microRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) capable of negatively regulating gene expression. Recently, microRNA-like small RNAs (milRNAs) were discovered in several filamentous fungi but not yet in Trichoderma reesei, an industrial filamentous fungus that can secrete abundant hydrolases. To explore the presence of milRNA in T. reesei and evaluate their expression under induction of cellulose, two T. reesei sRNA libraries of cellulose induction (IN) and non-induction (CON) were generated and sequenced using Solexa sequencing technology. A total of 726 and 631 sRNAs were obtained from the IN and CON samples, respectively. Global expression analysis showed an extensively differential expression of sRNAs in T. reesei under the two conditions. Thirteen predicted milRNAs were identified in T. reesei based on the short hairpin structure analysis. The milRNA profiles obtained in deep sequencing were further validated by RT-qPCR assay. Computational analysis predicted a number of potential targets relating to many processes including regulation of enzyme expression. The presence and differential expression of T. reesei milRNAs imply that milRNA might play a role in T. reesei growth and cellulase induction. This work lays foundation for further functional study of fungal milRNAs and their industrial application.
Cell culture/xenograft and gene arrays of clinical material document that development of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells involves acquisition of adaptive auto-regulation resulting in > 25 fold increase in Androgen Receptor (AR) protein expression in a low androgen environment. Such adaptive AR increase paradoxically is a liability in castrated hosts; however, when supraphysiologic androgen is acutely replaced. Cell synchronization/anti-androgen response document this is due to AR binding to replication complexes (RC) at origin of replication sites in early G1 associated with licensing/restricting DNA for single round of duplication during S-phase. When CRPC cells are acutely exposed to supraphysiologic androgen, adaptively increased nuclear AR is over-stabilizes preventing sufficient degradation in mitosis inhibiting DNA re-licensing and thus death in the subsequent cell cycle. These mechanistic results and the fact that AR/RC binding occurs in metastatic CRPCs directly from patients provides a paradigm shifting rationale for bipolar androgen therapy (BAT) in patient progressing on chronic androgen ablation. BAT involves giving sequential cycles alternating between periods of acute supraphysiologic androgen followed by acute ablation to take advantage of vulnerability produced by adaptive auto-regulation and binding of AR to RC in CRPC cells. BAT therapy is effective in xenografts and based upon positive results has entered clinical testing.
Androgen Receptor; Origin of Replication; DNA Licensing; Orc; Cdc6; Cdt1; Mcm; Prostate Cancer; Bipolar Androgen Therapy
In the title compound, [ZnI2(C34H31N3)], the ZnII atom is four-coordinated by two I atoms and the pyridine N atoms from the bidentate 6′-phenyl-2,2′-bipyridine ligand in a distorted tetrahedral geometry.
Human cancers nearly ubiquitously harbor epigenetic alterations. While such alterations in epigenetic marks, including DNA methylation, are potentially heritable, they can also be dynamically altered. Given this potential for plasticity, the degree to which epigenetic changes can be subject to selection and act as drivers of neoplasia has been questioned. Here, we carried out genome-scale analyses of DNA methylation alterations in lethal metastatic prostate cancer and created DNA methylation “cityscape” plots to visualize these complex data. We show that somatic DNA methylation alterations, despite showing marked inter-individual heterogeneity among men with lethal metastatic prostate cancer, were maintained across all metastases within the same individual. The overall extent of maintenance in DNA methylation changes was comparable to that of genetic copy number alterations. Regions that were frequently hypermethylated across individuals were markedly enriched for cancer and development/differentiation related genes. Additionally, regions exhibiting high consistency of hypermethylation across metastases within individuals, even if variably hypermethylated across individuals, showed enrichment of cancer-related genes. Interestingly, whereas some regions showed intra-individual metastatic tumor heterogeneity in promoter methylation, such methylation alterations were generally not correlated with gene expression. This was despite a general tendency for promoter methylation patterns to be strongly correlated with gene expression, particularly at regions that were variably methylated across individuals. These findings suggest that DNA methylation alterations have the potential for producing selectable driver events in carcinogenesis and disease progression and highlight the possibility of targeting such epigenome alterations for development of longitudinal markers and therapeutic strategies.
