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1.  The Incidence and Risk Factors of Meningitis after Major Craniotomy in China: A Retrospective Cohort Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(7):e101961.
Background
Meningitis after neurosurgery can result in severe morbidity and high mortality. Incidence varies among regions and limited data are focused on meningitis after major craniotomy.
Aim
This retrospective cohort study aimed to determine the incidence, risk factors and microbiological spectrum of postcraniotomy meningitis in a large clinical center of Neurosurgery in China.
Methods
Patients who underwent neurosurgeries at the Department of Neurosurgery in Huashan Hospital, the largest neurosurgery center in Asia and the Pacific, between 1stJanuary and 31st December, 2008 were selected. Individuals with only shunts, burr holes, stereotactic surgery, transsphenoidal or spinal surgery were excluded. The complete medical records of each case were reviewed, and data on risk factors were extracted and evaluated for meningitis.
Results
A total of 65 meningitides were identified among 755 cases in the study, with an incidence of 8.60%. The risk of meningitis was increased by the presence of diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 6.27; P = 0.009), the use of external ventricular drainage (OR, 4.30; P = 0.003) and the use of lumbar drainage (OR, 17.23; P<0.001). The isolated microorganisms included Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus sp, Streptococcus intermedius and Klebsiella pneumonia.
Conclusions
Meningitis remains an important source of morbidity and mortality after major craniotomy. Diabetic patients or those with cerebral spinal fluid shunts carry significant high risk of infection. Thus, identification of the risk factors as soon as possible will help physicians to improve patient care.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0101961
PMCID: PMC4087000  PMID: 25003204
2.  Efficiency improvement of InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar cells by hydrothermal-deposited ZnO nanotube structure 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2014;9(1):338.
In this paper, a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanotube, fabricated by the hydrothermal growth method on triple-junction (T-J) solar cell devices to enhance efficiency, is investigated. Compared to those of bare T-J solar cells (without antireflection (AR) coating) and solar cells with Si3N4 AR coatings, the experimental results show that the T-J solar cells, which use a ZnO nanotube as an AR coating, have the lowest reflectance in the short wavelength spectrum. The ZnO nanotube has the lowest light reflection among all experimental samples, especially in the range of 350 to 500 nm from ultraviolet (UV) to visible light. It was found that a ZnO nanotube can enhance the conversion efficiency by 4.9%, compared with a conventional T-J solar cell. The Si3N4 AR coatings also enhance the conversion efficiency by 3.2%.The results show that a cell with ZnO nanotube coating could greatly improve solar cell performances.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-9-338
PMCID: PMC4100492  PMID: 25045341
ZnO nanotube; Triple-junction; Hydrothermal
3.  Zinc promotes the death of hypoxic astrocytes by upregulating hypoxia-induced hypoxiainducible factor-1alpha expression via Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase -1 
CNS neuroscience & therapeutics  2013;19(7):511-520.
Aim
Pathological release of excess zinc ions has been implicated in ischemic brain cell death. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In stroke, ischemia-induced zinc release and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) accumulation concurrently occur in the ischemic tissue. The present study testes the hypothesis that the presence of high intracellular zinc concentration is a major cause of modifications to PARP-1 and HIF-1α during hypoxia, which significantly contributes to cell death during ischemia.
Methods
Primary cortical astrocytes and C8-D1A cells were exposed to different concentrations of zinc chloride. Cell death rate and protein expression of HIF-1 and Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 were examined after 3-hour hypoxic treatment.
Results
Although 3-hr hypoxia or 100 μM of zinc alone did not induce noticeable cytotoxicity, their combination led to a dramatic increase in astrocytic cell death in a zinc concentration dependent manner. Exposure of astrocytes to hypoxia for 3-hr remarkably increased the levels of intracellular zinc and HIF-1α protein, which was further augmented by added exogenous zinc. Notably HIF-1α knockdown blocked zinc-induced astrocyte death. Moreover, knockdown of PARP-1, another important protein in the response of hypoxia, attenuated the overexpression of HIF-1α and reduced the cell death rate.
