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author:("Xing, xiaoyan")
1.  Fluence Rate-Dependent Intratumor Heterogeneity in Physiologic and Cytotoxic Responses to Photofrin Photodynamic Therapy 
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can lead to the creation of heterogeneous, response-limiting hypoxia during illumination, which may be controlled in part through illumination fluence rate. In the present report we consider 1) regional differences in hypoxia, vascular response, and cell kill as a function of tumor depth and 2) the role of fluence rate as a mediator of depth-dependent regional intratumor heterogeneity. Intradermal RIF murine tumors were treated with Photofrin-PDT using surface illumination at an irradiance of 75 or 38 mW/cm2. Regional heterogeneity in tumor response was examined through comparison of effects in the surface vs. base of tumors, i.e. along a plane parallel to the skin surface and perpendicular to the incident illumination. 75 mW/cm2-PDT created significantly greater hypoxia in tumor bases relative to their surfaces. Increased hypoxia in the tumor base could not be attributed to regional differences in Photofrin concentration nor effects of fluence rate distribution on photochemical oxygen consumption, but significant depth-dependent heterogeneity in vascular responses and cytotoxic response were detected. At a lower fluence rate of 38 mW/cm2, no detectable regional differences in hypoxia or cytotoxic responses were apparent, and heterogeneity in vascular response was significantly less than that during 75 mW/cm2-PDT. This research suggests that the benefits of low-fluence-rate-PDT are mediated in part by a reduction in intratumor heterogeneity in hypoxic, vascular and cytotoxic responses.
doi:10.1039/b9pp00004f
PMCID: PMC2834171  PMID: 20024165
photodynamic therapy; fluence rate; hypoxia; EF3; blood flow
2.  Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibition Modulates the Microenvironment by Vascular Normalization to Improve Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy Efficacy 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(8):e6539.
Background
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors have shown only modest clinical activity when used as single agents to treat cancers. They decrease tumor cell expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Hypothesizing that this might normalize tumor vasculature, we examined the effects of the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib on tumor vascular function, tumor microenvironment (TME) and chemotherapy and radiotherapy sensitivity.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Erlotinib treatment of human tumor cells in vitro and mice bearing xenografts in vivo led to decreased HIF-1α and VEGF expression. Treatment altered xenograft vessel morphology assessed by confocal microscopy (following tomato lectin injection) and decreased vessel permeability (measured by Evan's blue extravasation), suggesting vascular normalization. Erlotinib increased tumor blood flow measured by Power Doppler ultrasound and decreased hypoxia measured by EF5 immunohistochemistry and tumor O2 saturation measured by optical spectroscopy. Predicting that these changes would improve drug delivery and increase response to chemotherapy and radiation, we performed tumor regrowth studies in nude mice with xenografts treated with erlotinib and either radiotherapy or the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin. Erlotinib therapy followed by cisplatin led to synergistic inhibition of tumor growth compared with either treatment by itself (p<0.001). Treatment with erlotinib before cisplatin led to greater tumor growth inhibition than did treatment with cisplatin before erlotinib (p = 0.006). Erlotinib followed by radiation inhibited tumor regrowth to a greater degree than did radiation alone, although the interaction between erlotinib and radiation was not synergistic.
Conclusions/Significance
EGFR inhibitors have shown clinical benefit when used in combination with conventional cytotoxic therapy. Our studies show that targeting tumor cells with EGFR inhibitors may modulate the TME via vascular normalization to increase response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These studies suggest ways to assess the response of tumors to EGFR inhibition using non-invasive imaging of the TME.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006539
PMCID: PMC2716529  PMID: 19657384

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