Human intestinal trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is a member of a family of polypeptides encoded by a cluster of genes on chromosome 21. Through gene expression profiling studies TFF3 mRNA has been found to be overexpressed in prostate cancer.
We used immunochemistry on tissue microarrays and software tools, collectively referred to as TMAJ, for online assessment of staining to analyze samples from 294 primary tumors and 61 metastatic lesions.
Applying a cutoff of 20% of cells staining as positive, the frequency of staining was 18.8% in normal (51of 272) and 47.0%in primary tumors (126 of 268), P < 0.0001, Wilcoxon rank sum). Expression of TFF3 in metastatic prostate cancer was similar to that in primary tumors. TFF3 expression was not associated with time to biochemical recurrence, development of distant metastasis, or death due to prostate cancer. Scoring data derived from visual estimation of expression correlated highly with semi-automated image analysis using the Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACISTM) from Chromavision, Inc.
These studies validate that TFF3 is overexpressed at the protein level in a subset of primary and metastatic prostate cancers, show the first use of the TMAJ database, and demonstrate the ability to semi-automatically scan and score immunohistochemically stained tissue microarray slides. Prostate 61: 215–227, 2004.
prostate cancer; tissue microarrays; trefoil factor
Continued androgen receptor (AR) signaling is an established mechanism underlying castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and suppression of AR signaling remains a therapeutic goal of CRPC therapy. Constitutively active androgen receptor splice variants (AR-Vs) lack the AR ligand-binding domain (AR-LBD), the intended target of androgen deprivation therapies (ADT) including CRPC therapies such as abiraterone and MDV3100. While the canonical full-length AR (AR-FL) and AR-Vs are both increased in CRPC, their expression regulation, associated transcriptional programs, and functional relationships have not been dissected. In this study, we show that suppression of ligand-mediated AR-FL signaling by targeting AR-LBD leads to increased AR-V expression in two cell line models of CRPC. Importantly, treatment-induced AR-Vs activated a distinct expression signature enriched for cell cycle genes without requiring the presence of AR-FL. Conversely, activation of AR-FL signaling suppressed the AR-V signature and activated expression programs mainly associated with macromolecular synthesis, metabolism, and differentiation. In prostate cancer cells and CRPC xenografts treated with MDV3100 or abiraterone, increased expression of two constitutively active AR-Vs, AR-V7 and ARV567ES, but not AR-FL, paralleled increased expression of the AR-driven cell cycle gene UBE2C. Expression of AR-V7, but not AR-FL, was positively correlated with UBE2C in clinical CRPC specimens. Together, our findings support an adaptive shift toward AR-V-mediated signaling in a subset of CRPC tumors as the AR-LBD is rendered inactive, suggesting an important mechanism contributing to drug resistance to CRPC therapy.
androgen receptor; castration-resistant prostate cancer; androgen receptor splice variants; MDV3100; abiraterone
We used the newly-developed Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA) and gene network analysis to study the sow mammary transcriptome at 80, 100, and 110 days of pregnancy. A swine oligoarray with 13,290 inserts was used for transcriptome profiling. An ANOVA with false discovery rate (FDR < 0.15) correction resulted in 1,409 genes with a significant time effect across time comparisons. The DIA uncovered that Fatty acid biosynthesis, Interleukin-4 receptor binding, Galactose metabolism, and mTOR signaling were among the most-impacted pathways. IL-4 receptor binding, ABC transporters, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and Jak-STAT signaling were markedly activated at 110 days compared with 80 and 100 days. Epigenetic and transcription factor regulatory mechanisms appear important in coordinating the final stages of mammary development during pregnancy. Network analysis revealed a crucial role for TP53, ARNT2, E2F4, and PPARG. The bioinformatics analyses revealed a number of pathways and functions that perform an irreplaceable role during late gestation to farrowing.
