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1.  Zygosity Differences in Height and Body Mass Index of Twins From Infancy to Old Age: A Study of the CODATwins Project 
Jelenkovic, Aline | Yokoyama, Yoshie | Sund, Reijo | Honda, Chika | Bogl, Leonie H. | Aaltonen, Sari | Ji, Fuling | Ning, Feng | Pang, Zengchang | Ordoñana, Juan R. | Sánchez-Romera, Juan F. | Colodro-Conde, Lucia | Burt, S. Alexandra | Klump, Kelly L. | Medland, Sarah E. | Montgomery, Grant W. | Kandler, Christian | McAdams, Tom A. | Eley, Thalia C. | Gregory, Alice M. | Saudino, Kimberly J. | Dubois, Lise | Boivin, Michel | Tarnoki, Adam D. | Tarnoki, David L. | Haworth, Claire M. A. | Plomin, Robert | Öncel, Sevgi Y. | Aliev, Fazil | Stazi, Maria A. | Fagnani, Corrado | D’Ippolito, Cristina | Craig, Jeffrey M. | Saffery, Richard | Siribaddana, Sisira H. | Hotopf, Matthew | Sumathipala, Athula | Rijsdijk, Fruhling | Spector, Timothy | Mangino, Massimo | Lachance, Genevieve | Gatz, Margaret | Butler, David A. | Bayasgalan, Gombojav | Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol | Freitas, Duarte L. | Maia, José Antonio | Harden, K. Paige | Tucker-Drob, Elliot M. | Kim, Bia | Chong, Youngsook | Hong, Changhee | Shin, Hyun Jung | Christensen, Kaare | Skytthe, Axel | Kyvik, Kirsten O. | Derom, Catherine A. | Vlietinck, Robert F. | Loos, Ruth J. F. | Cozen, Wendy | Hwang, Amie E. | Mack, Thomas M. | He, Mingguang | Ding, Xiaohu | Chang, Billy | Silberg, Judy L. | Eaves, Lindon J. | Maes, Hermine H. | Cutler, Tessa L. | Hopper, John L. | Aujard, Kelly | Magnusson, Patrik K. E. | Pedersen, Nancy L. | Dahl Aslan, Anna K. | Song, Yun-Mi | Yang, Sarah | Lee, Kayoung | Baker, Laura A. | Tuvblad, Catherine | Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten | Beck-Nielsen, Henning | Sodemann, Morten | Heikkilä, Kauko | Tan, Qihua | Zhang, Dongfeng | Swan, Gary E. | Krasnow, Ruth | Jang, Kerry L. | Knafo-Noam, Ariel | Mankuta, David | Abramson, Lior | Lichtenstein, Paul | Krueger, Robert F. | McGue, Matt | Pahlen, Shandell | Tynelius, Per | Duncan, Glen E. | Buchwald, Dedra | Corley, Robin P. | Huibregtse, Brooke M. | Nelson, Tracy L. | Whitfield, Keith E. | Franz, Carol E. | Kremen, William S. | Lyons, Michael J. | Ooki, Syuichi | Brandt, Ingunn | Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius | Inui, Fujio | Watanabe, Mikio | Bartels, Meike | van Beijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M. | Wardle, Jane | Llewellyn, Clare H. | Fisher, Abigail | Rebato, Esther | Martin, Nicholas G. | Iwatani, Yoshinori | Hayakawa, Kazuo | Sung, Joohon | Harris, Jennifer R. | Willemsen, Gonneke | Busjahn, Andreas | Goldberg, Jack H. | Rasmussen, Finn | Hur, Yoon-Mi | Boomsma, Dorret I. | Sørensen, Thorkild I. A. | Kaprio, Jaakko | Silventoinen, Karri
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
doi:10.1017/thg.2015.57
PMCID: PMC4605819  PMID: 26337138
twins; height; BMI; zygosity differences
2.  The CODAtwins project: the cohort description of COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins to study macro-environmental variation in genetic and environmental effects on anthropometric traits 
Silventoinen, Karri | Jelenkovic, Aline | Sund, Reijo | Honda, Chika | Aaltonen, Sari | Yokoyama, Yoshie | Tarnoki, Adam D | Tarnoki, David L | Ning, Feng | Ji, Fuling | Pang, Zengchang | Ordoñana, Juan R | Sánchez-Romera, Juan F | Colodro-Conde, Lucia | Burt, S Alexandra | Klump, Kelly L | Medland, Sarah E | Montgomery, Grant W | Kandler, Christian | McAdams, Tom A | Eley, Thalia C | Gregory, Alice M | Saudino, Kimberly J | Dubois, Lise | Boivin, Michel | Haworth, Claire MA | Plomin, Robert | Öncel, Sevgi Y | Aliev, Fazil | Stazi, Maria A | Fagnani, Corrado | D'Ippolito, Cristina | Craig, Jeffrey M | Saffery, Richard | Siribaddana, Sisira H | Hotopf, Matthew | Sumathipala, Athula | Spector, Timothy | Mangino, Massimo | Lachance, Genevieve | Gatz, Margaret | Butler, David A | Bayasgalan, Gombojav | Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol | Freitas, Duarte L | Maia, José Antonio | Harden, K Paige | Tucker-Drob, Elliot M | Christensen, Kaare | Skytthe, Axel | Kyvik, Kirsten O | Hong, Changhee | Chong, Youngsook | Derom, Catherine A | Vlietinck, Robert F | Loos, Ruth JF | Cozen, Wendy | Hwang, Amie E | Mack, Thomas M | He, Mingguang | Ding, Xiaohu | Chang, Billy | Silberg, Judy L | Eaves, Lindon J | Maes, Hermine H | Cutler, Tessa L | Hopper, John L | Aujard, Kelly | Magnusson, Patrik KE | Pedersen, Nancy L | Dahl-Aslan, Anna K | Song, Yun-Mi | Yang, Sarah | Lee, Kayoung | Baker, Laura A | Tuvblad, Catherine | Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten | Beck-Nielsen, Henning | Sodemann, Morten | Heikkilä, Kauko | Tan, Qihua | Zhang, Dongfeng | Swan, Gary E | Krasnow, Ruth | Jang, Kerry L | Knafo-Noam, Ariel | Mankuta, David | Abramson, Lior | Lichtenstein, Paul | Krueger, Robert F | McGue, Matt | Pahlen, Shandell | Tynelius, Per | Duncan, Glen E | Buchwald, Dedra | Corley, Robin P | Huibregtse, Brooke M | Nelson, Tracy L | Whitfield, Keith E | Franz, Carol E | Kremen, William S | Lyons, Michael J | Ooki, Syuichi | Brandt, Ingunn | Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius | Inui, Fujio | Watanabe, Mikio | Bartels, Meike | van Beijsterveldt, Toos CEM | Wardle, Jane | Llewellyn, Clare H | Fisher, Abigail | Rebato, Esther | Martin, Nicholas G | Iwatani, Yoshinori | Hayakawa, Kazuo | Rasmussen, Finn | Sung, Joohon | Harris, Jennifer R | Willemsen, Gonneke | Busjahn, Andreas | Goldberg, Jack H | Boomsma, Dorret I | Hur, Yoon-Mi | Sørensen, Thorkild IA | Kaprio, Jaakko