Conclusions
Our studies show that zinc promotes hypoxic cell death through overexpression of the hypoxia response factor HIF-1α via the cell fate determine factor PARP-1 modification, which provides a novel mechanism for zinc-mediated ischemic brain injury.
doi:10.1111/cns.12098
PMCID: PMC3681853  PMID: 23582235
Cell death; hypoxia-inducible factor-1; Hypoxia; Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1; Zinc
4.  T Cell CD3ζ Deficiency Enables Multiorgan Tissue Inflammation 
Although a population of T cells with CD3ζ chain deficiency has been found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and infectious disease, the role of CD3ζ chain in the disease pathogenesis remains unknown. To understand the contribution of CD3ζ deficiency to the expression of organ injury, we have performed the following studies. We used CD3ζ-deficient mice to investigate the role of CD3ζ in the pathogenesis of organ tissue inflammation. We found that the CD3ζ−/− mice can spontaneously develop significant organ inflammation that can be accelerated following the administration of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid or allogeneic cells (graft versus host). T cells from CD3ζ−/− mice display increased expression of the adhesion molecules CD44 and CCR2 and produce increased amounts of IFN-γ blockade, which mitigates tissue inflammation. Our results demonstrate that CD3ζ deficiency bestows T cells with the ability to infiltrate various tissues and instigate inflammation. Decreased CD3ζ expression noted in T cells from various diseases contributes independently to tissue inflammation and organ damage. Approaches to restore CD3ζ expression of the surface of T cells should be expected to mitigate tissue inflammation.
doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1300634
PMCID: PMC4070291  PMID: 23980209
5.  SLC45A3-ELK4 is a Novel and Frequent ETS Fusion Transcript in Prostate Cancer 
Cancer research  2009;69(7):2734-2738.
Chromosomal rearrangements account for all erythroblast transformation specific (ETS) family member gene fusions that have been reported in prostate cancer and have clinical, diagnostic and prognostic implications. Androgen-regulated genes account for the majority of the 5’ genomic regulatory promoter elements fused with ETS genes. TMPRSS2-ERG, TMPRSS2-ETV1 and SLC45A3-ERG rearrangements account for roughly 90% of ETS fusion prostate cancer. ELK4, another ETS family member, is androgen-regulated, involved in promoting cell growth, and highly expressed in a subset of prostate cancer, yet the mechanism of ELK4 over-expression is unknown. In this study, we identified a novel ETS family fusion transcript, SLC45A3-ELK4, and found it to be expressed in both benign prostate tissue and prostate cancer. We found high levels of SLC45A3-ELK4 mRNA restricted to a subset of prostate cancer samples. SLC45A3-ELK4 transcript can be detected at high levels in urine samples from men at risk for prostate cancer. Characterization of the fusion mRNA revealed a major variant in which SLC45A3 exon 1 is fused to ELK4 exon 2. Based on quantitative PCR analyses of DNA, unlike other ETS fusions described in prostate cancer, the expression of SLC45A3-ELK4 mRNA is not exclusive to cases harbouring a chromosomal rearrangement. Treatment of LNCaP cancer cells with a synthetic androgen (R1881) revealed that SLC45A3-ELK4, and not endogenous ELK4, mRNA expression is androgen-regulated. Altogether, our findings show that SLC45A3-ELK4 mRNA expression is heterogeneous, highly induced in a subset of prostate cancers, androgen-regulated, and most commonly occurs through a mechanism other than chromosomal rearrangement (e.g., trans-splicing).
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-4926
PMCID: PMC4063441  PMID: 19293179
prostate cancer; ETS genes; splicing; SLC45A3; ELK4
6.  TERT Promoter Mutations Lead to High Transcriptional Activity under Hypoxia and Temozolomide Treatment and Predict Poor Prognosis in Gliomas 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e100297.
Objective
This study explored the effects of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations on transcriptional activity of the TERT gene under hypoxic and temozolomide (TMZ) treatment conditions, and investigated the status and prognostic value of these mutations in gliomas.
Methods
The effect of TERT promoter mutations on the transcriptional activity of the TERT gene under hypoxic and TMZ treatment conditions was investigated in glioma cells using the luciferase assay. TERT promoter mutations were detected in 101 glioma samples (grades I–IV) and 49 other brain tumors by sequencing. TERT mRNA expression in gliomas was examined by real-time PCR. Hazard ratios from survival analysis of glioma patients were determined relative to the presence of TERT promoter mutations.
Results
Mutations in the TERT promoter enhanced gene transcription even under hypoxic and TMZ treatment conditions, inducing upregulation of TERT mRNA expression. Mutations were detected in gliomas, but not in meningiomas, pituitary adenomas, cavernomas, intracranial metastases, normal brain tissues, or peripheral blood of glioma patients. Patients with TERT promoter mutations had lower survival rates, even after adjusting for other known or potential risk factors, and the incidence of mutation was correlated with patient age.