systems biology; transcriptomics; mammary gland; sow; dynamic impact approach
Chrysopa pallens (Rambur) are the most important natural enemies and predators of various agricultural pests. Understanding the sophisticated olfactory system in insect antennae is crucial for studying the physiological bases of olfaction and also could lead to effective applications of C. pallens in integrated pest management. However no transcriptome information is available for Neuroptera, and sequence data for C. pallens are scarce, so obtaining more sequence data is a priority for researchers on this species.
To facilitate identifying sets of genes involved in olfaction, a normalized transcriptome of C. pallens was sequenced. A total of 104,603 contigs were obtained and assembled into 10,662 clusters and 39,734 singletons; 20,524 were annotated based on BLASTX analyses. A large number of candidate chemosensory genes were identified, including 14 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 22 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 16 ionotropic receptors, 14 odorant receptors, and genes potentially involved in olfactory modulation. To better understand the OBPs, CSPs and cytochrome P450s, phylogenetic trees were constructed. In addition, 10 digital gene expression libraries of different tissues were constructed and gene expression profiles were compared among different tissues in males and females.
Our results provide a basis for exploring the mechanisms of chemoreception in C. pallens, as well as other insects. The evolutionary analyses in our study provide new insights into the differentiation and evolution of insect OBPs and CSPs. Our study provided large-scale sequence information for further studies in C. pallens.
In the title complex, [Ni(C2N3)2(C9H24N4)], the NiII atom is coordinated in a distorted octahedral geometry by one tris(3-aminopropyl)amine (trisapa) ligand and two dicyanamide (dca) ligands [one of them disordered in a 0.681 (19):0319 (19) ratio]. Intermolecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds involving the N atoms of the dca anions and the trisapa amine H atoms result in the formation of a three-dimensional network.
The coercive fields (EC) of Pb(In0.5Nb0.5)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) ternary single crystals were found to be 5 kV/cm, double the value of binary Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMNT) crystals, further increased to 6 to 9 kV/cm using Mn modifications. In addition to an increased EC, the acceptor modification resulted in the developed internal bias (Eint), on the order of ~1 kV/cm. The piezoelectric shear properties of unmodified and Mn-modified PIN-PMN-PT crystals with various domain configurations were investigated. The shear piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical coupling factors for different domain configurations were found to be >2000 pC/N and >0.85, respectively, with slightly reduced properties observed in Mn-modified tetragonal crystals. Fatigue/cycling tests performed on shear-mode samples as a function of ac drive field level demonstrated that the allowable ac field levels (the maximum applied ac field before the occurrence of depolarization) were only ~2 kV/cm for unmodified crystals, less than half of their coercive field. Allowable ac drive levels were on the order of 4 to 6 kV/cm for Mn-modified crystals with rhombohedral/orthorhombic phase, further increased to 5 to 8 kV/cm in tetragonal crystals, because of their higher coercive fields. It is of particular interest that the allowable ac drive field level for Mn-modified crystals was found to be ≥60% of their coercive fields, because of the developed Eint, induced by the acceptor-oxygen vacancy defect dipoles.
Ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal gynaecological cancers worldwide. However, the mechanisms underlying ovarian carcinogenesis are not well understood. The present study used immunostaining, western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR to demonstrate that ZNF268 is overexpressed in human ovarian carcinomas. ZNF268-knockdown increased the viability, colony formation and growth of in vivo xenografts of ovarian carcinoma SKOV-3 cells, whereas SKOV-3 cell migration was inhibited. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the knockdown of ZNF268 may increase SKOV-3 cell growth by promoting cell cycle progression. The findings suggest that ZNF268 is a novel protein involved in ovarian carcinogenesis and that it may aid in the understanding of the mechanisms of ovarian carcinogenesis.
