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1.  Impaired Cerebral Blood Flow Autoregulation During Postraumatic Arterial Hypotension After Fluid Percussion Brain Injury is Prevented by Phenylephrine in Female but Exacerbated in Male Piglets by ERK MAPK Upregulation 
Critical care medicine  2010;38(9):1868-1874.
Objective
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to morbidity and mortality in children and boys are disproportionately represented. Hypotension is common and worsens outcome after TBI. Extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) is upregulated and reduces CBF after fluid percussion brain injury (FPI) in piglets. We hypothesized that increased CPP via phenylephrine (PHE) sex dependently reduces impairment of cerebral autoregulation during hypotension after FPI through modulation of ERK MAPK.
Design
Prospective, randomized animal study.
Setting
University laboratory.
Subjects
Newborn (1–5 day old) pigs.
Interventions
CBF, pial artery diameter, ICP and autoregulatory index (ARI) were determined before and after FPI in untreated, pre- and post-injury PHE (1 μg/kg/min iv) treated male and female pigs during normotension and hemorrhagic hypotension. CSF ERK MAPK was determined by ELISA.
Measurements and Main Results
Reductions in pial artery diameter, CBF, CPP and elevated ICP after FPI were greater in males, which were blunted by PHE pre- or post-FPI. During hypotension and FPI, pial artery dilation was impaired more in males. PHE decreased impairment of hypotensive pial artery dilation after FPI in females, but paradoxically caused vasoconstriction after FPI in males. Papaverine induced pial artery vasodilation was unchanged by FPI and PHE. CBF, CPP, and ARI decreased markedly during hypotension and FPI in males but less in females. PHE prevented reductions in CBF, CPP, and ARI during hypotension in females but increased reductions in males. CSF ERK MAPK was increased more in males than females after FPI. PHE blunted ERK MAPK upregulation in females, but increased ERK MAPK upregulation in males after FPI.
Conclusions
These data indicate that elevation of CPP with PHE sex dependently prevents impairment of cerebral autoregulation during hypotension after FPI through modulation of ERK MAPK. These data suggest the potential role for sex dependent mechanisms in cerebral autoregulation after pediatric TBI.
doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181e8ac1a
PMCID: PMC3541517  PMID: 20562700
cerebral circulation; pediatric; traumatic brain injury; signal transduction; autoregulation
2.  Phenylephrine Infusion Prevents Impairment of ATP- and Calcium-Sensitive Potassium Channel-Mediated Cerebrovasodilation after Brain Injury in Female, but Aggravates Impairment in Male, Piglets through Modulation of ERK MAPK Upregulation 
Journal of Neurotrauma  2011;28(1):105-111.
Abstract
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to morbidity in children and boys, and hypotension worsens outcome. Extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is upregulated more in males and reduces cerebral blood flow (CBF) after fluid percussion injury (FPI). Increased cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) via phenylephrine (Phe) sex-dependently improves impairment of the cerebral autoregulation seen after FPI through modulation of ERK MAPK upregulation, which is aggravated in males, but is blocked in females. Activation of ATP- and calcium-sensitive (Katp and Kca) channels produces cerebrovasodilation and contributes to autoregulation, both of which are impaired after FPI. Using piglets equipped with a closed cranial window, we hypothesized that potassium channel functional impairment after FPI is prevented by Phe in a sex-dependent manner through modulation of ERK MAPK upregulation. The Katp and Kca agonists cromakalim and NS 1619 produced vasodilation that was impaired after FPI more in males than in females. Phe prevented reductions in cerebrovasodilation after cromakalim and NS 1619 in females, but reduced dilation after these potassium channel agonists were given to males after FPI. Co-administration of U 0126, an ERK antagonist, and Phe fully restored dilation to cromakalim, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and NS 1619, in males after FPI. These data indicate that Phe sex-dependently prevents impairment of Katp and Kca channel-mediated cerebrovasodilation after FPI in females, but aggravates impairment in males, through modulation of ERK MAPK upregulation. Since autoregulation of CBF is dependent on intact functioning of potassium channels, these data suggest a role for sex-dependent mechanisms in the treatment of cerebral autoregulation impairment after pediatric TBI.
