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1.  Simulations of Measured Photobleaching Kinetics in Human Basal Cell Carcinomas Suggest Blood Flow Reductions During ALA-PDT 
Lasers in surgery and medicine  2009;41(9):686-696.
Background and Objective
In a recently completed pilot clinical study at Roswell Park Cancer Institute, patients with superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC) received topical application of 20% 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and were irradiated with 633 nm light at 10–150 mW cm−2. Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) photobleaching in the lesion and the adjacent perilesion normal margin was monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy. In most cases, the rate of bleaching slowed as treatment progressed, leaving a fraction of the PpIX unbleached despite sustained irradiation. To account for this feature, we hypothesized a decrease in blood flow during ALA-photodynamic therapy (PDT) that reduced the rate of oxygen transported to the tissue and therefore attenuated the photobleaching process. We have performed a detailed analysis of this hypothesis.
Study Design/Materials and Methods
We used a comprehensive, previously published mathematical model to simulate the effects of therapy-induced blood flow reduction on the measured PpIX photobleaching. This mathematical model of PDT in vivo incorporates a singlet-oxygen-mediated photobleaching mechanism, dynamic unloading of oxygen from hemoglobin, and provides for blood flow velocity changes. It permits simulation of the in vivo photobleaching of PpIX in this patient population over the full range of irradiances and fluences.
Results
The results suggest that the physiological equivalent of discrete blood flow reductions is necessary to simulate successfully the features of the bleaching data over the entire treatment fluence regime. Furthermore, the magnitude of the blood flow changes in the normal tissue margin and lesion for a wide range of irradiances is consistent with a nitric-oxide-mediated mechanism of vasoconstriction.
Conclusion
A detailed numerical study using a comprehensive PDT dosimetry model is consistent with the hypothesis that the observed trends in the in vivo PpIX photobleaching data from patients may be explained on the basis of therapy-induced blood flow reductions at specific fluences.
doi:10.1002/lsm.20847
PMCID: PMC2805271  PMID: 19802891
photodynamic therapy; skin cancer; fluorescence spectroscopy; protoporphyrin IX
2.  Feasibility of interstitial diffuse optical tomography using cylindrical diffusing fiber for prostate PDT 
Physics in medicine and biology  2013;58(10):3461-3480.
Interstitial diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has been used to characterize spatial distribution of optical properties for prostate photodynamic therapy (PDT) dosimetry. We have developed an interstitial DOT method using cylindrical diffuse fibers (CDFs) as light sources, so that the same light sources can be used for both DOT measurement and PDT treatment. In this novel interstitial CDF-DOT method, absolute light fluence per source strength (in unit of 1/cm2) is used to separate absorption and scattering coefficients. A mathematical phantom and a solid prostate phantom including anomalies with known optical properties were used, respectively, to test the feasibility of reconstructing optical properties using interstitial CDF-DOT. Three dimension spatial distributions of the optical properties were reconstructed for both scenarios. Our studies show that absorption coefficient can be reliably extrapolated while there are some cross talks between absorption and scattering properties. Even with the suboptimal reduced scattering coefficients, the reconstructed light fluence rate agreed with the measured values to within ±10%, thus the proposed CDF-DOT allows greatly improved light dosimetry calculation for interstitial PDT.
doi:10.1088/0031-9155/58/10/3461
PMCID: PMC3759155  PMID: 23629149
Diffuse optical tomography; Photodynamic therapy; Cylindrical diffusing fiber
3.  Reconstruction of in-vivo optical properties for human prostate using interstitial diffuse optical tomography 
Optics Express  2009;17(14):11665-11672.
A CW interstitial diffuse optical tomography has been developed to characterize the in-vivo optical properties of prostate gland during photodynamic therapy. The spatial distributions of light fluence rate can be described by the diffusion equation. Optical properties of the prostate are reconstructed by solving the inverse problem with an adjoint method. The 3D reconstructed in-vivo optical properties for a human prostate is illustrated and compared with the results generated by a well-established point-by-point method. Moreover, the calculated fluence rate using the reconstructed optical properties matches the measured data.
PMCID: PMC3276880  PMID: 19582081
4.  Explicit dosimetry for photodynamic therapy: macroscopic singlet oxygen modeling 
Journal of biophotonics  2010;3(5-6):304-318.