ZNF268; ovarian cancer; SKOV-3 cells
We aimed to investigate the effect of valproic acid (VPA) on NKG2D ligand expression in human renal carcinoma cell lines and to investigate the mechanisms.
Material and methods
Different concentrations of VPA from 0.5 mM to 8.0 mM were applied to 786-O and ACHN cell lines, respectively. Cell viability after treatment with VPA was determined by flow cytometry (FCM). Real-time PCR and FCM were used to detect the changes of mRNA and protein level of NKG2D ligands (MICA/B and ULBPs) in the two cell lines treated with 4 mM VPA. The cytotoxicity assay and CD107a mobilization assay were carried out to detect the cytotoxicity changes of NK cells against renal carcinoma cell lines after the same treatment.
Valproic acid can efficiently upregulate MICA/B, ULBP1 and ULBP2 expression in the renal carcinoma cell lines at the mRNA and protein level (p < 0.05). 786-O and ACHN cells treated with VPA were more susceptible to killing by NK cells than untreated cells and the enhanced cytotoxicity of NK cells was blocked by the pretreatment of NK cells with anti-NKG2D monoclonal antibodies (p < 0.05).
Valproic acid can clearly induce the expression of NKG2D ligands of renal carcinoma cell lines, thereby enhancing the cytotoxicity of NK cells against renal carcinoma cell lines.
valproic acid; renal carcinoma cell; NKG2D ligands; NK cells
To explore the function of PPARγ in the goat mammary gland, we cloned the whole cDNA of the PPARγ gene. Homology alignments revealed that the goat PPARγ gene is conserved among goat, bovine, mouse, and human. Luciferase assays revealed that rosiglitazone enhanced the activity of the PPARγ response element (PPRE) in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs). After rosiglitazone (ROSI) treatment of GMECs, there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the expression of genes related to triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion: LPL, FASN, ACACA, PLIN3, FABP3, PLIN2, PNPLA2, NR1H3, SREBF1, and SCD. The decreases in expression observed after knockdown of PPARγ relative to the control group (Ad-NC) averaged 65%, 52%, 67%, 55%, 65%, 58%, 85%, 43%, 50%, and 24% for SCD, DGAT1, AGPAT6, SREBF1, ACACA, FASN, FABP3, SCAP, ATGL, and PLIN3, respectively. These results provide direct evidence that PPARγ plays a crucial role in regulating the triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion in goat mammary cells and underscore the functional importance of PPARγ in mammary gland tissue during lactation.
The title compound, C32H21N4·C2H5OH, crystallized as an ethanol monosolvate. In the molecule of this phenanthroline derivative, the pyridine rings are almost coplanar, making a dihedral angle of 1.54 (13)°. The triphenylamine group, introduced as an electron donor, shows a propeller-type structure, and the dihedral angles between the benzene rings are 68.71 11), 63.92 (16) and 70.81 (15)°. In the crystal, the phenanthroline molecules are linked via the solvent molecule by N—H⋯O, O—H⋯N and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of zigzag chains propagating along . These chains are linked via C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming undulating two-dimensional networks extending in the a- and b-axis directions.
Abnormal inflammatory signaling activation occurs commonly in cancer cells. However, how it is initiated and maintained, and its roles in early stages of tumorigensis are largely unknown. Here we report that the monocyte-derived MCP-1-induced transformation of immortal breast epithelial cells is triggered by transient activation of MEK/ERK and IKK/NF-κB pathways, and maintained by constitutive activation of a feed-forward inflammatory signaling circuit composed of miR-200c, p65, JNK2, HSF1 and IL6. Suppression of miR-200c by IL6 constitutively activates p65/RelA and JNK2, and the latter phosphorylates and activates HSF1. In turn, HSF1 triggers demethylation of the IL6 promoter that facilitates the binding of p65 and c-Jun that together drives constitutive IL6 transcription. Importantly, this signaling circuit is manifest in human cancer cells and in a mouse model of ErbB2-driven breast cancer, where IL6 loss significantly impairs tumorigenesis. Therefore, targeting this signaling circuit represents an effective therapeutic avenue for breast cancer prevention and treatment.
