The role of estrogen receptor alpha (ER) in breast cancer development and as a primary clinical marker for breast cancer prognosis is well documented. In this study, we identified the oncogenic protein TWIST1 (Twist), which is over-expressed in high-grade breast cancers, as a potential negative regulator of ER expression. Functional characterization of ER regulation by Twist was carried out using Twist low (MCF-7, T-47D) and Twist high (Hs 578T, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7/Twist) expressing cell lines. All Twist high cell lines exhibited low ER transcript and protein levels. By chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter assays, we demonstrated that Twist could directly bind to E-boxes in the ER promoter and significantly down-regulate ER promoter activity in vitro. Functionally, Twist over-expression caused estrogen independent proliferation of breast cells and promoted hormone resistance to the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen and selective estrogen receptor down-regulator (SERD) fulvestrant. Importantly, this effect was reversible on down-regulating Twist. Additionally, orthotopic tumors generated in mice using MCF-7/Twist cells were resistant to tamoxifen. These tumors had high vascular volume and permeability surface area as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Mechanistically, Twist recruited DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) to the ER promoter leading to a significantly higher degree of ER promoter methylation compared to parental cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation that Twist interacted with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) at the ER promoter, causing histone deacetylation and chromatin condensation, further reducing ER transcript levels. Functional re-expression of ER was achieved using demethylating agent 5-azacytidine and histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid. Finally, an inverse relationship was observed between Twist and ER expression in human breast tumors. In summary, the regulation of ER by Twist could be an underlying mechanism for loss of ER activity observed in breast tumors and may contribute to the generation of hormone resistant ER negative breast cancer.
Breast cancer; estrogen receptor; hormone resistance; TWIST1; Twist; transcriptional regulation; chromatin immunoprecipitation; co-immunoprecipitation; histone deacetylation; histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1); methylation; DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B)
High-dose cyclophosphamide has long been used an anticancer agent, a conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and as potent immunosuppressive agent in autoimmune diseases including aplastic anemia. High-dose cyclophosphamide is highly toxic to lymphocytes but spares hematopoietic stem cells because of their abundant levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase, the major mechanism of cyclophosphamide inactivation. High dose cyclophosphamide therapy induces durable remissions in most patients with acquired aplastic anemia. Moreover, high-dose cyclophosphamide without hematopoietic stem cell rescue has shown activity in a variety of other severe autoimmune diseases. Here we review the history of cyclophosphamide as is applies to aplastic anemia (AA) and other autoimmune diseases. Included here are the historical data from early patients treated for AA as well as an observational retrospective study in a single tertiary care hospital. This latter component was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of high-dose cyclophosphamide therapy without stem cell rescue in patients with refractory autoimmune diseases. We analyzed fully the 140 patients with severe, progressive autoimmune diseases treated. All patients discussed here received cyclophosphamide, 50 mg/kg per day for 4 consecutive days. Response, relapse and overall survival were measured. Response was defined as a decrease in disease activity in conjunction with a decrease or elimination of immune modulating drugs. Relapse was defined as worsening disease activity and/or a requirement of an increase in dose of, or administration of new, immunosuppressive medications. Hematologic recovery occurred in all patients. The overall response rate of the was 95%, and 44% of those patients remain progression-free with a median follow up time of 36 (range 1–120) months for the 140 patients analyzed together. The overall actuarial and event free survival across all diseases at 60 months is 90.7% and 20.6%, respectively. High- dose cyclophosphamide without stem cell rescue is well-tolerated and induces a high rate of remissions in severe autoimmune diseases.
