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author:("Okabe, tetsuo")
1.  Bibliometric and content analysis of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field specialized register of controlled trials 
Systematic Reviews  2013;2:51.
Background
The identification of eligible controlled trials for systematic reviews of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions can be difficult. To increase access to these difficult to locate trials, the Cochrane Collaboration Complementary Medicine Field (CAM Field) has established a specialized register of citations of CAM controlled trials. The objective of this study is to describe the sources and characteristics of citations included in the CAM Field specialized register.
Methods
Between 2006 and 2011, regular searches for citations of CAM trials in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were supplemented with contributions of controlled trial citations from international collaborators. The specialized register was ‘frozen’ for analysis in 2011, and frequencies were calculated for publication date, language, journal, presence in MEDLINE, type of intervention, and type of medical condition.
Results
The CAM Field specialized register increased in size from under 5,000 controlled trial citations in 2006 to 44,840 citations in 2011. Most citations (60%) were from 2000 or later, and the majority (71%) were reported in English; the next most common language was Chinese (23%). The journals with the greatest number of citations were CAM journals published in Chinese and non-CAM nutrition journals published in English. More than one-third of register citations (36%) were not indexed in MEDLINE. The most common CAM intervention type in the register was non-vitamin, non-mineral dietary supplements (e.g., glucosamine, fish oil) (34%), followed by Chinese herbal medicines (e.g., Astragalus membranaceus, Schisandra chinensis) (27%).
Conclusions
The availability of the CAM Field specialized register presents both opportunities and challenges for CAM systematic reviewers. While the register provides access to thousands of difficult to locate trial citations, many of these trials are of low quality and may overestimate treatment effects. When including these trials in systematic reviews, adequate analysis of their risk of bias is of utmost importance.
doi:10.1186/2046-4053-2-51
PMCID: PMC3704678  PMID: 23826877
Complementary medicine; Randomized controlled trials; Data collection; Registries
2.  Ginsenoside Rb1 Prevents MPP+-Induced Apoptosis in PC12 Cells by Stimulating Estrogen Receptors with Consequent Activation of ERK1/2, Akt and Inhibition of SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK 
Ginsenoside Rb1 shows neuroprotective effects in various neurons, including dopaminergic cells. However, the precise mechanisms of action are uncertain. In this paper, we examine whether Rb1 has a neuroprotective effect on MPP+-induced apoptosis and attempt to clarify the signaling pathway in PC12 cells. Apoptosis of PC12 cells was determined by DNA fragmentation assay, the activation of caspase-3, or by the inactivation of Bcl-xL. Rb1 inhibited MPP+-induced caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation and activated Bcl-xL in MPP+-treated PC12 cells. These antiapoptotic effect was abrogated in PC12 cells transfected with estrogen receptor siRNA. Levels of DNA fragmentation were increased by wortmannin or PD 98059, while they were decreased by SB 203580 or SP 600125 in MPP+-treated PC12 cells. Rb1 increased phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 or Akt in MPP+-treated PC12 cells, while it reduced phosphorylated p38 or SAPK/JNK. The increased phosphorylation of ERK/1/2 or Akt by Rb1 was abrogated by estrogen receptor siRNA. Rb1-induced inhibition of SAPK/JNK or p38 phosphorylation was also abolished by estrogen receptor siRNA. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rb1 protects PC12 cells from caspase-3-dependent apoptosis through stimulation of estrogen receptor with consequent activation of ERK1/2 and Akt and inhibition of SAPK/JNK and p38.
doi:10.1155/2012/693717
PMCID: PMC3457685  PMID: 23024694

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