Social insect cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) mixtures are among the most complex chemical cues known and are important in nest-mate, caste and species recognition. Despite our growing knowledge of the nature of these cues, we have very little insight into how social insects actually perceive and discriminate among these chemicals. In this study, we use the newly developed technique of differential olfactory conditioning to pure, custom-designed synthetic colony odours to analyse signal discrimination in Argentine ants, Linepithema humile. Our results show that tri-methyl alkanes are more easily learned than single-methyl or straight-chain alkanes. In addition, we reveal that Argentine ants can discriminate between hydrocarbons with different branching patterns and the same chain length, but not always between hydrocarbons with the same branching patterns but different chain length. Our data thus show that biochemical characteristics influence those compounds that ants can discriminate between, and which thus potentially play a role in chemical signalling and nest-mate recognition.
Nest-mate recognition; cuticular hydrocarbons; chemical communication
Previous investigation has demonstrated that CD4+ T cells play a crucial role in effective immunity against Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection. It has been well proved that Lpp20 is one of major protective antigens that induce immune responses after H.pylori invades host. Therefore it is valuable to identify CD4+ T cell epitopes on Lpp20, which is uncharacterized.
Putative epitopes of H-2d restricted CD4+ T cell on Lpp20 of H.pylori were predicted by the SYFPEITHI algorithm and then eight hypothetical epitope peptides were synthesized. After BALB/c mice were primed with recombinant Lpp20, splenic CD4+ T cells were isolated and stimulated with synthesized peptides to measure T cell proliferation and MHC restriction. Cytokine profile was determined by ELISA and real-time PCR. Two identified epitopes were used to immunize mice to investigate CD4+ T cell response by flow cytometry.
Two of eight peptides were able to stimulate CD4+ T cell proliferation and were mapped to residues 83-97aa and 58-72aa on Lpp20 respectively. These two peptides additively stimulated Th1 cells to secrete IFN-γ. The percentage of CD4+ T cell from mice immunized with two identified epitopes respectively was higher than the control group.
The identification and characterization of two CD4+ T cell epitopes of Lpp20 helps understand the protective immunity of Lpp20 in H.pylori infection and design effective epitope vaccines against H.pylori.
Helicobacter pylori; Lpp20; CD4+ T cell; Epitope
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs capable of postranscriptionally regulating gene expression. Accurate expression profiling is crucial for understanding the biological roles of miRNAs, and exploring them as biomarkers of diseases.
A novel, highly sensitive, and reliable miRNA quantification approach,termed S-Poly(T) miRNA assay, is designed. In this assay, miRNAs are subjected to polyadenylation and reverse transcription with a S-Poly(T) primer that contains a universal reverse primer, a universal Taqman probe, an oligo(dT)11 sequence and six miRNA-specific bases. Individual miRNAs are then amplified by a specific forward primer and a universal reverse primer, and the PCR products are detected by a universal Taqman probe. The S-Poly(T) assay showed a minimum of 4-fold increase in sensitivity as compared with the stem-loop or poly(A)-based methods. A remarkable specificity in discriminating among miRNAs with high sequence similarity was also obtained with this approach. Using this method, we profiled miRNAs in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (HPASMC) and identified 9 differentially expressed miRNAs associated with hypoxia treatment. Due to its outstanding sensitivity, the number of circulating miRNAs from normal human serum was significantly expanded from 368 to 518.
With excellent sensitivity, specificity, and high-throughput, the S-Poly(T) method provides a powerful tool for miRNAs quantification and identification of tissue- or disease-specific miRNA biomarkers.
