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author:("Xu, jinfeng")
1.  A Genetic-Based Approach to Personalized Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment 
Current opinion in urology  2015;25(1):53-58.
Purpose
Recent advances in sequencing technologies has allowed for the identification of genetic variants within germline DNA that can explain a significant portion of the genetic underpinnings of prostate cancer. Despite evidence suggesting that these genetic variants can be used for improved risk stratification, they have not yet been routinely incorporated into routine clinical practice. This review highlights their potential utility in prostate cancer screening.
Recent Findings
There are now almost 100 genetic variants, called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been recently found to be associated with the risk of developing prostate cancer. In addition, some of these prostate cancer risk SNPs also have been found to influence PSA expression levels and potentially aggressive disease.
Summary
Incorporation of panels of prostate cancer risk SNPs into clinical practice offers potential to provide improvements in 1) patient selection for prostate cancer screening 2) PSA interpretation (e.g. by correcting for the presence of SNPs that influence PSA expression levels, 3) decision for biopsy (using PC-risk SNPs) and possibly the 4) decision for treatment. A proposed clinical algorithm incorporating these PC-risk SNPs is discussed.
doi:10.1097/MOU.0000000000000130
PMCID: PMC4281884  PMID: 25405931
2.  Polymorphisms influencing prostate specific antigen concentration may bias genome-wide association studies on prostate cancer 
Background
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have produced weak (OR=1.1–1.5), but significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and prostate cancer. However, these associations may be explained by detection bias caused by SNPs influencing prostate specific antigen (PSA) concentration. Thus, in a simulation study, we quantified the extent of bias in the association between a SNP and prostate cancer when the SNP influences PSA concentration.
Methods
We generated 2,000 replicate cohorts of 20,000 men using real-world estimates of prostate cancer risk, prevalence of carrying ≥1 minor allele, PSA concentration, and the influence of a SNP on PSA concentration. We modeled risk ratios (RR) of 1.00, 1.25, and 1.50 for the association between carrying ≥1 minor allele and prostate cancer. We calculated mean betas from the replicate cohorts and quantified bias under each scenario.
Results
Assuming no association between a SNP and prostate cancer, the estimated mean bias in betas ranged from 0.02 to 0.10 for ln PSA being 0.05 to 0.20 ng/mL higher in minor allele carriers; the mean biased RRs ranged from 1.03 to 1.11. Assuming true RRs=1.25 and 1.50, the biased RRs were as large as 1.39 and 1.67, respectively.
Conclusion
Estimates of the association between SNPs and prostate cancer can be biased to the magnitude observed in published GWAS, possibly resulting in Type I error. However, large associations (RR >1.10) may not fully be explained by this bias.
Impact
The influence of SNPs on PSA concentration should be considered when interpreting results from GWAS on prostate cancer.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0863
PMCID: PMC4294961  PMID: 25352524
polymorphism; prostate-specific antigen; prostate cancer; bias
3.  Genetic variants in insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 are associated with prostate cancer susceptibility in Eastern Chinese Han men 
OncoTargets and therapy  2015;9:61-66.
Background
Growing evidence has indicated that insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) polymorphisms are associated with altered risk of prostate cancer (PCa). However, few studies have been conducted in Chinese population to validate this association.
Materials and methods
Herein, we examined the association between genetic variants in the IGFBP-3 gene and PCa risk in the Chinese Han population based on a genome-wide association study (1,417 cases and 1,008 controls), and replicated three genetic variants loci in an independent case-control study (1,755 cases and 1,523 controls) using Sequenom platform. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).
Results
We found that in the discovery stage, rs9691259 (OR =0.691, 95% CI: 0.587–0.814, P<0.001) and rs6950179 (OR =1.420, 95% CI: 1.201–1.677, P<0.001) were significantly associated with PCa risk, whereas rs2854744 showed a marginal association with PCa risk. In the replication stage, the association between rs9691259 and rs6950179 and PCa risk was not replicated, whereas rs2854744 conferred a significant association with PCa risk (OR =1.399, 95% CI: 1.010–1.937, P=0.043). After combining the two stages, we found that rs9691259, rs6950179, and rs2854744 were all significantly associated with PCa risk.
Conclusion
This study suggests that IGFBP-3 genetic variants are significantly associated with PCa risk in the Chinese population.
doi:10.2147/OTT.S96294
PMCID: PMC4694676  PMID: 26730204
IGFBP-3; polymorphism; case-control study; genetic susceptibility
4.  Two Susceptibility Loci Identified for Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness 
Nature communications  2015;6:6889.
