODN2216 on the invasive property of Panc-1 cells, in vitro cell adhesion, wound-healing scrape, and invasion and cell colony formation were evaluated.
RESULTS: TLR9 was highly expressed in pancreatic cancer tissues and PANC-1 cells. The percentage of positive cells expressing TLR9 protein in human pancreatic tissues, paracancerous tissues and normal tissues were 73.3%, 33.3% and 20.0%, respectively, and the protein expression level of TLR9 was gradually descending (P < 0.05). In vitro tests in wound-healing scrape, cell adhesion, colony formation and matrigel invasion showed that the adhesion and motility of PANC-1 cells in CPG ODN 2216 treatment group were significantly lower than in the control group (P < 0.05). The cell growth assay showed that the proliferative ability of PANC-1 cells in treatment group was significantly decreased and CPG ODN2216 had an inhibitive effect in the growth of Panc-1 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: The gene of TLR9 is correlated with the invasive and metastatic potential of human pancreatic carcinoma, and CPG ODN2216 induces the inhibition of migration and invasion of Panc-1 cells.
Cytosine phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides 2216; Pancreatic cancer; Toll-like receptor 9; Biological behavior
Cucumber and rice plants with varying ammonium (NH4
+) sensitivities were used to examine the effects of different nitrogen (N) sources on gas exchange, chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence quenching, and photosynthetic electron allocation. Compared to nitrate (NO3
−)-grown plants, cucumber plants grown under NH4
+-nutrition showed decreased plant growth, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular carbon dioxide (CO2) level, transpiration rate, maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, and O2-independent alternative electron flux, and increased O2-dependent alternative electron flux. However, the N source had little effect on gas exchange, Chl a fluorescence parameters, and photosynthetic electron allocation in rice plants, except that NH4
+-grown plants had a higher O2-independent alternative electron flux than NO3
−-grown plants. NO3
− reduction activity was rarely detected in leaves of NH4
+-grown cucumber plants, but was high in NH4
+-grown rice plants. These results demonstrate that significant amounts of photosynthetic electron transport were coupled to NO3
− assimilation, an effect more significant in NO3
−-grown plants than in NH4
+-grown plants. Meanwhile, NH4
+-tolerant plants exhibited a higher demand for the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for NO3
− reduction, regardless of the N form supplied, while NH4
+-sensitive plants had a high water-water cycle activity when NH4
+ was supplied as the sole N source.
Nitrogen form; Photosynthetic electron allocation; Alternative electron flux; Nitrate reductase
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a heritable mood disorder that is triggered by gonadal steroids during the luteal phase in susceptible women.
We performed haplotype analyses of estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ESR1 and ESR2) in 91 women with prospectively confirmed PMDD and 56 controls to investigate possible sources of the genetic susceptibility to affective dysregulation induced by normal levels of gonadal steroids. We also examined associations with the Val158Met SNP of the gene for COMT, an enzyme involved in estrogen metabolism and prefrontal cortical activation.
Four SNPS in intron 4 of ESR1 showed significantly different genotype and allele distributions between patients and controls. Significant case-control differences were seen in sliding-window analyses of two, three, and four marker haplotypes, but only in those haplotypes containing SNPs in intron 4 that were positive in the single-locus analysis. No significant associations were observed with ESR2 or with the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, although the significant associations with ESR1 were observed only in those with the Val/Val genotype.
These are the first positive (albeit preliminary) genetic findings in this reproductive endocrine-related mood disorder and involve the receptor for a hormone that is pathogenically relevant.
premenstrual dysphoric disorder; PMDD; ESR1; estrogen receptor; alpha gene
The molecule of the title compound, C8H8N4O2, is nearly planar, with a dihedral angle between the rings of 1.1 (1)°. Adjacent molecules are linked into a layered structure by hydroxy–oxo O—H⋯O and triazolyl–hydroxy N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. Only one of the H atoms of the pyramidal amino group is engaged in building up the infinite layer. The second H atom of the amino group also shows hydrogen-bonding interactions, linking adjacent layers into a three-dimensional network.
Background and Aims
Chilling results in a significant decrease in Rubisco content and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), a chilling-sensitive species. The role of roots in the regulation of the tolerance is unknown. Here, cucumber plants grafted onto figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia), a chilling-tolerant species were used to study the role of roots in the regulation of shoot functioning and the associated root-to-shoot communication.
Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured using an infrared gas analyser combined with a pulse amplitude fluorimeter during chilling at 14 °C or 7 °C and subsequent recovery. At the same time, Rubisco content and activity and ROS generation were spectrophotometrically assayed. Abscisic acid and cytokinin concentrations in xylem sap were also determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Key Results and Conclusions
Grafted plants showed a significantly higher light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat) than own-rooted plants when roots were gradually cooled, but no differences were detected when shoots were cooled. Chill at 7 °C irreversibly reduced Asat, and significantly decreased maximum carboxylation activity, Rubisco content and initial Rubisco activity. However, grafted plants showed weaker inhibition, together with decreased electron flux in the water–water cycle. Higher activity of antioxidant enzymes with less ROS production was found in grafted plants. In addition, ABA concentration increased by 48·4-fold whilst cytokinin concentration decreased by 91·5 % in the xylem sap of own-rooted plants after exposure to a 7 °C chill. In comparison, ABA and cytokinin concentrations increased by 10·5-fold and 36·9 %, respectively, for the grafted plants. Improved plant growth was also observed in grafted plants after the chill. These results suggest that some signals coming from chilling-resistant roots (i.e. ABA and cytokinins) protect leaf photosynthesis in shoots of chilling-sensitive plants.
Chilling; chlorophyll fluorescence; Cucumis sativus; electron transport flux; grafting; photosynthesis; reactive oxygen species; water–water cycle
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential for many biological processes in plants, however, little is known about their roles in early fruit development. To address this, BR levels were manipulated through the application of exogenous BRs (24-epibrassinolide, EBR) or a BR biosynthesis inhibitor (brassinazole, Brz) and their effects on early fruit development, cell division, and expression of cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) genes were examined in two cucumber cultivars that differ in parthenocarpic capacity. The application of EBR induced parthenocarpic growth accompanied by active cell division in Jinchun No. 4, a cultivar without parthenocarpic capacity, whereas Brz treatment inhibited fruit set and, subsequently, fruit growth in Jinchun No. 2, a cultivar with natural parthenocarpic capacity, and this inhibitory effect could be rescued by the application of EBR. RT-PCR analysis showed both pollination and EBR induced expression of cell cycle-related genes (CycA, CycB, CycD3;1, CycD3;2, and CDKB) after anthesis. cDNA sequences for CsCycD3;1 and CsCycD3;2 were isolated through PCR amplification. Both CsCycD3;1 and CsCycD3;2 transcripts were up-regulated by EBR treatment and pollination but strongly repressed by Brz treatment. Meanwhile, BR6ox1 and SMT transcripts, two genes involved in BR synthesis, exhibited feedback regulation. These results strongly suggest that BRs play an important role during early fruit development in cucumber.
Brassinosteroids; cell division; Cucumis sativus; cyclin; flow cytometry; parthenocarpy