The contemporary problem of prostate cancer overtreatment can be partially attributed to the diagnosis of potentially indolent prostate cancers that pose low risk to aged men, and lack of sufficiently accurate risk stratification methods to reliably seek out men with indolent diseases. Since progressive acquisition and accumulation of genomic alterations, both genetic and epigenetic, is a defining feature of all human cancers at different stages of disease progression, it is hypothesized that RNA and DNA alterations characteristic of indolent prostate tumors may be different from those previously characterized in the setting of clinically significant prostate cancer. Approaches capable of detecting such alterations on a genome-wide level are the most promising. Such analysis may uncover molecular events defining early initiating stages along the natural history of prostate cancer progression, and ultimately lead to rational development of risk stratification methods for identification of men who can safely forego treatment. However, defining and characterizing indolent prostate cancer in a clinically relevant context remains a challenge, particularly when genome-wide approaches are employed to profile formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens. Here, we provide the conceptual basis underlying the importance of understanding indolent prostate cancer from molecular profiling studies, identify the key hurdles in sample acquisition and variables that affect molecular data derived from FFPE tissues, and highlight recent progresses in efforts to address these technical challenges.
active surveillance; formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded; indolent prostate cancer; microarray; molecular profiling; prostate cancer; prostate cancer progression; risk stratification
We report on a novel binding gel for phosphate, based on ferrihydrite, and its use in diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) for measuring labile phosphate species in waters, sediments, and soils. An existing method of binding layer preparation was modified to overcome potential problems with deterioration of ferrihydrite due to conversion to goethite. The gel was characterized regarding its suitability for conventional DGT measurements as well as for measuring two-dimensional distributions of P with high spatial resolution using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). The effects of pH, ionic strength and storage time of gels on phosphate binding were investigated and the kinetics of binding and the maximum binding capacity were determined. The gel is shown to have a considerably higher P capacity than the conventional ferrihydrite DGT binding layers. LA-ICPMS analysis of DGT standards with P concentrations ranging from 0.088 ± 0.005 to 4.47 ± 0.16 μg cm−2 resulted in reproducible calibration curves which could be described using a simple power function. We demonstrate that the new gel is well suited for analyzing small-scale changes of P concentrations in soils. Moreover, the gel can be used as an alternative to conventional DGT gels that incorporate powdered ferrihydrite, with improved characteristics for the determination of labile phosphate.
Current surgical treatment of prostate cancer is typically accomplished by either open radical prostatectomy (ORP) or robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP). Intra-operative procedural differences between the two surgical approaches may alter the molecular composition of resected surgical specimens, which are indispensable for molecular analysis and biomarker evaluation. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of different surgical procedures on RNA quality and genome-wide expression signature. RNA integrity number (RIN) values were compared between total RNA samples extracted from consecutive LRP (n=11) and ORP (n=24) prostate specimens. Expression profiling was performed using the Agilent human whole-genome expression microarrays. Expression differences by surgical type were analyzed by Volcano plot analysis and gene ontology analysis. Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used for expression validation in an independent set of LRP (n=8) and ORP (n=8) samples. The LRP procedure did not compromise RNA integrity. Differential gene expression by surgery types was limited to a small subset of genes, the number of which was smaller than that expected by chance. Unexpectedly, this small subset of differentially expressed genes was enriched for those encoding transcription factors, oxygen transporters and other previously reported surgery-induced stress-response genes, and demonstrated unidirectional reduction in LRP specimens in comparison to ORP specimens. The effect of the LRP procedure on RNA quality and genome-wide transcript levels is negligible, supporting the suitability of LRP surgical specimens for routine molecular analysis. Blunted in vivo stress response in LRP specimens, likely mediated by CO2 insufflation but not by longer ischemia time, is manifested in the reduced expression of stress-response genes in these specimens.