Most men diagnosed with prostate cancer will experience indolent disease; hence discovering genetic variants that distinguish aggressive from non-aggressive prostate cancer is of critical clinical importance for disease prevention and treatment. In a multistage, case-only genome-wide association study of 12,518 prostate cancer cases, we identify two loci associated with Gleason score, a pathological measure of disease aggressiveness: rs35148638 at 5q14.3 (RASA1, P=6.49×10-9) and rs78943174 at 3q26.31 (NAALADL2, P=4.18×10-8). In a stratified case-control analysis, the SNP at 5q14.3 appears specific for aggressive prostate cancer (P=8.85×10-5) with no association for non-aggressive prostate cancer compared to controls (P=0.57). The proximity of these loci to genes involved in vascular disease suggests potential biological mechanisms worthy of further investigation.
doi:10.1038/ncomms7889
PMCID: PMC4422072  PMID: 25939597
5.  Large-scale association analysis in Asians identifies new susceptibility loci for prostate cancer 
Nature Communications  2015;6:8469.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified ∼100 genetic loci associated with prostate cancer risk. Less than a dozen of these loci were initially identified from GWAS in two Asian populations, likely because of smaller sample sizes of these individual GWAS in Asians. Here, we conduct a large-scale meta-analysis of two GWAS from the Japanese population (1,583 cases and 3,386 controls) and the Chinese population (1,417 cases and 1,008 controls), followed by replication in three independent sample sets. We identify two independent susceptibility loci for prostate cancer at 11p15.4 (rs12791447, P=3.59 × 10−8; PPFIBP2) and 14q23.2 (rs58262369, P=6.05 × 10−10; ESR2). The mRNA levels of PPFIBP2 and ESR2 are differentially expressed in prostate tumours and paired normal tissues. Our study adds two new loci to the limited number of prostate cancer risk-associated variants in Asians and provides important insight into potential biological mechanisms of prostate cancer.
Genetic variations influence the risk of prostate cancer. Here, the authors use a meta-analysis of Genome-wide association studies from Asian populations and uncover new susceptibility loci at 11p15.4 and 14q23.2.
doi:10.1038/ncomms9469
PMCID: PMC4633711  PMID: 26443449
6.  On the way to commercializing plant cell culture platform for biopharmaceuticals: present status and prospect 
Pharmaceutical bioprocessing  2014;2(6):499-518.
Plant cell culture is emerging as an alternative bioproduction system for recombinant pharmaceuticals. Growing plant cells in vitro under controlled environmental conditions allows for precise control over cell growth and protein production, batch-to-batch product consistency and a production process aligned with current good manufacturing practices. With the recent US FDA approval and commercialization of the world’s first plant cell-based recombinant pharmaceutical for human use, β-glucocerebrosidase for treatment of Gaucher’s disease, a new era has come in which plant cell culture shows high potential to displace some established platform technologies in niche markets. This review updates the progress in plant cell culture processing technology, highlights recent commercial successes and discusses the challenges that must be overcome to make this platform commercially viable.
doi:10.4155/pbp.14.32
PMCID: PMC4303569  PMID: 25621170
7.  Genomic predictors of patterns of progression in glioblastoma and possible influences on radiation field design 
Journal of neuro-oncology  2015;124(3):447-453.
We present a retrospective investigation of the role of genomics in the prediction of central versus marginal disease progression patterns for glioblastoma (GBM). Between August 2000 and May 2010, 41 patients with GBM and gene expression and methylation data available were treated with radiotherapy with or without concurrent temozolomide. Location of disease progression was categorized as within the high dose (60 Gy) or low dose (46 Gy) volume. Samples were grouped into previously described TCGA genomic groupings: Mesenchymal (m), classical (c), proneural (pn), and neural (n); and were also classified by MGMT-Methylation status and G-Cimp methylation phenotype. Genomic groupings and methylation status were investigated as a possible predictor of disease progression in the high dose region, progression in the low dose region, and time to progression. Based on TCGA category there was no difference in OS (p = 0.26), 60 Gy progression (PN: 71 %, N: 60 %, M: 89 %, C: 83 %, p = 0.19), 46 Gy progression (PN: 57 %, N: 40 %, M: 61 %, C: 50 %, p = 0.8) or time to progression (PN: 9 months, N:15 months, M: 9 months, C: 7 months, p = 0.58). MGMT methylation predicted for improved OS (median 25 vs. 13 months, p = 0.01), improved DFS (median 13 vs. 8 months, p = 0.007) and decreased 60 Gy (p = 0.003) and 46 Gy (p = 0.006) progression. There was a cohort of MGMT methylated patients with late marginal disease progression (4/22 patients, 18 %). TCGA groups demonstrated no difference in survival or progression patterns. MGMT methylation predicted for a statistically significant decrease in in-field and marginal disease progression. There was a cohort of MGMT methylated patients with late marginal progression. Validations of these findings would have implications that could affect radiation field size.