Stem Cell transplantation; Cyclophosphamide; Autoimmune diseases; Autoimmunity; Hematologic recovery
Although previous studies have established a prominent role for HMGA1 (formerly HMG-I/Y) in aggressive human cancers, the role of HMGA2 (formerly HMGI-C) in malignant transformation has not been clearly defined. The HMGA gene family includes HMGA1, which encodes the HMGA1a and HMGA1b protein isoforms, and HMGA2, which encodes HMGA2. These chromatin binding proteins function in transcriptional regulation and recent studies also suggest a role in cellular senescence. HMGA1 proteins appear to participate in cell cycle regulation and malignant transformation, while HMGA2 has been implicated primarily in the pathogenesis of benign, mesenchymal tumors. Here, we show that overexpression of HMGA2 leads to a transformed phenotype in cultured lung cells derived from normal tissue. Conversely, inhibiting HMGA2 expression blocks the transformed phenotype in metastatic human non-small cell lung cancer cells. Moreover, we show that HMGA2 mRNA and protein are overexpressed in primary human lung cancers compared to normal tissue or indolent tumors. In addition, there is a statistically significant correlation between HMGA2 protein staining by immunohistochemical analysis and tumor grade (p < 0.001). Our results indicate that HMGA2 is an oncogene important in the pathogenesis of human lung cancer. Although additional studies with animal models are needed, these findings suggest that targeting HMGA2 could be beneficial therapeutically in lung and other cancers characterized by increased HMGA2 expression.
HMGA2; lung cancer; oncogene; antisense; transformation
Complete loss or deletion of the long arm of chromosome 5 is frequent in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). The putative gene(s) deleted and responsible for the pathogenesis of these poor prognosis hematological disorders remain controversial. This study is a comprehensive analysis of previously implicated and novel genes for epigenetic inactivation in AML and MDS. In 146 AML cases, methylation of CTNNA1 was frequent, and more common in AML patients with 5q deletion (31%) than those without 5q deletion (14%), while no methylation of other 5q genes was observed. In 31 MDS cases, CTNNA1 methylation was only found in high risk MDS (≥RAEB2), but not in low risk MDS (
del(5q); monosomy 5; CTNNA1; methylation; myelodysplastic syndrome; acute myelogenous leukemia; methylation; Progressive silencing; AML transformation
Although some reports have found increasing HLA disparity between donor and recipient to be associated with fewer relapses after allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (BMT), this potential benefit has been offset by more graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and nonrelapse mortality. However, the type of GVHD prophylaxis could influence the balance between GVHD toxicity and relapse. We analyzed the impact of greater HLA disparity on outcomes of a specific platform for nonmyeloablative, HLA-haploidentical transplantation. A retrospective analysis was performed on 185 patients with hematologic malignancies enrolled on three similar trials of nonmyeloablative, related donor, haploidentical BMT incorporating high-dose posttransplantation cyclophosphamide for GVHD prophylaxis. No significant association was found between the number of HLA mismatches (HLA-A, -B, -Cw, and -DRB1 combined) and risk of acute grade II–IV GVHD (hazard ratio .89, P = .68 for 3–4 versus fewer antigen mismatches). More mismatching also had no detrimental effect on event-free survival (on multivariate analysis, hazard ratio .60, P = .03 for 3–4 versus fewer antigen mismatches; hazard ratio .55, P = .03 for 3–4 versus fewer allele mismatches). Thus, greater HLA disparity does not appear to worsen overall outcomes after nonmyeloablative haploidentical BMT with high-dose posttransplantation cyclophosphamide.
Nonmyeloablative conditioning; allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation; graft-versus-host disease; human leukocyte antigens; cyclophosphamide
Although lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, the precise molecular mechanisms that give rise to lung cancer are incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that HMGA1 is an important oncogene that drives transformation in undifferentiated, large cell carcinoma. First, we show that the HMGA1 gene is overexpressed in lung cancer cell lines and primary human lung tumors. Forced overexpression of HMGA1 induces a transformed phenotype with anchorage-independent cell growth in cultured lung cells derived from normal tissue. Conversely, inhibiting HMGA1 expression blocks anchorage-independent cell growth in the H1299 metastatic, undifferentiated, large cell human lung carcinoma cells. We also demonstrate that the matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) gene is a downstream target up-regulated by HMGA1 in large cell carcinoma cells. In chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, HMGA1 binds directly to the MMP-2 promoter in vivo in large cell lung cancer cells, but not in squamous cell carcinoma cells. In large cell carcinoma cell lines, there is a significant, positive correlation between HMGA1 and MMP-2 mRNA. Moreover, interfering with MMP-2 expression blocks anchorage-independent cell growth in H1299 large cell carcinoma cells, indicating that the HMGA1-MMP-2 pathway is required for this transformation phenotype in these cells. Blocking MMP-2 expression also inhibits migration and invasion in the H1299 large cell carcinoma cells. Our findings suggest an important role for MMP-2 in transformation mediated by HMGA1 in large cell, undifferentiated lung carcinoma and support the development of strategies to target this pathway in selected tumors.
