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1.  Ginsenoside Rb1 Prevents MPP+-Induced Apoptosis in PC12 Cells by Stimulating Estrogen Receptors with Consequent Activation of ERK1/2, Akt and Inhibition of SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK 
Ginsenoside Rb1 shows neuroprotective effects in various neurons, including dopaminergic cells. However, the precise mechanisms of action are uncertain. In this paper, we examine whether Rb1 has a neuroprotective effect on MPP+-induced apoptosis and attempt to clarify the signaling pathway in PC12 cells. Apoptosis of PC12 cells was determined by DNA fragmentation assay, the activation of caspase-3, or by the inactivation of Bcl-xL. Rb1 inhibited MPP+-induced caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation and activated Bcl-xL in MPP+-treated PC12 cells. These antiapoptotic effect was abrogated in PC12 cells transfected with estrogen receptor siRNA. Levels of DNA fragmentation were increased by wortmannin or PD 98059, while they were decreased by SB 203580 or SP 600125 in MPP+-treated PC12 cells. Rb1 increased phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 or Akt in MPP+-treated PC12 cells, while it reduced phosphorylated p38 or SAPK/JNK. The increased phosphorylation of ERK/1/2 or Akt by Rb1 was abrogated by estrogen receptor siRNA. Rb1-induced inhibition of SAPK/JNK or p38 phosphorylation was also abolished by estrogen receptor siRNA. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rb1 protects PC12 cells from caspase-3-dependent apoptosis through stimulation of estrogen receptor with consequent activation of ERK1/2 and Akt and inhibition of SAPK/JNK and p38.
PMCID: PMC3457685  PMID: 23024694
2.  Ultrastructural Correlation of Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomographic Findings in Vitreomacular Traction Syndrome 
American journal of ophthalmology  2008;146(1):121-127.
To examine the ultrastructural correlates of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings in patients with vitreomacular traction (VMT).
Observational case series.
Retrospective analysis of six eyes of consecutive patients who underwent vitrectomy surgery for VMT was performed in this single-center, noncomparative study. One patient had a concurrent macular hole. Preoperative assessment included SD-OCT examination with 3-dimensional image reconstruction. During surgery the vitreous cone was dissected from the vitreous body using scissors, then removed from the surface of the retina with a combination of sharp dissection and peeling, and subsequently submitted for histologic and transmission electron microscopic processing.
SD-OCT showed prominent vitreal-foveal adhesion in all six eyes. Each eye had an epiretinal membrane (ERM) under the detached perifoveal posterior vitreous detachment. In all eyes this ERM appeared to course up the cone of attached vitreous and along the back surface of the posterior vitreous face. Ultrastructural analysis showed fibrocellular proliferations in the vitreous specimens in all six cases, which included retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells (five eyes), fibrocytes (four eyes), and macrophages (three eyes).
The adhesion between the vitreous and fovea in vitreomacular traction syndrome is accompanied by fibrocellular proliferation along the exposed surfaces of the inner retina and the posterior surface of the vitreous. This fibrocellular proliferation may augment the adhesion between the vitreous and fovea, and may account for the prominent OCT signal seen along the posterior surface of the vitreous in these cases.
PMCID: PMC2987706  PMID: 18439563

Results 1-3 (3)