doi:10.1007/s11060-015-1858-2
PMCID: PMC4584190  PMID: 26186902
Glioblastoma; Genomics; Patterns of progression
8.  Response and Adaptation of Escherichia coli to Suppression of the Amber Stop Codon 
Some extant organisms reassign the amber stop codon to a sense codon through evolution, and suppression of the amber codon with engineered tRNAs has been exploited to expand the genetic code for incorporating non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) in live systems. However, it is unclear how the host cell would respond and adapt to the amber suppression. Here we suppressed the amber codon in Escherichia coli with an orthogonal tRNA/synthetase pair and cultured the cells under such a pressure for about 500 generations. We discovered that E. coli quickly counteracted with transposon insertion to inactivate the orthogonal synthetase. Persistent amber suppression evading transposon inactivation led to global proteomic changes with a marked up-regulation of an uncharacterized protein YdiI, for which we identified an unexpected function of expelling plasmids. These results should be valuable for understanding codon reassignment in code evolution and for improving the efficiency of ncAA incorporation.
doi:10.1002/cbic.201402235
PMCID: PMC4156322  PMID: 25044429
expansion of the genetic code; unnatural amino acid; evolution of the genetic code; amber suppression; codon reassignment
9.  High-density lipoprotein inhibits mechanical stress-induced cardiomyocyte autophagy and cardiac hypertrophy through angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated PI3K/Akt pathway 
Mechanical stress triggers cardiac hypertrophy and autophagy through an angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT1) receptor-dependent mechanism. Low level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is an independent risk factor for cardiac hypertrophy. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of HDL on mechanical stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy and autophagy. A 48-hr mechanical stretch and a 4-week transverse aortic constriction were employed to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro and in vivo, respectively, prior to the assessment of myocardial autophagy using LC3b-II and beclin-1. Our results indicated that HDL significantly reduced mechanical stretch-induced rise in autophagy as demonstrated by LC3b-II and beclin-1. In addition, mechanical stress up-regulated AT1 receptor expression in both cultured cardiomyocytes and in mouse hearts, whereas HDL significantly suppressed the AT1 receptor. Furthermore, the role of Akt phosphorylation in HDL-mediated action was assessed using MK-2206, a selective inhibitor for Akt phosphorylation. Our data further revealed that MK-2206 mitigated HDL-induced beneficial responses on cardiac remodelling and autophagy. Taken together, our data revealed that HDL inhibited mechanical stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy and autophagy through downregulation of AT1 receptor, and HDL ameliorated cardiac hypertrophy and autophagy via Akt-dependent mechanism.
doi:10.1111/jcmm.12567
PMCID: PMC4549043  PMID: 25946687
autophagy; cardiac hypertrophy; heart failure; AT1 receptor; HDL
11.  Leveraging population admixture to explain missing heritability of complex traits 
Nature genetics  2014;46(12):1356-1362.
Despite recent progress on estimating the heritability explained by genotyped SNPs (hg2), a large gap between hg2 and estimates of total narrow-sense heritability (h2) remains. Explanations for this gap include rare variants, or upward bias in family-based estimates of h2 due to shared environment or epistasis. We estimate h2 from unrelated individuals in admixed populations by first estimating the heritability explained by local ancestry (hγ2). We show that hγ2 = 2FSTCθ(1−θ)h2, where FSTC measures frequency differences between populations at causal loci and θ is the genome-wide ancestry proportion. Our approach is not susceptible to biases caused by epistasis or shared environment. We examined 21,497 African Americans from three cohorts, analyzing 13 phenotypes. For height and BMI, we obtained h2 estimates of 0.55 ± 0.09 and 0.23 ± 0.06, respectively, which are larger than estimates of hg2 in these and other data, but smaller than family-based estimates of h2.
doi:10.1038/ng.3139
PMCID: PMC4244251  PMID: 25383972
12.  Decreased expression of ARID1A associates with poor prognosis and promotes metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma 
Background
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy worldwide, which is especially prevalent in Asia. Elucidating the molecular basis of HCC is crucial to develop targeted diagnostic tools and novel therapies. Recent studies have identified AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1A (ARID1A) as a broad-spectrum tumor suppressor. We evaluated the clinical implications of decreased ARID1A expression in HCC, and investigated the mechanisms of ARID1A-mediated tumor suppression.
Methods
Quantitative PCR, western blotting, immunohistochemical analysis of ARID1A mRNA and protein expression was conducted in 64 paired HCC and adjacent non-tumorous tissues. ARID1A function was evaluated in vitro in MHCC-97H and Huh7 HCC cell lines, and in vivo in a xenografted HCC tumor model.
Results
ARID1A mRNA and protein expression were significantly decreased in HCC tissues, and decreased expression was significantly associated with overall metastasis, including local lymph node and distant metastasis, and poor prognosis. ARID1A knockdown promoted HCC cell migration and invasion in vitro, whereas overexpression of ARID1A inhibited migration and invasion. E-cadherin levels were closely correlated with ARID1A expression, suggesting a role in migration and invasion. In addition, ARID1A and E-cadherin (CDH1) expression were found to be regulated in a coordinated fashion in HCC samples. Furthermore, ARID1A knockdown significantly increased HCC tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo.