Conclusion
TERT promoter mutations were specific to gliomas. TERT promoter mutations maintained its ability of inducing high transcriptional activity even under hypoxic and TMZ treatment conditions, and the presence of mutations was associated with poor prognosis in glioma patients. These findings demonstrate that TERT promoter mutations are novel prognostic markers for gliomas that can inform prospective therapeutic strategies.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100297
PMCID: PMC4061075  PMID: 24937153
7.  Rapid molecular genetic diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by semiconductor sequencing 
Background
Rapidly determining the complex genetic basis of Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is vital to better understanding and optimally managing this common polygenetic cardiovascular disease.
Methods
A rapid custom Ion-amplicon-resequencing assay, covering 30 commonly affected genes of HCM, was developed and validated in 120 unrelated patients with HCM to facilitate genetic diagnosis of this disease. With this HCM-specific panel and only 20 ng of input genomic DNA, physicians can, for the first time, go from blood samples to variants within a single day.
Results
On average, this approach gained 595628 mapped reads per sample, 95.51% reads on target (64.06 kb), 490-fold base coverage depth and 93.24% uniformity of base coverage in CDS regions of the 30 HCM genes. After validation, we detected underlying pathogenic variants in 87% (104 of 120) samples. Tested seven randomly selected HCM genes in eight samples by Sanger sequencing, the sensitivity and false-positive-rate of this HCM panel was 100% and 5%, respectively.
Conclusions
This Ion amplicon HCM resequencing assay provides a currently most rapid, comprehensive, cost-effective and reliable measure for genetic diagnosis of HCM in routinely obtained samples.
doi:10.1186/1479-5876-12-173
PMCID: PMC4072843  PMID: 24938736
Genetic diagnosis; Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Next-generation sequencing; Semiconductor sequencing
8.  R-Spondin 3 Regulates Dorsoventral and Anteroposterior Patterning by Antagonizing Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Zebrafish Embryos 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e99514.
The Wnt/β-catenin or canonical Wnt signaling pathway plays fundamental roles in early development and in maintaining adult tissue homeostasis. R-spondin 3 (Rspo3) is a secreted protein that has been implicated in activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in amphibians and mammals. Here we report that zebrafish Rspo3 plays a negative role in regulating the zygotic Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Zebrafish Rspo3 has a unique domain structure. It contains a third furin-like (FU3) domain. This FU3 is present in other four ray-finned fish species studied but not in elephant shark. In zebrafish, rspo3 mRNA is maternally deposited and has a ubiquitous expression in early embryonic stages. After 12 hpf, its expression becomes tissue-specific. Forced expression of rspo3 promotes dorsoanterior patterning and increases the expression of dorsal and anterior marker genes. Knockdown of rspo3 increases ventral-posterior development and stimulates ventral and posterior marker genes expression. Forced expression of rspo3 abolishes exogenous Wnt3a action and reduces the endogenous Wnt signaling activity. Knockdown of rspo3 results in increased Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity. Further analyses indicate that Rspo3 does not promote maternal Wnt signaling. Human RSPO3 has similar action when tested in zebrafish embryos. These results suggest that Rspo3 regulates dorsoventral and anteroposterior patterning by negatively regulating the zygotic Wnt/β-catenin signaling in zebrafish embryos.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099514
PMCID: PMC4053527  PMID: 24918770
9.  Altered Contractile Phenotypes of Intestinal Smooth Muscle in Mice Deficient in Myosin Phosphatase Target Subunit 1 
Gastroenterology  2013;144(7):1456-1465.e5.
BACKGROUND & AIMS
The regulatory subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase, MYPT1, has been proposed to control smooth muscle contractility by regulating phosphorylation of the Ca2+-dependent myosin regulatory light chain. We generated mice with a smooth muscle–specific deletion of MYPT1 to investigate its physiologic role in intestinal smooth muscle contraction.
METHODS
We used the CreloxP system to establish Mypt1-floxed mice, with the promoter region and exon 1 of Mypt1 flanked by 2 loxP sites. These mice were crossed with SMA-Cre transgenic mice to generate mice with smooth muscle–specific deletion of MYPT1 (Mypt1SMKO mice). The phenotype was assessed by histologic, biochemical, molecular, and physiologic analyses.
RESULTS
Young adult Mypt1SMKO mice had normal intestinal motility in vivo, with no histologic abnormalities. On stimulation with KCl or acetylcholine, intestinal smooth muscles isolated from Mypt1SMKO mice produced robust and increased sustained force due to increased phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain compared with muscle from control mice. Additional analyses of contractile properties showed reduced rates of force development and relaxation, and decreased shortening velocity, compared with muscle from control mice. Permeable smooth muscle fibers from Mypt1SMKO mice had increased sensitivity and contraction in response to Ca2+.