For over one hundred years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically 1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and 2) to study the effects of birth related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects including both monozygotic and dizygotic twins using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
doi:10.1017/thg.2015.29
PMCID: PMC4696543  PMID: 26014041
3.  Genetic and Environmental Influences on Birthweight in a Sample of Korean Twins 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2005;20(3):355-360.
This study is the first report of genetic and environmental influences on birthweight using Korean twins. The sample consisted of 255 monozygotic (MZ) and 178 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs drawn from the Seoul Twin Family Study. Intraclass twin correlations were computed for the twins' birthweights obtained from parents (typically mothers) of the twins. To estimate genetic and shared and nonshared environmental influences on birthweight, standard univariate model-fitting analyses were performed using a software, Mx. For each gender, MZ twin correlations were higher than DZ twin correlations, suggesting existence of genetic influences on birthweight; however, DZ twin correlations were higher than half the MZ twin correlations, indicating that shared environmental factors are also important. For each zygosity, twin correlations were not significantly different between males and females, implicating that genes and environments that cause individual differences in birthweight may not vary between males and females. Model-fitting analyses based on the data pooled across gender yielded estimates of 17% for genetic, 60% for shared environmental, and 23% for nonshared environmental influences on birthweight.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2005.20.3.355
PMCID: PMC2782186  PMID: 15953852
Birth Weight; Twins, Monozygotic; Twins, Dizygotic; Twin Studies; Genetics; Intrauterine; Environment; Structural Equation Model; Models, Statistical; Gene
4.  Correction: A Genome-Wide Linkage and Association Scan Reveals Novel Loci for Hypertension and Blood Pressure Traits 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):10.1371/annotation/4415f88f-ab10-44dd-8ba9-1a57ade740c1.
doi:10.1371/annotation/4415f88f-ab10-44dd-8ba9-1a57ade740c1
PMCID: PMC3371059
5.  A Genome-Wide Linkage and Association Scan Reveals Novel Loci for Hypertension and Blood Pressure Traits 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(2):e31489.
Hypertension is caused by the interaction of environmental and genetic factors. The condition which is very common, with about 18% of the adult Hong Kong Chinese population and over 50% of older individuals affected, is responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. To identify genes influencing hypertension and blood pressure, we conducted a combined linkage and association study using over 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 328 individuals comprising 111 hypertensive probands and their siblings. Using a family-based association test, we found an association with SNPs on chromosome 5q31.1 (rs6596140; P<9×10−8) for hypertension. One candidate gene, PDC, was replicated, with rs3817586 on 1q31.1 attaining P = 2.5×10−4 and 2.9×10−5 in the within-family tests for DBP and MAP, respectively. We also identified regions of significant linkage for systolic and diastolic blood pressure on chromosomes 2q22 and 5p13, respectively. Further family-based association analysis of the linkage peak on chromosome 5 yielded a significant association (rs1605685, P<7×10−5) for DBP. This is the first combined linkage and association study of hypertension and its related quantitative traits with Chinese ancestry. The associations reported here account for the action of common variants whereas the discovery of linkage regions may point to novel targets for rare variant screening.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031489
PMCID: PMC3286457  PMID: 22384028
6.  Genetic and environmental contributions to prosocial behaviour in 2- to 9-year-old South Korean twins 
Biology Letters  2007;3(6):664-666.
Although over 50 twin and adoption studies have been performed on the genetic architecture of antisocial behaviour, far fewer studies have investigated prosocial behaviour, and none have done so on a non-western population. The present study examined mothers' ratings of prosocial behaviour in 514 pairs of 2- to 9-year-old South Korean monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Correlational analyses showed a tendency of increasing genetic effects and decreasing shared environmental effects with age although shared family environment effects and the moderating effects of age did not attain statistical significance in model-fitting analyses. The best-fitting model indicated that 55% (95% CI: 45–64%) of the variance in the 2- to 9-year-olds' prosocial behaviour was due to genetic factors and 45% (95% CI: 36–55%) was due to non-shared environmental factors. It is concluded that genetic and environmental influences on prosocial behaviour in young South Koreans are mostly similar to those in western samples.
doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0365
PMCID: PMC2117382  PMID: 17725970
prosocial behaviour; twins; genetics; environment; cross-culture

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