Conclusions
ARID1A served as an important tumor suppressor. Decreased expression of ARID1A was associated with tumor progression, metastasis, and reduced overall survival in mice and humans. ARID1A could represent a promising candidate therapeutic target for HCC.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13046-015-0164-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13046-015-0164-3
PMCID: PMC4440314  PMID: 25975202
Hepatocellular carcinoma; ARID1A; Poor prognosis; Migration; Invasion; Metastases
13.  Plasma genistein and risk of prostate cancer in Chinese population 
Objectives
Genistein is one of the main soy isoflavones in our daily diet. There were studies proving that high-dietary intake of genistein may relate to the low morbidity and mortality of prostate cancer (PCa) in the Asian population. Since there were few studies of plasma genistein level in the Chinese population, we performed this study to preliminarily evaluate the associations among plasma genistein, epidemiologic factors and PCa in a Chinese population.
Methods
Between 2012 and 2013, 100 men over the age of 40 underwent prostate biopsy for PCa at Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China. Clinical information, epidemiologic information and blood samples were collected prior to biopsy for each patient. All patients underwent 10-core ultrasound-guided transperineal prostate biopsy, and the pathology results were collected after biopsy. We measured the plasma genistein concentration of the blood samples and analyzed the results along with the clinical and epidemiologic information.
Results
Among the 100 patients, 46 (46.0 %) were diagnosed with PCa. The median plasma genistein concentration of non-PCa patients (728.6 ng/ml) was significantly higher than that of PCa patients (513.0 ng/ml) (P < 0.05). In the univariate analysis, we found that age and smoking history were related to PCa (P < 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, we found that age, smoking history and plasma genistein were related to PCa (P < 0.05). The age-adjusted odds ratio of PCa risk comparing plasma genistein level above median to that below median was 0.31 (95 % CI 0.13–0.71).
Conclusion
Our study suggested that high concentration of plasma genistein level may contribute to the low incidence of prostate cancer in Chinese population.
doi:10.1007/s11255-015-0981-5
PMCID: PMC4445252  PMID: 25971353
Genistein; Plasma; Prostate; Cancer; China
14.  Pygopus-2 promotes invasion and metastasis of hepatic carcinoma cell by decreasing E-cadherin expression 
Oncotarget  2015;6(13):11074-11086.
Pygopus-2 over-expression has been reported in several malignancies, such as ovarian, breast, lung and liver cancers. Here we demonstrated that down-regulation of Pygopus-2 by shRNA inhibited hepatic carcinoma cell invasion in vitro and metastasis in xenograft tumor models, which were promoted when Pygopus-2 was over-expressed. Pygopus-2 increased hepatic carcinoma cell invasion and metastasis, by decreasing E-cadherin. Pygopus-2 could bind to the E-cadherin promoter, increasing its methylation, and also indirectly decreased zeb2 expression. In turn these effects caused down-regulation of E-cadherin, potentiating invasion and metastasis. We suggest that targeting Pygopus-2 may potentially inhibit metastasis of hepatic carcinoma.
PMCID: PMC4484440  PMID: 25871475
pygopus-2; E-cadherin; hepatic carcinoma; invasion; metastasis
15.  Hierarchical Feedback Modules and Reaction Hubs in Cell Signaling Networks 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(5):e0125886.
Despite much effort, identification of modular structures and study of their organizing and functional roles remain a formidable challenge in molecular systems biology, which, however, is essential in reaching a systematic understanding of large-scale cell regulation networks and hence gaining capacity of exerting effective interference to cell activity. Combining graph theoretic methods with available dynamics information, we successfully retrieved multiple feedback modules of three important signaling networks. These feedbacks are structurally arranged in a hierarchical way and dynamically produce layered temporal profiles of output signals. We found that global and local feedbacks act in very different ways and on distinct features of the information flow conveyed by signal transduction but work highly coordinately to implement specific biological functions. The redundancy embodied with multiple signal-relaying channels and feedback controls bestow great robustness and the reaction hubs seated at junctions of different paths announce their paramount importance through exquisite parameter management. The current investigation reveals intriguing general features of the organization of cell signaling networks and their relevance to biological function, which may find interesting applications in analysis, design and control of bio-networks.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125886
PMCID: PMC4424001  PMID: 25951347
16.  Polygenic Risk Score Improves Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction: Results from the Stockholm-1 Cohort Study 
European urology  2011;60(1):21-28.
Background
More than 1 million prostate biopsies are conducted yearly in the United States. The low specificity of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) results in diagnostic biopsies in men without prostate cancer (PCa). Additional information, such as genetic markers, could be used to avoid unnecessary biopsies.
Objective
To determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with PCa can be used to determine whether biopsy of the prostate is necessary.
Design, settings, and participants
The Stockholm-1 cohort (n = 5241) consisted of men who underwent a prostate biopsy during 2005 to 2007. PSA levels were retrieved from databases and family histories were obtained using a questionnaire. Thirty-five validated SNPs were analysed and converted into a genetic risk score that was implemented in a risk-prediction model.