CONCLUSIONS
MYPT1 is not essential for smooth muscle function in mice but regulates the Ca2+ sensitivity of force development and contributes to intestinal phasic contractile phenotype. Altered contractile responses in isolated tissues could be compensated by adaptive physiologic responses in vivo, where gut motility is affected by lower intensities of smooth muscle stimulation for myosin phosphorylation and force development.
doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2013.02.045
PMCID: PMC3782749  PMID: 23499953
Mouse Model; Development; Calcium Signaling; Phosphorylation
10.  Zn-Driven Discovery of a Hydrothermal Vent Fungal Metabolite Clavatustide C, and an Experimental Study of the Anti-Cancer Mechanism of Clavatustide B 
Marine Drugs  2014;12(6):3203-3217.
A naturally new cyclopeptide, clavatustide C, was produced as a stress metabolite in response to abiotic stress elicitation by one of the hydrothermal vent fluid components Zn in the cultured mycelia of Aspergillus clavatus C2WU, which were isolated from Xenograpsus testudinatus. X. testudinatus lives at extreme, toxic habitat around the sulphur-rich hydrothermal vents in Taiwan Kueishantao. The known compound clavatustide B was also isolated and purified. This is the first example of a new hydrothermal vent microbial secondary metabolite produced in response to abiotic Zn treatment. The structures were established by spectroscopic means. The regulation of G1-S transition in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines by clavatustide B was observed in our previous study. The purpose of the present study was to verify these results in other types of cancer cell lines and elucidate the possible molecular mechanism for the anti-cancer activities of clavatustide B. In different human cancer cell lines, including pancreatic cancer (Panc-1), gastric cancer (MGC-803), colorectal cancer (SW-480), retinoblastoma (WERI-Rb-1) and prostate cancer (PC3), clavatustide B efficiently suppressed cell proliferations in a dose-dependent manner. Although different cancer cell lines presented variety in Max effect dose and IC50 dose, all cancer cell lines showed a lower Max effect dose and IC50 dose compared with human fibroblasts (hFB) (p < 0.05). Moreover, significant accumulations in G1 phases and a reduction in S phases (p < 0.05) were observed under clavatustide B treatment. The expression levels of 2622 genes including 39 cell cycle-associated genes in HepG2 cells were significantly altered by the treatment with 15 μg/mL clavatustide B after 48 h. CCNE2 (cyclin E2) was proved to be the key regulator of clavatustide B-induced G1-S transition blocking in several cancer cell lines by using real-time PCR.
doi:10.3390/md12063203
PMCID: PMC4071572  PMID: 24879544
clavatustides; stress-driven discovery; hydrothermal vent; anti-cancer
11.  Humidity and Gravimetric Equivalency Adjustments for Nephelometer-Based Particulate Matter Measurements of Emissions from Solid Biomass Fuel Use in Cookstoves 
Great uncertainty exists around indoor biomass burning exposure-disease relationships due to lack of detailed exposure data in large health outcome studies. Passive nephelometers can be used to estimate high particulate matter (PM) concentrations during cooking in low resource environments. Since passive nephelometers do not have a collection filter they are not subject to sampler overload. Nephelometric concentration readings can be biased due to particle growth in high humid environments and differences in compositional and size dependent aerosol characteristics. This paper explores relative humidity (RH) and gravimetric equivalency adjustment approaches to be used for the pDR-1000 used to assess indoor PM concentrations for a cookstove intervention trial in Nepal. Three approaches to humidity adjustment performed equivalently (similar root mean squared error). For gravimetric conversion, the new linear regression equation with log-transformed variables performed better than the traditional linear equation. In addition, gravimetric conversion equations utilizing a spline or quadratic term were examined. We propose a humidity adjustment equation encompassing the entire RH range instead of adjusting for RH above an arbitrary 60% threshold. Furthermore, we propose new integrated RH and gravimetric conversion methods because they have one response variable (gravimetric PM2.5 concentration), do not contain an RH threshold, and is straightforward.
doi:10.3390/ijerph110606400
PMCID: PMC4078586  PMID: 24950062
nephelometer; particulate matter; humidity adjustment; gravimetric equivalent; pDR; low resource environment; biomass burning; cookstove; indoor air quality
12.  The Intensity of Radiotherapy-Elicited Immune Response Is Associated with Esophageal Cancer Clearance 
Journal of Immunology Research  2014;2014:794249.
