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1.  Development of 107 SSR markers from whole genome shotgun sequences of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) and their application in seedling identification* #  
Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) is one of the important subtropical fruit crops native to the South of China and Asian countries. In this study, 107 novel simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers, a powerful tool for genetic diversity studies, cultivar identification, and linkage map construction, were developed and characterized from whole genome shotgun sequences. M13 tailing for forward primers was applied as a simple method in different situations. In total, 828 alleles across 45 accessions were detected, with an average of 8 alleles per locus. The number of effective alleles ranged from 1.22 to 10.41 with an average of 4.08. The polymorphic information content (PIC) varied from 0.13 to 0.89, with an average of 0.63. Moreover, these markers could also be amplified in their related species Myrica cerifera (syn. Morella cerifera) and Myrica adenophora. Seventy-eight SSR markers can be used to produce a genetic map of a cross between ‘Biqi’ and ‘Dongkui’. A neighbor-joining (NJ) tree was constructed to assess the genetic relationships among accessions, and the elite accessions ‘Y2010-70’, ‘Y2012-140’, and ‘Y2012-145’, were characterized as potential new genotypes for cultivation.
doi:10.1631/jzus.B1400051
PMCID: PMC4228512  PMID: 25367792
Chinese bayberry; Simple sequence repeat (SSR); Genetic diversity
2.  Determination of the genetic diversity of vegetable soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] using EST-SSR markers*  
The development of expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) provided a useful tool for investigating plant genetic diversity. In the present study, 22 polymorphic EST-SSRs from grain soybean were identified and used to assess the genetic diversity in 48 vegetable soybean accessions. Among the 22 EST-SSR loci, tri-nucleotides were the most abundant repeats, accounting for 50.00% of the total motifs. GAA was the most common motif among tri-nucleotide repeats, with a frequency of 18.18%. Polymorphic analysis identified a total of 71 alleles, with an average of 3.23 per locus. The polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.144 to 0.630, with a mean of 0.386. Observed heterozygosity (H o) values varied from 0.0196 to 1.0000, with an average of 0.6092, while the expected heterozygosity (H e) values ranged from 0.1502 to 0.6840, with a mean value of 0.4616. Principal coordinate analysis and phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that the accessions could be assigned to different groups based to a large extent on their geographic distribution, and most accessions from China were clustered into the same groups. These results suggest that Chinese vegetable soybean accessions have a narrow genetic base. The results of this study indicate that EST-SSRs from grain soybean have high transferability to vegetable soybean, and that these new markers would be helpful in taxonomy, molecular breeding, and comparative mapping studies of vegetable soybean in the future.
doi:10.1631/jzus.B1200243
PMCID: PMC3625524  PMID: 23549845
Expressed sequence tag (EST); Simple sequence repeat (SSR); Genetic diversity; Microsatellites; Vegetable soybean
3.  Hydrogen peroxide functions as a secondary messenger for brassinosteroids-induced CO2 assimilation and carbohydrate metabolism in Cucumis sativus *  
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are potent regulators of photosynthesis and crop yield in agricultural crops; however, the mechanism by which BRs increase photosynthesis is not fully understood. Here, we show that foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) resulted in increases in CO2 assimilation, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation, and leaf area in cucumber. H2O2 treatment induced increases in CO2 assimilation whilst inhibition of the H2O2 accumulation by its generation inhibitor or scavenger completely abolished EBR-induced CO2 assimilation. Increases of light harvesting due to larger leaf areas in EBR- and H2O2-treated plants were accompanied by increases in the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (ΦPSII) and photochemical quenching coefficient (q P). EBR and H2O2 both activated carboxylation efficiency of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate oxygenase/carboxylase (Rubisco) from analysis of CO2 response curve and in vitro measurement of Rubisco activities. Moreover, EBR and H2O2 increased contents of total soluble sugar, sucrose, hexose, and starch, followed by enhanced activities of sugar metabolism such as sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase, and invertase. Interestingly, expression of transcripts of enzymes involved in starch and sugar utilization were inhibited by EBR and H2O2. However, the effects of EBR on carbohydrate metabolisms were reversed by the H2O2 generation inhibitor diphenyleneodonium (DPI) or scavenger dimethylthiourea (DMTU) pretreatment. All of these results indicate that H2O2 functions as a secondary messenger for EBR-induced CO2 assimilation and carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber plants. Our study confirms that H2O2 mediates the regulation of photosynthesis by BRs and suggests that EBR and H2O2 regulate Calvin cycle and sugar metabolism via redox signaling and thus increase the photosynthetic potential and yield of crops.
doi:10.1631/jzus.B1200130
PMCID: PMC3468824  PMID: 23024048
Metabolism; Photosynthesis; Reactive oxygen species; Rubisco; Sucrose
4.  Developing new SSR markers from ESTs of pea (Pisum sativum L.)*  
The development of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from pea has provided a useful source for mining novel simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In the present research, in order to find EST-derived SSR markers, 18 552 pea ESTs from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database were downloaded and assembled into 10 086 unigenes. A total of 586 microsatellites in 530 unigenes were identified, indicating that merely 5.25% of sequences contained SSRs. The most abundant SSRs within pea were tri-nucleotide repeat motifs, and among all the tri-nucleotide repeats, the motif GAA was the most abundant type. In total, 49 SSRs were used for primer design. EST-SSR loci were subsequently screened on 10 widely adapted varieties in China. Of these, nine loci showed polymorphic profiles that revealed two to three alleles per locus. The polymorphism information content value ranged from 0.18 to 0.58 with an average of 0.41. Furthermore, transferable analysis revealed that some of these loci showed transferability to faba bean. Because of their polymorphism and transferability, these nine novel EST-SSRs will be valuable tools for marker-assisted breeding and comparative mapping of pea in the future.
doi:10.1631/jzus.B1000004
PMCID: PMC2932880  PMID: 20803774
Pea; Expressed sequence tag (EST); Simple sequence repeat (SSR); Microsatellite
5.  A role of brassinosteroids in early fruit development in cucumber 
Journal of Experimental Botany  2008;59(9):2299-2308.
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential for many biological processes in plants, however, little is known about their roles in early fruit development. To address this, BR levels were manipulated through the application of exogenous BRs (24-epibrassinolide, EBR) or a BR biosynthesis inhibitor (brassinazole, Brz) and their effects on early fruit development, cell division, and expression of cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) genes were examined in two cucumber cultivars that differ in parthenocarpic capacity. The application of EBR induced parthenocarpic growth accompanied by active cell division in Jinchun No. 4, a cultivar without parthenocarpic capacity, whereas Brz treatment inhibited fruit set and, subsequently, fruit growth in Jinchun No. 2, a cultivar with natural parthenocarpic capacity, and this inhibitory effect could be rescued by the application of EBR. RT-PCR analysis showed both pollination and EBR induced expression of cell cycle-related genes (CycA, CycB, CycD3;1, CycD3;2, and CDKB) after anthesis. cDNA sequences for CsCycD3;1 and CsCycD3;2 were isolated through PCR amplification. Both CsCycD3;1 and CsCycD3;2 transcripts were up-regulated by EBR treatment and pollination but strongly repressed by Brz treatment. Meanwhile, BR6ox1 and SMT transcripts, two genes involved in BR synthesis, exhibited feedback regulation. These results strongly suggest that BRs play an important role during early fruit development in cucumber.
doi:10.1093/jxb/ern093
PMCID: PMC2423651  PMID: 18515830
Brassinosteroids; cell division; Cucumis sativus; cyclin; flow cytometry; parthenocarpy

Results 1-5 (5)