Results and limitations
When comparing the nongenetic model (based on age, PSA, free-to-total PSA, and family history) with the genetic model and using a fixed number of detected PCa cases, it was found that the genetic model required significantly fewer biopsies than the nongenetic model, with 480 biopsies (22.7%) avoided, at a cost of missing a PCa diagnosis in 3% of patients characterised as having an aggressive disease. However, the overall genetic model does not discriminate between aggressive and nonaggressive cases.
Conclusion
Although the genetic model reduced the number of biopsies more than the nongenetic model, the clinical significance of this finding requires further evaluation.
doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2011.01.017
PMCID: PMC4417350  PMID: 21295399
Diagnosis; Prostate cancer; Polygenic; Prediction model; SNP
17.  Connexin32 regulates hepatoma cell metastasis and proliferation via the p53 and Akt pathways 
Oncotarget  2014;6(12):10116-10133.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progresses rapidly and is frequently associated with vascular invasion, metastasis, recurrence, and poor prognosis. The expression of connexin32 (Cx32) is frequently downregulated in HCC tissues. In this study, the role of Cx32 in HCC metastasis and proliferation was investigated. The reduction of Cx32 in HCC tissues was significantly associated with increased vascular invasion, increased tumor size, and poor survival. In vitro assays revealed that Cx32 not only suppressed the invasion and migration of HCC cells, but also repressed HCC cell proliferation. Subsequent investigations revealed that Cx32 directly enhanced the acetylation and transcriptional activity of p53, thus upregulating the expression of the tumor metastasis suppressor protein KAI1/CD82, which is a p53 target gene. Additionally, Cx32 negatively regulated the phosphorylation of Akt and the expression of the cell cycle regulation protein cyclin D1, thereby inhibiting the proliferation of HCC cells. Our in vivo nude mice model further confirmed that Cx32 is able to suppress HCC tumor growth and metastasis in nude mice. Our results imply that Cx32 downregulation contributes to the proliferation and metastasis of HCC, and the restoration of Cx32 expression may be a promising strategy for HCC therapy.
PMCID: PMC4496344  PMID: 25426556
connexin32; p53; hepatocellular carcinoma; invasion; migration
18.  The Evaluation of the Risk Factors for Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (NMIBC) Recurrence after Transurethral Resection (TURBt) in Chinese Population 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(4):e0123617.
Objective
The risk factors of bladder cancer recurrence after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBt) were poorly understood, especially in Chinese population. This study evaluated the potential risk factors of recurrence based on a Chinese population.
Materials and Methods
A total of 698 patients that received TURBt procedure in our institute from 2000 to 2012 were recruited in this study. Clinical information was collected. The patients were followed up according to the schedule recommended by Chinese guideline.
Results
A total of 583 males (83.5%) and 115 females (16.5%) were enrolled in our study. The median follow-up duration was 51.5 months. Gender, chief complain, tumor size, number of lesions, histological grade and chemotherapeutic agents were found significantly associated with patients’ short-term recurrence (less than 1 year) (All p<0.05). In the multivariate analysis, tumor size, number of lesions, histological grade and chemotherapeutic agents were significantly related to patients’ short-term recurrence (less than 1 year) (All p<0.05). A multivariate model based on tumor size, number of lesions, histological grade and chemotherapeutic agents had an AUC of 0.697, which significantly improved the prediction utility for bladder cancer short-term recurrence (less than 1 year) than any single factor In the multivariate Cox regression, tumor size greater than 3 cm, multifocal lesions, worsen histological grade and non-urothelial carcinoma was related to time to recurrence (TR).