MMP-2; HMGA1; lung cancer; oncogene
Inflammation has been strongly implicated in prostate carcinogenesis, but the precise molecular mechanisms linking inflammation and carcinogenic DNA damage are not known. Induction of the polyamine catabolic enzyme, spermine oxidase (SMO) has been linked to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage in human gastric and lung epithelial cells and suggest direct mechanistic links between inflammation, SMO activity, ROS production, and epithelial carcinogenesis that are likely relevant in prostate cancer.
Tissue microarrays consisting of matched normal and diseased specimens from patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), or proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA), as well as unaffected individuals, were stained for SMO expression and analyzed using image analysis techniques and TMAJ software tools.
Average SMO staining was significantly higher in prostate cancer and PIN tissues compared to patient-matched benign tissues. Benign tissues from prostate cancer, PIN, and PIA patients also exhibited significantly higher mean SMO expression versus tissues from prostate disease-free patients.
Tissues from patients diagnosed with prostate cancer and PIN exhibit, on average, locally increased SMO expression in regions of prostatic disease and higher overall SMO expression in prostatic epithelial cells compared to healthy individuals. Further studies are warranted to directly examine the role of SMO-produced ROS in prostate carcinogenesis.
prostate cancer; prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia; spermine oxidase; tissue microarrays; inflammation
Specific populations of highly tumorigenic cells are thought to exist in many human tumors, including pancreatic adenocarcinoma. However, the clinical significance of these tumor-initiating (ie, cancer stem) cells remains unclear. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity can identify tumor-initiating cells and normal stem cells from several human tissues. We examined the prognostic significance and functional features of ALDH expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
ALDH expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 269 primary surgical specimens of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and examined for association with clinical outcomes and in paired primary tumors and metastatic lesions from eight pancreatic cancer patients who had participated in a rapid autopsy program. The clonogenic growth potential of ALDH-positive pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells was assessed in vitro by a colony formation assay and by tumor growth in immunodeficient mice (10–14 mice per group). Mesenchymal features of ALDH-positive pancreatic tumor cells were examined by using quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and an in vitro cell invasion assay. Gene expression levels and the invasive potential of ADLH-positive pancreatic cancer cells relative to the bulk cell population were examined by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and an in vitro invasion assays, respectively. All statistical tests were two-sided.
ALDH-positive tumor cells were detected in 90 of the 269 primary surgical specimens, and their presence was associated with worse survival (median survival for patients with ALDH-positive vs ALDH-negative tumors: 14 vs 18 months, hazard ratio of death = 1.28, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.68, P = .05). Six (75%) of the eight patients with matched primary and metastatic tumor samples had ALDH-negative primary tumors, and in four (67%) of these six patients, the matched metastatic lesions (located in liver and lung) contained ALDH-positive cells. ALDH-positive cells were approximately five- to 11-fold more clonogenic in vitro and in vivo compared with unsorted or ALHD-negative cells, expressed genes consistent with a mesenchymal state, and had in vitro migratory and invasive potentials that were threefold greater than those of unsorted cells.
ALDH expression marks pancreatic cancer cells that have stem cell and mesenchymal features. The enhanced clonogenic growth and migratory properties of ALDH-positive pancreatic cancer cells suggest that they play a key role in the development of metastatic disease that negatively affects the overall survival of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Pharmacologic differentiating agents have had relatively limited clinical success outside of the use of ATRA in acute promyelocytic leukemia and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors in myelodysplastic syndromes. The differentiating effects of such agents can be enhanced in combination with lineage-specific growth factors. We developed a dose finding trial to assess toxicity, differentiating activity, and clinical impact of the combination of bryostatin-1 and GM-CSF.
Patients with poor risk myeloid malignancies were eligible to enroll in a dose finding study of continuous infusion bryostatin-1 combined with a fixed dose of daily GM-CSF. Toxicities were graded per NCI CTC version 2.0 and pharmacokinetic and correlative study samples were obtained to assess the combination’s clinical and biologic differentiating effects.