doi:10.1089/neu.2010.1581
PMCID: PMC3019588  PMID: 20964536
cerebral circulation; newborn; potassium channels; signal transduction
3.  SNP Improves Cerebral Hemodynamics During Normotension But Fails To Prevent Sex Dependent Impaired Cerebral Autoregulation During Hypotension After Brain Injury 
Brain research  2010;1330:142-150.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of morbidity in children and boys are disproportionately represented. Hypotension is common and worsens outcome after TBI. Previous studies show that adrenomedullin, a cerebrovasodilator, prevented sex dependent impairment of autoregulation during hypotension after piglet fluid percussion brain injury (FPI). We hypothesized that this concept was generalizable and that administration of another vasodilator, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), may equally improve CBF and cerebral autoregulation in a sex dependent manner after FPI. SNP produced equivalent percent cerebrovasodilation in male and female piglets. Reductions in pial artery diameter, cortical CBF, and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) concomitant with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) after FPI were greater in male compared to female piglets during normotension which was blunted by SNP. During hypotension, pial artery dilation (PAD) was impaired more in the male than the female after FPI. However, SNP did not improve hypotensive PAD after FPI in females and paradoxically caused vasoconstriction in males. SNP did not prevent reductions in CBF, CPP or autoregulatory index during combined hypotension and FPI in either sex. SNP aggravated ERK MAPK upregulation after FPI. These data indicate that despite prevention of reductions in CBF after FPI, SNP does not prevent impairment of autoregulation during hypotension after FPI. These data suggest that therapies directed at a purely hemodynamic increase in CPP will fail to improve outcome during combined TBI and hypotension.
doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.03.024
PMCID: PMC2860054  PMID: 20298682
brain injury; cerebral circulation; newborn; autoregulation; signal transduction
4.  Adrenomedullin Prevents Sex-Dependent Impairment of Autoregulation during Hypotension after Piglet Brain Injury through Inhibition of ERK MAPK Upregulation 
Journal of Neurotrauma  2010;27(2):391-402.
Abstract
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) adrenomedullin (ADM) levels are increased in female, but remain unchanged in male, piglets after fluid percussion injury (FPI) of the brain. Subthreshold vascular concentrations of ADM restore impaired hypotensive pial artery dilation after FPI more in males than females. Extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is upregulated and contributes to reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF) after FPI. We hypothesized that ADM prevents sex-dependent impairment of autoregulation during hypotension after FPI through inhibition of ERK MAPK upregulation. FPI increased ERK MAPK more in males than in females. CBF was unchanged during hypotension in sham animals, was reduced more in males than in females after FPI during normotension, and was further reduced in males than in females during hypotension and after FPI. ADM and the ERK MAPK antagonist U 0126 prevented reductions in CBF during hypotension and FPI more in males than in females. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) blood flow velocity was unchanged during hypotension in sham animals, was decreased during hypotension and FPI in male but not in female pigs, and was ameliorated by ADM. Intracranial pressure (ICP) was increased after FPI more in male than in female animals. ADM blunted elevated ICP during FPI and hypotension in males, but not in females. ADM prevented reductions in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) during FPI and hypotension in males but not in females. The calculated autoregulatory index was unchanged during hypotension in sham animals, but was reduced more in males than females during hypotension and FPI. ADM prevented reductions in autoregulation during hypotension and FPI more in males than females. These data indicate that ADM prevented loss of cerebral autoregulation after FPI in a sex-dependent and ERK MAPK-dependent manner.
doi:10.1089/neu.2009.1094
PMCID: PMC2834454  PMID: 20170313
cerebral circulation; newborn; plasminogen activators; signal transduction
5.  Noninvasive Measurement of Cerebral Blood Flow and Blood Oxygenation Using Near-Infrared and Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopies in Critically Brain-Injured Adults 
Neurocritical care  2010;12(2):173-180.
Background
This study assesses the utility of a hybrid optical instrument for noninvasive transcranial monitoring in the neurointensive care unit. The instrument is based on diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) for measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF), and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for measurement of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration. DCS/NIRS measurements of CBF and oxygenation from frontal lobes are compared with concurrent xenon-enhanced computed tomography (XeCT) in patients during induced blood pressure changes and carbon dioxide arterial partial pressure variation.
Methods
Seven neurocritical care patients were included in the study. Relative CBF measured by DCS (rCBFDCS), and changes in oxy-hemoglobin (ΔHbO2), deoxy-hemoglobin (ΔHb), and total hemoglobin concentration (ΔTHC), measured by NIRS, were continuously monitored throughout XeCT during a baseline scan and a scan after intervention. CBF from XeCT regions-of-interest (ROIs) under the optical probes were used to calculate relative XeCT CBF (rCBFXeCT) and were then compared to rCBFDCS. Spearman’s rank coefficients were employed to test for associations between rCBFDCS and rCBFXeCT, as well as between rCBF from both modalities and NIRS parameters.
Results
rCBFDCS and rCBFXeCT showed good correlation (rs = 0.73, P = 0.010) across the patient cohort. Moderate correlations between rCBFDCS and ΔHbO2/ΔTHC were also observed. Both NIRS and DCS distinguished the effects of xenon inhalation on CBF, which varied among the patients.
Conclusions
DCS measurements of CBF and NIRS measurements of tissue blood oxygenation were successfully obtained in neurocritical care patients. The potential for DCS to provide continuous, noninvasive bedside monitoring for the purpose of CBF management and individualized care is demonstrated.
doi:10.1007/s12028-009-9305-x
PMCID: PMC2844468  PMID: 19908166
Near-infrared spectroscopy; Diffuse correlation spectroscopy; Cerebral blood flow; Xenon CT; Neurocritical care

Results 1-5 (5)