Conclusion
Patients with larger tumor size, multifocal number of lesions, higher tumor grade and who received chemotherapeutic agents other than Epirubicin and Pirarubicin might have higher risks of recurrence less than 1 year. Tumor size, number of lesions, pathology and histological grade might be associated with TR. As Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is currently not approved for bladder cancer in China, Epirubicin and Pirarubicin might be considered prior to other chemotherapy medications when providing post-operative instillation of chemotherapy.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0123617
PMCID: PMC4388336  PMID: 25849552
19.  A meta-analysis of 87,040 individuals identifies 23 new susceptibility loci for prostate cancer 
Al Olama, Ali Amin | Kote-Jarai, Zsofia | Berndt, Sonja I. | Conti, David V. | Schumacher, Fredrick | Han, Ying | Benlloch, Sara | Hazelett, Dennis J. | Wang, Zhaoming | Saunders, Ed | Leongamornlert, Daniel | Lindstrom, Sara | Jugurnauth-Little, Sara | Dadaev, Tokhir | Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata | Stram, Daniel O. | Rand, Kristin | Wan, Peggy | Stram, Alex | Sheng, Xin | Pooler, Loreall C. | Park, Karen | Xia, Lucy | Tyrer, Jonathan | Kolonel, Laurence N. | Le Marchand, Loic | Hoover, Robert N. | Machiela, Mitchell J. | Yeager, Merideth | Burdette, Laurie | Chung, Charles C. | Hutchinson, Amy | Yu, Kai | Goh, Chee | Ahmed, Mahbubl | Govindasami, Koveela | Guy, Michelle | Tammela, Teuvo L.J. | Auvinen, Anssi | Wahlfors, Tiina | Schleutker, Johanna | Visakorpi, Tapio | Leinonen, Katri A. | Xu, Jianfeng | Aly, Markus | Donovan, Jenny | Travis, Ruth C. | Key, Tim J. | Siddiq, Afshan | Canzian, Federico | Khaw, Kay-Tee | Takahashi, Atsushi | Kubo, Michiaki | Pharoah, Paul | Pashayan, Nora | Weischer, Maren | Nordestgaard, Borge G. | Nielsen, Sune F. | Klarskov, Peter | Røder, Martin Andreas | Iversen, Peter | Thibodeau, Stephen N. | McDonnell, Shannon K | Schaid, Daniel J | Stanford, Janet L. | Kolb, Suzanne | Holt, Sarah | Knudsen, Beatrice | Coll, Antonio Hurtado | Gapstur, Susan M. | Diver, W. Ryan | Stevens, Victoria L. | Maier, Christiane | Luedeke, Manuel | Herkommer, Kathleen | Rinckleb, Antje E. | Strom, Sara S. | Pettaway, Curtis | Yeboah, Edward D. | Tettey, Yao | Biritwum, Richard B. | Adjei, Andrew A. | Tay, Evelyn | Truelove, Ann | Niwa, Shelley | Chokkalingam, Anand P. | Cannon-Albright, Lisa | Cybulski, Cezary | Wokołorczyk, Dominika | Kluźniak, Wojciech | Park, Jong | Sellers, Thomas | Lin, Hui-Yi | Isaacs, William B. | Partin, Alan W. | Brenner, Hermann | Dieffenbach, Aida Karina | Stegmaier, Christa | Chen, Constance | Giovannucci, Edward L. | Ma, Jing | Stampfer, Meir | Penney, Kathryn L. | Mucci, Lorelei | John, Esther M. | Ingles, Sue A. | Kittles, Rick A. | Murphy, Adam B. | Pandha, Hardev | Michael, Agnieszka | Kierzek, Andrzej M. | Blot, William | Signorello, Lisa B. | Zheng, Wei | Albanes, Demetrius | Virtamo, Jarmo | Weinstein, Stephanie | Nemesure, Barbara | Carpten, John | Leske, Cristina | Wu, Suh-Yuh | Hennis, Anselm | Kibel, Adam S. | Rybicki, Benjamin A. | Neslund-Dudas, Christine | Hsing, Ann W. | Chu, Lisa | Goodman, Phyllis J. | Klein, Eric A | Zheng, S. Lilly | Batra, Jyotsna | Clements, Judith | Spurdle, Amanda | Teixeira, Manuel R. | Paulo, Paula | Maia, Sofia | Slavov, Chavdar | Kaneva, Radka | Mitev, Vanio | Witte, John S. | Casey, Graham | Gillanders, Elizabeth M. | Seminara, Daniella | Riboli, Elio | Hamdy, Freddie C. | Coetzee, Gerhard A. | Li, Qiyuan | Freedman, Matthew L. | Hunter, David J. | Muir, Kenneth | Gronberg, Henrik | Neal, David E. | Southey, Melissa | Giles, Graham G. | Severi, Gianluca | Cook, Michael B. | Nakagawa, Hidewaki | Wiklund, Fredrik | Kraft, Peter | Chanock, Stephen J. | Henderson, Brian E. | Easton, Douglas F. | Eeles, Rosalind A. | Haiman, Christopher A.
Nature genetics  2014;46(10):1103-1109.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 76 variants associated with prostate cancer risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify additional susceptibility loci for this common cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of >10 million SNPs in 43,303prostate cancer cases and 43,737 controls from studies in populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry. Twenty-three novel susceptibility loci were revealed at P<5×10-8; 15 variants were identified among men of European ancestry, 7 from multiethnic analyses and one was associated with early-onset prostate cancer. These 23 variants, in combination with the known prostate cancer risk variants, explain 33% of the familial risk of the disease in European ancestry populations. These findings provide new regions for investigation into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and demonstrate the utility of combining ancestrally diverse populations to discover risk loci for disease.
doi:10.1038/ng.3094
PMCID: PMC4383163  PMID: 25217961
20.  Age-Dependent Association between Sex and Renal Cell Carcinoma Mortality: a Population-Based Analysis 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:9160.
