To examine the ultrastructural correlates of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings in patients with vitreomacular traction (VMT).
Observational case series.
Retrospective analysis of six eyes of consecutive patients who underwent vitrectomy surgery for VMT was performed in this single-center, noncomparative study. One patient had a concurrent macular hole. Preoperative assessment included SD-OCT examination with 3-dimensional image reconstruction. During surgery the vitreous cone was dissected from the vitreous body using scissors, then removed from the surface of the retina with a combination of sharp dissection and peeling, and subsequently submitted for histologic and transmission electron microscopic processing.
SD-OCT showed prominent vitreal-foveal adhesion in all six eyes. Each eye had an epiretinal membrane (ERM) under the detached perifoveal posterior vitreous detachment. In all eyes this ERM appeared to course up the cone of attached vitreous and along the back surface of the posterior vitreous face. Ultrastructural analysis showed fibrocellular proliferations in the vitreous specimens in all six cases, which included retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells (five eyes), fibrocytes (four eyes), and macrophages (three eyes).
The adhesion between the vitreous and fovea in vitreomacular traction syndrome is accompanied by fibrocellular proliferation along the exposed surfaces of the inner retina and the posterior surface of the vitreous. This fibrocellular proliferation may augment the adhesion between the vitreous and fovea, and may account for the prominent OCT signal seen along the posterior surface of the vitreous in these cases.