CO2 insufflation; expression microarray; laparoscopic radical prostatectomy; open radical prostatectomy; prostate cancer; stress response
Comment on: Rokavec M, et al. Mol Cell 2012; 45:777-89.
breast cancer; cell transformation; constitutive inflammatory signaling; estrogen receptor; inflammation; signaling circuit; transient inflammatory signaling; tumorigenesis
Erianthus arundinaceum is a wild relative species of sugarcane. The aim of this research was to demonstrate the feasibility of cDNA-SRAP for differential gene expression and to explore the molecular mechanism of drought resistance in E. arundinaceum. cDNA-SRAP technique, for the first time, was applied in the analysis of differential gene expression in E. arundinaceum under drought stress. In total, eight differentially expressed genes with length of 185–427 bp were successfully isolated (GenBank Accession numbers: EU071770, EU071772, EU071774, EU071776, EU071777, EU071779, EU071780, and EU071781). Based on their homologies with genes in GenBank, these genes were assumed to encode ribonuclease III, vacuolar protein, ethylene insensitive protein, aerobactin biosynthesis protein, photosystem II protein, glucose transporter, leucine-rich repeat protein, and ammonia monooxygenase. Real-time PCR analysis on the expression profiling of gene (EU071774) encoding ethylene-insensitive protein and gene (EU071781) encoding ammonia monooxygenase revealed that the expression of these two genes was upregulated both by PEG and ABA treatments, suggesting that they may involve in the drought resistance of E. arundinaceum. This study constitutes the first report of genes activated in E. arundinaceum by drought stress and opens up the application of cDNA-SRAP in differential gene expression analysis in E. arundinaceum under certain stress conditions.
Autologous adult cardiomyocytes are not utilized for heart repair strategies because of their rapid apoptosis after implantation. We examined whether induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a mediator of preconditioning, could enhance early postimplant myocyte survival. Three-dimensional 5×5 mm patches of full-thickness adult murine atrial wall, including cardiomyocytes, capillary networks, and extracellular matrix, were cultured with or without HO-1 inducer cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), or the HO-1 inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), or both. Patches were then implanted subcutaneously. Freshly procured atrial wall patches implanted without preculturing served as additional controls. By 14 days postimplant, graft cardiomyocyte content was significantly greater in CoPP-treated patches than in either control group (p<0.02). Adult cardiomyocytes did not contract in culture or immediately after implantation. However, by 14 days postimplant, spontaneous contraction had recovered in 47% of CoPP-treated patches, but in only 6% of precultured patches without CoPP, 0% of SnPP-treated patches, and 0% of uncultured patches (p<0.03). CoPP-treated adult cardiomyocyte patches were also observed to remodel spontaneously into endothelial-lined chambers that pumped nonclotting blood. These findings demonstrate that adult cardiomyocytes have more plasticity and capacity for functional recovery than previously recognized and could have application as an autologous cardiomyocyte source for tissue engineering.
The diversity and complexity of the human androgen receptor (AR) splicing variants are well appreciated but not fully understood. The goal of this study is to generate a comprehensive expression signature of AR variants in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and to address the relative importance of the individual variants in conferring the castration-resistant phenotype.
A modified RNA amplification method, termed selective linear amplification of sense RNA, was developed to amplify all AR transcripts containing AR exon 3 in CRPC specimens, which were profiled using tiling expression microarrays. Coding sequences for the AR variants were cloned into expression vectors and assessed for their transcriptional activities. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine their in vivo expression patterns in an expanded set of clinical specimens.
In addition to expression peaks in AR intron 3, a novel AR exon, termed exon 9, was discovered. Exon 9 was spliced into multiple novel AR variants. Different AR splicing variants were functionally distinctive, with some demonstrating constitutive activity while others were conditionally active. Conditionally active AR-Vs may activate AR signaling depending on the cellular context. Importantly, AR variant functions did not appear to depend on the full-length AR.
This study provided the first unbiased snapshot of the AR variant signature consisting of multiple AR variants with distinctive functional properties, directly in CRPC specimens. Study findings suggest that the aggregate function of multiple AR variants may confer a castration-resistant phenotype independent of the full-length AR.
tiling microarray; androgen receptor splicing variant; castration-resistant prostate cancer