Research on sex differences in renal cancer-specific mortality (RCSM), which considered the sex effect to be constant throughout life, has yielded conflicting results. This study hypothesized the sex effect may be modified by age, which is a proxy for hormonal status. Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database (1988–2010) were used to identify 114,539 patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The study cohort was divided into three age groups using cutoffs of 42 and 58 years, which represent the premenopausal and postmenopausal periods. The cumulative incidence function and competing risks analyses were used to examine the effect of covariates on RCSM and other-cause mortality (OCM). In premenopausal period, male sex was a significant predictor of poor RCSM for both localized (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio [aSHR] = 1.63, P = 0.002) and advanced (aSHR = 1.20, P = 0.041) disease. In postmenopausal period, the sex disparity diminished (aSHR = 1.05, P = 0.16) and reversed (aSHR = 0.95, P = 0.017) in localized and advanced disease, respectively. On the contrary, similar trend was not found for OCM across all age groups. Our results demonstrated the sex effect on RCSM was strongly modified by age. These findings may aid in clinical practice and need further evaluation of underlying biological mechanisms.
doi:10.1038/srep09160
PMCID: PMC4361860  PMID: 25779055
21.  Magnetic resonance hypointensive signal primarily originates from extracellular iron particles in the long-term tracking of mesenchymal stem cells transplanted in the infarcted myocardium 
Purpose
The long-lasting hypointensities in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) were believed to originate from superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-engulfed macrophages during long-term stem cell tracking. However, the iron clearance capacity of the ischemic heart was limited. Therefore, we speculated that the extracellular SPIO particles may also be involved in the generation of false-positive signals.
Methods and results
Male swine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were incubated with SPIO for 24 hours, and SPIO labeling had no significant effects on either cell viability or differentiation. In vitro studies showed that magnetic resonance failed to distinguish SPIO from living SPIO-MSCs or dead SPIO-MSCs. Two hours after the establishment of the female swine acute myocardial infarction model, 2×107 male SPIO-labeled MSCs (n=5) or unlabeled MSCs (n=5) were transextracardially injected into the infarcted myocardium at ten distinct sites. In vivo CMR with T2 star weighted imaging-flash-2D sequence revealed a signal void corresponding to the initial SPIO-MSC injection sites. At 6 months after transplantation, CMR identified 32 (64%) of the 50 injection sites, where massive Prussian blue-positive iron deposits were detected by pathological examination. However, iron particles were predominantly distributed in the extracellular space, and a minority was distributed within CD68-positive macrophages and other CD68-negative cells. No sex-determining region Y DNA of donor MSCs was detected.
Conclusion
CMR hypointensive signal is primarily caused by extracellular iron particles in the long-term tracking of transplanted MSCs after myocardial infarction. Consideration should be given to both the false-positive signal and the potential cardiac toxicity of long-standing iron deposits in the heart.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S77858
PMCID: PMC4354691  PMID: 25767388
superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles; SPIO; cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR); stem cells tracking; extracellular iron particles; myocardial infarction (MI)
22.  Association analysis of 9,560 prostate cancer cases from the International Consortium of Prostate Cancer Genetics confirms the role of reported prostate-cancer associated SNPs for familial disease 
Human genetics  2013;133(3):347-356.
Previous GWAS studies have reported significant associations between various common SNPs and prostate cancer risk using cases unselected for family history. How these variants influence risk in familial prostate cancer is not well studied. Here, we analyzed 25 previously reported SNPs across 14 loci from prior prostate cancer GWAS. The International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG) previously validated some of these using a family-based association method (FBAT). However, this approach suffered reduced power due to the conditional statistics implemented in FBAT. Here, we use a case-control design with an empirical analysis strategy to analyze the ICPCG resource for association between these 25 SNPs and familial prostate cancer risk. Fourteen sites contributed 12,506 samples (9,560 prostate cancer cases, 3,368 with aggressive disease, and 2,946 controls from 2,283 pedigrees). We performed association analysis with Genie software which accounts for relationships. We analyzed all familial prostate cancer cases and the subset of aggressive cases. For the familial prostate cancer phenotype, 20 of the 25 SNPs were at least nominally associated with prostate cancer and 16 remained significant after multiple testing correction (p≤1E−3) occurring on chromosomal bands 6q25, 7p15, 8q24, 10q11, 11q13, 17q12, 17q24, and Xp11. For aggressive disease, 16 of the SNPs had at least nominal evidence and 8 were statistically significant including 2p15. The results indicate that the majority of common, low-risk alleles identified in GWAS studies for all prostate cancer also contribute risk for familial prostate cancer, and that some may be contribute risk to aggressive disease.