Thirty-two patients were treated with the combination therapy and the dose determined to be most suitable for study in a larger trial was continuous infusion broystatin-1 at 16 µg/m2 for 14 days and subcutaneous GM-CSF at 125 µg/m2 daily for 14 days every 28 days. Arthralgias and myalgias limited further dose escalation. Clinically, the combination impacted differentiation with improvement of absolute neutrophil counts (p = 0.0001) in the majority of patients. Interestingly, there were two objective clinical responses, including a CR after a single cycle. Both the bryostatin-1 plasma concentrations and the correlative studies supported biologic activity of the combination at the doses where clinical responses were observed.
Combining growth factors with pharmacologic differentiating agents may increase their clinical effectiveness and further studies should focus on such combinations.
Leukemia; Differentiation therapy; Myelodysplastic syndrome; Growth factors; Bryostatin; Drug resistance
CML can be responsive to T cell mediated immunity. K562/GM-CSF is a GM-CSF producing vaccine derived from a CML cell line that expresses several CML associated antigens. A pilot study was developed to determine if K562/GM-CSF immunotherapy could improve clinical responses to imatinib mesylate (IM) in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.
Patients with chronic phase CML who achieved at least a major cytogeneic response but remained with persistent, measurable disease despite one or more years on IM were eligible. Each was given a series of four vaccines administered in three week intervals, with or without topical imiquimod, while remaining on a stable dose of IM. CML disease burden was measured serially before and after vaccination.
Nineteen patients were vaccinated, with a median duration of previous IM therapy of 37 (13–53) months. Mean PCR measurements of BCR-ABL for the group declined significantly following the vaccines (p=0.03). Thirteen patients had a progressive decline in disease burden, 8 of whom had increasing disease burden prior to vaccination. Twelve patients achieved their lowest tumor burden measurements to date following vaccine, including seven subjects who became PCR-undetectable.
K562/GM-CSF vaccine appears to improve molecular responses in patients on IM, including achieving complete molecular remissions, despite long durations of previous IM therapy.
chronic myeloid leukemia; CML; immunotherapy; K562/GM-CSF vaccine
To determine if a history of injection drug use influences genotypic PI resistance to antiretroviral agents..
We assessed the presence of resistance mutations in PI-naive injection drug users (IDUs) and non-IDUs participating in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Eighteen HIV-infected participants who reported injection drug use prior to study enrollment and 32 HIV-infected non-IDUs contributed a total of 34 and 65 person-visits, respectively to analyses.
Based on data from multiple clones obtained from different time points from each individual we determined that primary PI resistance mutations were more frequent among person-visits contributed by IDUs (24%) than non-IDUs (8%, p=0.05). While neither reached statistical significance, diversity was higher within the protease region among study visits carrying PI resistant clones at both the nucleotide level (2.66 vs. 2.35; p=0.08) and at the amino acid level (1.60 vs. 1.32; p=0.23). Most of the primary resistance mutations could not be detected using the standard population sequencing employed in the clinical setting. Five of six individuals in whom clones encoding PI resistance mutations were identified failed PI-containing HAART within 12 months of therapy initiation.
Our findings indicate that more aggressive sampling for resistance mutations among viral clones prior to HAART initiation might permit selection of more effective treatment, particularly in IDUs.
Injection drug use; antiretroviral therapy; genotypic resistance; HIV; clonal sequencing; population sequencing
Although HMGA1 (high-mobility group A1; formerly HMG-I/Y) is an oncogene that is widely overexpressed in aggressive cancers, the molecular mechanisms underlying transformation by HMGA1 are only beginning to emerge. HMGA1 encodes the HMGA1a and HMGA1b protein isoforms, which function in regulating gene expression. To determine how HMGA1 leads to neoplastic transformation, we looked for genes regulated by HMGA1 using gene expression profile analysis. Here, we show that the STAT3 gene, which encodes the signaling molecule signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), is a critical downstream target of HMGA1a. STAT3 mRNA and protein are up-regulated in fibroblasts overexpressing HMGA1a and activated STAT3 recapitulates the transforming activity of HMGA1a in fibroblasts. HMGA1a also binds directly to a conserved region of the STAT3 promoter in vivo in human leukemia cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation and activates transcription of the STAT3 promoter in transfection experiments. To determine if this pathway contributes to HMGA1-mediated transformation, we investigated STAT3 expression in our HMGA1a transgenic mice, all of which developed aggressive lymphoid malignancy. STAT3 expression was increased in the leukemia cells from our transgenics but not in control cells. Blocking STAT3 function induced apoptosis in the transgenic leukemia cells but not in controls. In primary human leukemia samples, there was a positive correlation between HMGA1a and STAT3 mRNA. Moreover, blocking STAT3 function in human leukemia or lymphoma cells led to decreased cellular motility and foci formation. Our results show that the HMGA1a–STAT3 axis is a potential Achilles heel that could be exploited therapeutically in hematopoietic and other malignancies overexpressing HMGA1a.