Radiation therapy is one of the standard therapeutic modalities for esophageal cancer, achieving its main antitumor efficacy through DNA damage. However, accumulating evidence shows that radiotherapy can substantially alter the tumor microenvironment, particularly with respect to its effects on immune cells. We hypothesized that the immune response elicited by radiotherapy may be as important as the radiation itself for successful treatment. More specifically, immunomodulatory cytokines may enhance the effectiveness of radiotherapy. To investigate this hypothesis, we measured changes in the serum interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) concentrations during radiotherapy and compared these modifications with outcomes. We found that serum concentrations of IL-2 and IFN-γ were positively associated with local response to radiotherapy in esophageal cancer. More generally, the intensity of the radiotherapy-elicited immune response was positively associated with local response to radiotherapy in esophageal cancer. Changes in serum IL-2 and IFN-γ concentrations were further associated with increased risks of acute hematologic toxicity and acute organ toxicity of the esophagus, lung, and skin. These results suggest that deciphering the mechanisms of radiotherapy-elicited immune response may help in the development of therapeutic interventions that would enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy and convert some ineffective responses to effective responses.
doi:10.1155/2014/794249
PMCID: PMC4055126  PMID: 24967419
13.  Mono-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Induces Injury in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e97607.
Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), the active metabolite of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), is a widespread environmental contaminant and has been proved to have potential adverse effects on the reproductive system, carcinogenicity, liver, kidney and developmental toxicities. However, the effect of MEHP on vascular system remains unclear. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of MEHP on human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) and its possible molecular mechanism. HUVEC cells were treated with MEHP (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25,50 and 100 µM), and the cellular apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential as well as intracellular reactive oxygen species were determined. In present study, MEHP induced a dose-dependent cell injury in HUVEC cell via an apoptosis pathway as characterized by increased percentage of sub-G1, activation of caspase-3, -8and -9, and increased ratio of Bax/bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression as well as cytochrome C releasing. In addition, there was obvious oxidative stress, represented by decreased glutathione level, increased malondialdehyde level and superoxide dismutase activity. N-Acetylcysteine, as an antioxidant that is a direct reactive oxygen species scavenger, could effectively block MEHP-induced reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial membrane potential loss and cell apoptosis. These data indicated that MEHP induced apoptosis in HUVEC cells through a reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondria-dependent pathway.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097607
PMCID: PMC4024005  PMID: 24836450
14.  The Different Roles of Glucocorticoids in the Hippocampus and Hypothalamus in Chronic Stress-Induced HPA Axis Hyperactivity 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e97689.
Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hyperactivity is observed in many patients suffering from depression and the mechanism underling the dysfunction of HPA axis is not well understood. Chronic stress has a causal relationship with the hyperactivity of HPA axis. Stress induces the over-synthesis of glucocorticoids, which will arrive at all the body containing the brain. It is still complicated whether glucocorticoids account for chronic stress-induced HPA axis hyperactivity and in which part of the brain the glucocorticoids account for chronic stress-induced HPA axis hyperactivity. Here, we demonstrated that glucocorticoids were indispensable and sufficient for chronic stress-induced hyperactivity of HPA axis. Although acute glucocorticoids elevation in the hippocampus and hypothalamus exerted a negative regulation of HPA axis, we found that chronic glucocorticoids elevation in the hippocampus but not in the hypothalamus accounted for chronic stress-induced hyperactivity of HPA axis. Chronic glucocorticoids exposure in the hypothalamus still exerted a negative regulation of HPA axis activity. More importantly, we found mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) - neuronal nitric oxide synthesis enzyme (nNOS) - nitric oxide (NO) pathway mediated the different roles of glucocorticoids in the hippocampus and hypothalamus in regulating HPA axis activity. This study suggests that the glucocorticoids in the hippocampus play an important role in the development of HPA axis hyperactivity and the glucocorticoids in the hypothalamus can't induce hyperactivity of HPA axis, revealing new insights into understanding the mechanism of depression.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097689
PMCID: PMC4022669  PMID: 24831808
15.  Role of Unfolded Protein Response Dysregulation in Oxidative Injury of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells 
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling  2014;20(14):2091-2106.
