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1.  Ganoderma formosanum polysaccharides attenuate Th2 inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of allergic asthma 
SpringerPlus  2014;3:297.
Allergic asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways mediated by Th2 immune responses and characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Fungi of the genus Ganoderma are basidiomycetes that have been used in traditional Asian medicine for centuries. We recently found that PS-F2, a polysaccharide fraction purified from the submerged culture broth of Ganoderma formosanum, stimulates the activation of dendritic cells and primes a T helper 1 (Th1)-polarized adaptive immune response. This study was designed to investigate whether the Th1 adjuvant properties of PS-F2 could suppress the development of allergic asthma in a mouse model. BALB/c mice were sensitized by repeated immunization with chicken ovalbumin (OVA) and alum, followed by intranasal challenge of OVA to induce acute asthma. PS-F2 administration during the course of OVA sensitization and challenge effectively prevented AHR development, OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 production, bronchial inflammation, and Th2 cytokine production. Our data indicate that PS-F2 has a potential to be used for the prevention of allergic asthma.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi: 10.1186/2193-1801-3-297) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/2193-1801-3-297
PMCID: PMC4072879  PMID: 25019045
Airway hyperresponsiveness; Allergic asthma; Ganoderma formosanum; Immunomodulation; Polysaccharides
2.  Extracellular polysaccharides produced by Ganoderma formosanum stimulate macrophage activation via multiple pattern-recognition receptors 
Background
The fungus of Ganoderma is a traditional medicine in Asia with a variety of pharmacological functions including anti-cancer activities. We have purified an extracellular heteropolysaccharide fraction, PS-F2, from the submerged mycelia culture of G. formosanum and shown that PS-F2 exhibits immunostimulatory activities. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of immunostimulation by PS-F2.
Results
PS-F2-stimulated TNF-α production in macrophages was significantly reduced in the presence of blocking antibodies for Dectin-1 and complement receptor 3 (CR3), laminarin, or piceatannol (a spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor), suggesting that PS-F2 recognition by macrophages is mediated by Dectin-1 and CR3 receptors. In addition, the stimulatory effect of PS-F2 was attenuated in the bone marrow-derived macrophages from C3H/HeJ mice which lack functional Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). PS-F2 stimulation triggered the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases JNK, p38, and ERK, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, which all played essential roles in activating TNF-α expression.
Conclusions
Our results indicate that the extracellular polysaccharides produced by G. formosanum stimulate macrophages via the engagement of multiple pattern-recognition receptors including Dectin-1, CR3 and TLR4, resulting in the activation of Syk, JNK, p38, ERK, and NK-κB and the production of TNF-α.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-119
PMCID: PMC3495220  PMID: 22883599
Ganoderma formosanum; Polysaccharide; Immunostimulatory; Macrophage; Pattern-recognition receptor

Results 1-2 (2)