Id1, which belongs to the Id family of helix-loop-helix transcription factors has been most associated with tumor progression and metastatsis; however, its significance in lung cancers has not been extensively explored. Here we seek to evaluate the expression of Id1 in a pilot study of nonsmall-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) and determine its diagnostic and functional significance in these tumors. Paired normal and malignant lung tissues as well as a panel of NSCLC primary tumors and cell lines were evaluated for Id1 expression using Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR. Functional assays were performed to evaluate the role of Id1 in tumor cell growth, migration and progression. We find Id1 expression is upregulated in squamous cell carcinoma when compared to adenocarcinoma of the lung and that expression of Id1 versus the normal control is variable in NSCLCs. We also note that Id1 expression in NSCLC cells is largely growth factor dependant and constitutive expression of Id1 in NSCLC cells significantly increases tumor cell migration without affecting cell proliferation. We conclude that Id1, as a mediator of tumor cell migration, may be an indicator of aggressive potential in nonsmall-cell lung cancers.
prostatic; neoplasia; chromosome; aberration; clonal
Although fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of thyroid nodules is very sensitive in detecting thyroid malignancy, it remains ambiguous in 20–30% of cases. Current biomarkers for thyroid cancer lack either the sensitivity or specificity to substantially address this clinical problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the gene expression patterns of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) alternative splice variants in benign and malignant thyroid tumors in an attempt to find a more reliable biomarker in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules.
One hundred and thirty-three thyroid tumors from eight histopathological tumor types were collected from patients undergoing thyroid surgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Gene expression patterns of hTERT alternative splice variants were investigated in the tumors by nested reverse transcriptase-PCR. Telomerase enzyme activity was evaluated in a subset of 16 samples associated with the different hTERT patterns. Association of c-myc expression and hTERT patterns was also examined.
Malignant thyroid tumors exhibited a greater proportion of the active full-length hTERT transcript (0.57 ± 0.15) than inactive splice variants, α− (0.13 ± 0.02), or β−/α−β− deletion transcripts (0.30 ± 0.11; p < 0.001). The opposite was observed in benign tumors, which exhibited greater proportions of β−/α−β− deletion transcripts (0.64 ± 0.08) than either the full-length (0.19 ± 0.06) or α− deletion transcripts (0.17 ± 0.02; p < 0.001). Similar results were observed among a diagnostically challenging subset of 50 thyroid tumors that were suspicious for malignancy on FNA. Further, increased telomerase enzymatic activity was only associated with expression of the full-length hTERT isoform. In contrast, c-myc expression, which has been implicated in hTERT regulation, correlated with overall hTERT transcription without specificity for expression of the full-length isoform.
These differences in gene expression patterns of hTERT alternative splice variants may provide a useful adjunct to FNA diagnosis of suspicious thyroid tumors.
We investigated the possibility of using a pharmacologic agent to modulate viral gene expression in order to target radiotherapy to tumor tissue. In a murine xenograft model, we had previously shown targeting of [125I]2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-beta-D-5-iodouracilarabinofuranoside ([125I]FIAU) to tumors engineered to express the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-thymidine kinase (TK). Here we extend those results to targeting of a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical [131I]FIAU to slow or stop tumor growth or to achieve tumor regression. These outcomes were achieved in xenografts with tumors that constitutively expressed the EBV-TK, as well as with naturally-infected EBV tumor cell lines. Burkitt's lymphoma and gastric carcinoma required activation of viral gene expression by pretreatment with bortezomib. Marked changes in tumor growth could also be achieved in naturally-infected Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) tumors following bortezomib activation. Bortezomib-induced enzyme-targeted radiation (BETR) therapy illustrates the possibility of pharmacologically modulating tumor gene expression to effect targeted radiotherapy.