Abstract
Aims: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a major cause of legal blindness in the elderly, is associated with genetic and environmental risk factors, such as cigarette smoking. Recent evidence shows that cigarette smoke (CS) that contains high levels of potent oxidants preferably targets retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) leading to oxidative damage and apoptosis; however, the mechanisms are poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in CS-related RPE apoptosis. Results: ER stress and proapoptotic gene C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) were induced in the RPE/choroid complex from mice exposed to CS for 2 weeks and in human RPE cells treated with hydroquinone, a potent oxidant found at high concentrations in CS. Suppressing ER stress or inhibiting CHOP activation by pharmacological chaperones or genetic approaches attenuated hydroquinone-induced RPE cell apoptosis. In contrast to enhanced CHOP activation, protein level of active X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), a major regulator of the adaptive UPR, was reduced in hydroquinone-treated cells. Conditional knockout of XBP1 gene in the RPE resulted in caspase-12 activation, increased CHOP expression, and decreased antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2. Furthermore, XBP1-deficient RPE cells are more sensitive to oxidative damage induced by hydroquinone or NaIO3, a CS-unrelated chemical oxidant. Conversely, overexpressing XBP1 protected RPE cells and attenuated oxidative stress-induced RPE apoptosis. Innovation and Conclusion: These findings provide strong evidence suggesting an important role of ER stress and the UPR in CS-related oxidative injury of RPE cells. Thus, the modulation of the UPR signaling may provide a promising target for the treatment of AMD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2091–2106.
doi:10.1089/ars.2013.5240
PMCID: PMC3995121  PMID: 24053669
17.  Evaluation of the Antihyperuricemic Activity of Phytochemicals from Davallia formosana by Enzyme Assay and Hyperuricemic Mice Model 
Abnormal serum urate levels are recognized as a critical factor in the progression of several chronic diseases. To evaluate the antihyperuricemic effect of Davallia formosana, the inhibitory activities of 15 isolated phytochemicals, including five novel compounds of 6,8-dihydroxychromone-7-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), 6,8,3′,4′-tetrahydroxyflavanone-7-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), 6,8,4′-trihydroxyflavanone-7-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), 8-(2-pyrrolidinone-5-yl)-catechin-3-O-β-d-allopyranoside (4), and epiphyllocoumarin-3-O-β-d-allopyranoside (5), were examined against xanthine oxidase (XOD) and in a potassium oxonate-(PTO-) induced acute hyperuricemic mice model. The results indicated that compounds 3 and 5 significantly inhibited XOD activity in vitro and reduced serum uric acid levels in vivo. This is the first report providing new insights into the antihyperuricemic activities of flavonoid glycosides which can possibly be developed into potential hypouricemic agents.
doi:10.1155/2014/873607
PMCID: PMC4026843  PMID: 24883071
18.  Overexpressed miRNA-137 Inhibits Human Glioma Cells Growth by Targeting Rac1 
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that miR-137 functions as a tumor suppressor in various cancers, but its role in the initiation and development of gliomas is still unknown. Currently, we found that miR-137 exhibited the most significant increase in normal brain tissues compared with glioma specimens, and the miR-137 expression was greatly decreased with the ascending of tumor pathological grades. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-137 in vitro by chemically synthesized miR-137 mimics suppressed the proliferation, inhibited cell cycle arrest in the G1/G0 phase, and induced cell apoptosis. The tumor-suppressive effects of miR-137 were indeed induced by Rac1, which was verified as a direct target of miR-137. These findings indicate that miR-137 inhibits the growth of gliomas cells by directly targeting Rac1, suggesting that miR-137 could be a new important therapeutic strategy for glioma treatment and warrants further investigation.
doi:10.1089/cbr.2012.1380
PMCID: PMC3653372
glioblastoma; miR-137; Rac1
19.  Clinical Evidence for the Role of Trichomonas vaginalis in Regulation of Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor in the Female Genital Tract 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2013;207(9):1462-1470.
Background. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is responsible for regulating inflammatory damage to and innate and adaptive immune responses in the vaginal mucosa. Depressed cervicovaginal SLPI levels have been correlated with both Trichomonas vaginalis infection and poor reproductive health outcomes.
Methods. We measured levels of SLPI in 215 vaginal specimens collected from adolescent and young adult females aged 14–22 years. Log-transformed SLPI values were compared by analysis of variance or by an unpaired t test before and after adjustment for confounding effects through the propensity score method.
Results. Females receiving hormonal contraceptives and those with an abnormal vaginal pH had lower SLPI levels as compared to their peers. After propensity score adjustment for race, behavioral factors, hormonal use, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), SLPI levels were lower in females with a positive T. vaginalis antigen test result, a vaginal pH >4.5, vaginal leukocytosis, and recurrent (vs initial) T. vaginalis infection, with the lowest levels observed in those with the highest T. vaginalis loads.