Singlet oxygen (1O2) is the major cytotoxic agent responsible for cell killing for type-II photodynamic therapy (PDT). An empirical four-parameter macroscopic model is proposed to calculate the “apparent reacted 1O2 concentration”, [1O2]rx, as a clinical PDT dosimetry quantity. This model incorporates light diffusion equation and a set of PDT kinetics equations, which can be applied in any clinical treatment geometry. We demonstrate that by introducing a fitting quantity “apparent singlet oxygen threshold concentration” [1O2]rx,sd, it is feasible to determine the model parameters by fitting the computed [1O2]rx to the Photofrin-mediated PDT-induced necrotic distance using interstitially-measured Photofrin concentration and optical properties within each mouse. After determining the model parameters and the [1O2]rx,sd, we expect to use this model as an explicit dosimetry to assess PDT treatment outcome for a specific photosensitizer in an in vivo environment. The results also provide evidence that the [1O2]rx, because it takes into account the oxygen consumption (or light fluence rate) effect, can be a better predictor of PDT outcome than the PDT dose defined as the energy absorbed by the photosensitizer, which is proportional to the product of photosensitizer concentration and light fluence.
doi:10.1002/jbio.200900101
PMCID: PMC3071971  PMID: 20222102
photodynamic therapy; explicit dosimetry; singlet oxygen; mathematical modeling
5.  Fluence Rate-Dependent Intratumor Heterogeneity in Physiologic and Cytotoxic Responses to Photofrin Photodynamic Therapy 
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can lead to the creation of heterogeneous, response-limiting hypoxia during illumination, which may be controlled in part through illumination fluence rate. In the present report we consider 1) regional differences in hypoxia, vascular response, and cell kill as a function of tumor depth and 2) the role of fluence rate as a mediator of depth-dependent regional intratumor heterogeneity. Intradermal RIF murine tumors were treated with Photofrin-PDT using surface illumination at an irradiance of 75 or 38 mW/cm2. Regional heterogeneity in tumor response was examined through comparison of effects in the surface vs. base of tumors, i.e. along a plane parallel to the skin surface and perpendicular to the incident illumination. 75 mW/cm2-PDT created significantly greater hypoxia in tumor bases relative to their surfaces. Increased hypoxia in the tumor base could not be attributed to regional differences in Photofrin concentration nor effects of fluence rate distribution on photochemical oxygen consumption, but significant depth-dependent heterogeneity in vascular responses and cytotoxic response were detected. At a lower fluence rate of 38 mW/cm2, no detectable regional differences in hypoxia or cytotoxic responses were apparent, and heterogeneity in vascular response was significantly less than that during 75 mW/cm2-PDT. This research suggests that the benefits of low-fluence-rate-PDT are mediated in part by a reduction in intratumor heterogeneity in hypoxic, vascular and cytotoxic responses.
doi:10.1039/b9pp00004f
PMCID: PMC2834171  PMID: 20024165
photodynamic therapy; fluence rate; hypoxia; EF3; blood flow
6.  Photodynamic dose does not correlate with long-term tumor response to mTHPC-PDT performed at several drug-light intervals 
Medical physics  2008;35(8):3518-3526.
Meso-tetra-hydroxyphenyl-chlorin (mTHPC, Foscan®), a promising photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT), is approved in Europe for the palliative treatment of head and neck cancer. Based on work in mice that investigated optimal tumor accumulation, clinical protocols with Foscan® typically employ an interval of 96 hours between systemic sensitizer administration and irradiation. However, recent studies in mouse tumor models have demonstrated significantly improved long-term tumor response when irradiation is performed at shorter drug-light intervals of 3 and 6 hours. Using a previously published theoretical model of microscopic PDT dosimetry and informed by experimentally determined photophysical properties and intratumor sensitizer concentrations and distributions, we calculated photodynamic dose depositions following mTHPC-PDT for drug-light intervals of 3, 6, 24 and 96 h. Our results demonstrate that the singlet oxygen dose to the tumor volume does not track even qualitatively with tumor responses for these four drug-light intervals. Further, microscopic analysis of simulated singlet oxygen deposition shows that in no case do any subpopulations of tumor cells receive a threshold dose. Indeed, under the conditions of these simulations more than 90% of the tumor volume receives a dose that is approximately 20-fold lower than the threshold dose for mTHPC. Thus, in this evaluation of mTHPC-PDT at various drug-light intervals, any PDT dose metric that is proportional to singlet oxygen creation and/or deposition would fail to predict the tumor response. In situations like this one, other reporters of biological response to therapy would be necessary.
PMCID: PMC2562246  PMID: 18777912
photodynamic therapy; mTHPC; dosimetry; numerical simulation

Results 1-6 (6)