Uterine cancer is a common cause for cancer death in women and there is no effective therapy for metastatic disease. Thus, research is urgently needed to identify new therapeutic agents. We previously showed that all female HMGA1a transgenic mice develop malignant uterine tumors, indicating that HMGA1a causes uterine cancer in vivo. We also demonstrated that HMGA1a up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) during tumorigenesis in this model. Similarly, we found that HMGA1a and COX-2 are overexpressed in human leiomyosarcomas, a highly malignant uterine cancer. While epidemiologic studies indicate that individuals who take cyclooxygenase inhibitors have a lower incidence of some tumors, these inhibitors have not been evaluated in uterine cancer. Here, we show that HMGA1a mice on sulindac (a COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor) have significantly smaller uterine tumors than controls. To determine if cyclooxygenase inhibitors are active in human uterine cancers that overexpress HMGA1a, we treated cultured cells with sulindac sulfide or celecoxib (a specific COX-2 inhibitor). Both drugs block anchorage-independent growth in high-grade human uterine cancer cells that overexpress HMGA1a (MES-SA cells). In contrast, neither inhibitor blocked transformation in cells that do not overexpress HMGA1a. Moreover, xenograft tumors from MES-SA cells were significantly inhibited in mice on sulindac. More strikingly, no tumors formed in mice on celecoxib. These preclinical studies suggest that cyclooxygenase inhibitors could play a role in preventing tumor onset or progression in uterine cancers with dysregulation of the HMGA1a-COX-2 pathway. Importantly, these drugs have lower toxicity than chemotherapeutic agents used to treat advanced stage uterine cancers.
HMGA1; cyclooxygenase; uterine cancer
Recombination between strains of HIV-1 only occurs in individuals with multiple infections, and the incidence of recombinant forms implies that multiple infection is common. Most direct studies indicate that multiple infection is rare. We determined the rate of multiple infection in a longitudinal study of 58 HIV-1 positive participants from The Women's Interagency HIV Study with a richer sampling design than previous direct studies, and we investigated the role of recombination and sampling design on estimating the multiple infection rate.
40% of our sample had multiple HIV-1 infections. This rate of multiple infection is statistically consistent with previous studies once differences in sampling design are taken into account. Injection drug use significantly increased the incidence of multiple infections. In general there was rapid elimination of secondary strains to undetectable levels, but in 3 cases a superinfecting strain displaced the initial infecting strain and in two cases the strains coexisted throughout the study. All but one secondary strain was detected as an inter- and/or intra-genic recombinant. Injection drug use significantly increased the rate of observed recombinants.
Our multiple infection rate is consistent with rates estimated from the frequency of recombinant forms of HIV-1. The fact that our results are also consistent with previous direct studies that had reported a much lower rate illustrates the critical role of sampling design in estimating this rate. Multiple infection and recombination significantly add to the genetic diversity of HIV-1 and its evolutionary potential, and injection drug use significantly increases both.
The purposes of this pilot study were (a) to assess the feasibility of a community-based, small group HIV risk reduction intervention with adolescent girls, and (b) to obtain preliminary evidence of the efficacy of this theoretically-guided intervention using a controlled design. The feasibility of the intervention was demonstrated by successfully implementing it with 33 sexually-active, single girls. Preliminary evidence of the efficacy of the intervention was obtained using a randomized trial with 62 sexually-active, single girls. Data obtained at a 3-month follow-up assessment showed that girls who received the HIV-related intervention improved their HIV-related knowledge and enhanced their motivation for risk reduction compared to girls who received a control (health promotion) intervention. Effect sizes suggest that the HIV intervention also reduced several risk behaviors (e.g., vaginal sex without a condom, giving oral sex, and alcohol and drug use before sex). Challenges to implementation and suggestions for intervention enhancement are discussed.
HIV prevention; adolescent girls; risk reduction; randomized controlled trial; pilot