Conclusions. The SLPI level was reduced by >50% in a T. vaginalis load–dependent manner. Future research should consider whether identifying and treating females with low levels of T. vaginalis infection (before they become wet mount positive) would prevent the loss of SLPI and impaired vaginal immunity. The SLPI level could be used as a vaginal-health marker to evaluate interventions and vaginal products.
doi:10.1093/infdis/jit039
PMCID: PMC3610423  PMID: 23355743
SLPI protein; human; Trichomonas vaginalis; Vaginosis; Bacterial; Sexually Transmitted Diseases; Adolescent
20.  An Optimal Current Observer for Predictive Current Controlled Buck DC-DC Converters 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2014;14(5):8851-8868.
In digital current mode controlled DC-DC converters, conventional current sensors might not provide isolation at a minimized price, power loss and size. Therefore, a current observer which can be realized based on the digital circuit itself, is a possible substitute. However, the observed current may diverge due to the parasitic resistors and the forward conduction voltage of the diode. Moreover, the divergence of the observed current will cause steady state errors in the output voltage. In this paper, an optimal current observer is proposed. It achieves the highest observation accuracy by compensating for all the known parasitic parameters. By employing the optimal current observer-based predictive current controller, a buck converter is implemented. The converter has a convergently and accurately observed inductor current, and shows preferable transient response than the conventional voltage mode controlled converter. Besides, costs, power loss and size are minimized since the strategy requires no additional hardware for current sensing. The effectiveness of the proposed optimal current observer is demonstrated experimentally.
doi:10.3390/s140508851
PMCID: PMC4063073  PMID: 24854061
converter; DC-DC; buck; PCC; observer
21.  Indole-3-carbinol inhibits nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell growth in vivo and in vitro through inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway 
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is an active component of cruciferous vegetables and has been shown to markedly inhibit the growth of a variety of tumors. However, the role of I3C in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibition of NPC cells by I3C in vitro and in vivo. The human CNE2 NPC cell line was treated with various concentrations (0, 100, 200 and 300 μM) of I3C and analysis of cell proliferation after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, apoptosis after 48 h and expression levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway-associated proteins in vitro was performed. BALB/c nude mice were divided into the following groups: Prevention, treatment and control. In vivo, all the nude mice were inoculated with CNE2 NPC cells and the mice in the prevention and treatment groups were administered a diet containing 0.5% I3C prior to and following inoculation, respectively. The tumoricidal effect of I3C was investigated in the nude mice. After eight weeks, the expression levels of PI3K/Akt pathway-associated proteins were analyzed in the tumors from the nude mice in each group. The results demonstrated that with increasing I3C concentrations, cell proliferation decreased and apoptosis increased significantly. In addition, the expression levels of PI3K/Akt pathway-associated proteins decreased. In the animal experiments, the prevention and treatment groups developed smaller tumors and the expression levels of PI3K/Akt pathway-associated proteins were reduced when compared with those in the control group. In addition, very few changes to the heart, liver and kidney tissues were observed with hematoxylin and eosin staining in all the groups. Therefore, the results of the present study indicated that I3C inhibited the growth of NPC cells and induced apoptosis effectively in vivo and in vitro. The underlying mechanism may be that I3C suppresses the PI3K/Akt pathway.
doi:10.3892/etm.2014.1696
PMCID: PMC4061183  PMID: 24944623
nasopharyngeal carcinoma; indole-3-carbinol; apoptosis; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway
22.  Genome-wide microRNA expression profiles in hippocampus of rats with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:4734.
The expression and functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) in chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common type of refractory epilepsy in adults, are poorly understood currently. In this study, status epilepticus evoked by amygdala stimulation was used to establish rat chronic TLE model. Two months later, high-throughput sequencing was employed to investigate miRNA expression profile in rat hippocampus, and six miRNAs were confirmed to be differentially expressed. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis indicated that most of the target genes for these six miRNAs were associated with neuronal apoptosis. Meanwhile, the levels of miR-423-3p and miR-296-5p were correlated with the activity of caspase-3, an apoptosis indicator. Additionally, the loading of miR-423-3p was increased in RNA-induced silencing complex whilst caspase-6, a target of miR-423-3p, was reduced in chronic TLE rats. Collectively, our findings suggest that miRNAs may exert anti-apoptotic effects in chronic TLE.
doi:10.1038/srep04734
PMCID: PMC3994440  PMID: 24751812
23.  Protective Effects of the Polyphenol Sesamin on Allergen-Induced TH2 Responses and Airway Inflammation in Mice 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e96091.