doi:10.1007/s00439-013-1384-2
PMCID: PMC3945961  PMID: 24162621
prostate cancer; pedigrees; familial disease; simulation; replication
23.  Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway polymorphisms and the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma 
The EGFR signaling pathway is important in the control of vital processes in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), including cell survival, cell cycle progression, tumor invasion and angiogenesis. In the current study, we aim to assess if genetic variants in the genes of the EGFR signaling pathway are associated with the prognosis of HCC. We genotyped 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in four core genes (EGF, EGFR, VEGF, and VEGFR2) by using DNA from blood samples of 363 HCC patients with surgical resection. The associations between genotypes and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confident intervals (CIs) were estimated for the multivariate survival analyses by Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusting for age, gender, family history, HBsAg and AFP. We found that five SNPs in the VEGFR2 gene were significantly associated with clinical outcomes of HCC patients. Among them, four SNPs (rs7692791, rs2305948, rs13109660, rs6838752) were associated with OS (p=0.035, 0.038, 0.029 and 0.028, respectively), and two SNPs (rs7692791 and rs2034965) were associated with DFS (p=0.039 and 0.017, respectively). Particularly, rs7692791 TT genotype was associated with both reduced OS (p=0.037) and DFS (p=0.043). However, only one SNP rs2034965 with the AA genotype was shown to be an independent effect on DFS (p=0.009) in the multivariate analysis. None of the other 31 polymorphisms or 9 haplotypes attained from the four genes was significantly associated with OS or DFS. Our results illustrated the potential use of VEGFR2 polymorphisms as prognostic markers for HCC patients.
PMCID: PMC4300692  PMID: 25628948
Hepatocellular carcinoma; survival; EGF; EGFR; VEGF; VEGFR2; genetic polymorphisms
24.  Plateau Effect of Prostate Cancer Risk-Associated SNPs in Discriminating Prostate Biopsy Outcomes 
The Prostate  2013;73(16):1824-1835.
BACKGROUND
Additional prostate cancer (PCa) risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) continue to be identified. It is unclear whether addition of newly identified SNPs improves the discriminative performance of biopsy outcomes over previously established SNPs.
METHODS
A total of 667 consecutive patients that underwent prostate biopsy for detection of PCa at Huashan Hospital and Changhai Hospital, Shanghai, China were recruited. Genetic scores were calculated for each patient using various combinations of 29 PCa risk-associated SNPs. Performance of these genetic scores for discriminating prostate biopsy outcomes were compared using the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).
RESULTS
The discriminative performance of genetic score derived from a panel of all 29 SNPs (24 previous and 5 new) was similar to that derived from the 24 previously established SNPs, the AUC of which were 0.60 and 0.61, respectively (P = 0.72). When SNPs with the strongest effect on PCa risk (ranked based on contribution to the total genetic variance from an external study) were sequentially added to the models for calculating genetic score, the AUC gradually increased and peaked at 0.62 with the top 13 strongest SNPs. Under the 13-SNP model, the PCa detection rate was 21.52%, 36.74%, and 51.98%, respectively for men with low (<0.5), intermediate (0.5–1.5), and high (>1.5) genetic score, P-trend = 9.91 × 10−6.
CONCLUSION
Genetic score based on PCa risk-associated SNPs implicated to date is a significant predictor of biopsy outcome. Additional small-effect PCa risk-associated SNPs to be discovered in the future are unlikely to further improve predictive performance.
doi:10.1002/pros.22721
PMCID: PMC3910089  PMID: 24037738
prostate; SNPs; genetic score; ChinaPCa; biopsy; AUC
25.  Evaluation of Reported Prostate Cancer Risk-Associated SNPs From Genome-Wide Association Studies of Various Racial Populations in Chinese Men 
The Prostate  2013;73(15):1623-1635.
BACKGROUND
Several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of prostate cancer (PCa) have identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are significantly associated with PCa risk in various racial groups. The objective of this study is to evaluate which of these SNPs are associated with PCa risk in Chinese men and estimate their strength of association.
METHODS
All SNPs that were reported to be associated with PCa risk in GWAS from populations of European, African American, Japanese, and Chinese descent were evaluated in 1,922 PCa cases and 2,175 controls selected from the Chinese Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ChinaPCa). A logistic regression analysis was used to estimate allelic odds ratios (ORs) of these SNPs for PCa.
RESULTS
Among the 53 SNPs, 50 were polymorphic in the Chinese population. Of which, 10 and 24 SNPs were significantly associated with PCa risk in Chinese men at P < 0.001 and <0.05, respectively. These 24 significant SNPs included 17, 5, and 2 SNPs that were originally discovered in European, Japanese, and Chinese descent, respectively. The estimated ORs ranged from 1.10 to 1.49 and the direction of association was consistent with previous studies. When ORs were estimated separately for PCa with Gleason score ≤7 and ≥8, a marginally significant difference in ORs was found only for two of the 24 SNPs (P = 0.02 and 0.04).
CONCLUSION
About half of PCa risk-associated SNPs identified in GWAS of various populations are associated with PCa risk in Chinese men. Information on PCa risk-associated SNPs and their ORs may facilitate risk assessment of PCa risk in Chinese men.
doi:10.1002/pros.22629
PMCID: PMC3928594  PMID: 24038036
prostate cancer; SNPs; genome-wide association; Chinese

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