Allergic asthma is a lifelong airway condition that affects people of all ages. In recent decades, asthma prevalence continues to increase globally, with an estimated number of 250,000 annual deaths attributed to the disease. Although inhaled corticosteroids and β-adrenergic receptor agonists are the primary therapeutic avenues that effectively reduce asthma symptoms, profound side effects may occur in patients with long-term treatments. Therefore, development of new therapeutic strategies is needed as alternative or supplement to current asthma treatments. Sesamin is a natural polyphenolic compound with strong anti-oxidative effects. Several studies have reported that sesamin is effective in preventing hypertension, thrombotic tendency, and neuroinflammation. However, it is still unknown whether sesamin can reduce asthma-induced allergic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Our study has revealed that sesamin exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effects in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine asthma model. We found that treatments with sesamin after OVA sensitization and challenge significantly decreased expression levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-13, and serum IgE. The numbers of total inflammatory cells and eosinophils in BALF were also reduced in the sesamin-treated animals. Histological results demonstrated that sesamin attenuated OVA-induced eosinophil infiltration, airway goblet cell hyperplasia, mucus occlusion, and MUC5AC expression in the lung tissue. Mice administered with sesamin showed limited increases in AHR compared with mice receiving vehicle after OVA challenge. OVA increased phosphorylation levels of IκB-α and nuclear expression levels of NF-κB, both of which were reversed by sesamin treatments. These data indicate that sesamin is effective in treating allergic asthma responses induced by OVA in mice.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096091
PMCID: PMC3996011  PMID: 24755955
24.  Expression and Clinical Significance of YAP, TAZ, and AREG in Hepatocellular Carcinoma 
Journal of Immunology Research  2014;2014:261365.
Purpose. Yes-associated protein (YAP) and PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) are two important effectors of Hippo pathway controlling the balance of organ size and carcinogenesis. Amphiregulin (AREG) is a member of the epidermal growth factor family, a direct target gene of YAP and TAZ. The role of these proteins in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. Methods. The expression of YAP, TAZ, and AREG in HCC was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining. The level of secreted serum AREG was also assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assay. Results. YAP, TAZ, and AREG were expressed in 69.2% (27/39), 66.7% (26/39), and 61.5% (24/39) of HCC patients. The expression of YAP was significantly correlated with Edmondson stage (P > 0.05), serum AFP level (P > 0.05), and HCC prognosis (P > 0.05). AREG expression was also significantly correlated with Edmondson stage (P > 0.05) and serum AFP level (P > 0.05). In addition, the expression of serum AREG was higher than serum AFP in HCC patients. Further multivariate analysis showed that YAP expression was an independent prognostic factor that significantly affected the overall survival of HCC patients. Conclusions. YAP maybe an independent prognostic indicator for HCC patients and serum AREG may be a serological biomarker of HCC.
doi:10.1155/2014/261365
PMCID: PMC4016924  PMID: 24860833
25.  Serum SALL4 Is a Novel Prognosis Biomarker with Tumor Recurrence and Poor Survival of Patients in Hepatocellular Carcinoma 
Journal of Immunology Research  2014;2014:262385.
Aim. Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4), is reexpressed in tissues of a subgroup of HCC associated with poor prognosis. Reports of SALL4 serological levels linked to HCC patients are meager and unclear in the prognosis of this malignancy. Methods. Immunohistochemistry and optical microscopy protocols were used to examine the presence of SALL4 in liver tissues from the following patients: 38 HCC, 11 chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV), 13 liver cirrhosis, and 12 healthy controls. Additionally, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the SALL4 levels in serum samples isolated from patients as follows: 127 with HCC, 27 with HBV, 24 with liver cirrhosis, and 23 normal controls. Results. Analysis of liver tissues sections from HCC patients (18 out 38; 47.4%) showed positive staining for SALL4 and its expression did no correlate with any of the clinicopathologic characteristics. HCC patients displayed higher levels (50.4%) of SALL4 protein in serum, compared with the three control groups. Moreover, SALL4 concentration reached the maximum level after one week after treatment and dropped quickly after one month. These HCC patients showing high SALL4 serum levels had poor prognosis, evidenced by both tumor recurrence and overall survival rate. Conclusions. High SALL4 serum levels are a novel biomarker in the prognosis of HCC patients.
doi:10.1155/2014/262385
PMCID: PMC4016881  PMID: 24860834

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