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1.  Rb Loss is Characteristic of Prostatic Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma 
Purpose
Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate is likely to become increasingly common with recent advances in pharmacologic androgen suppression. Thus, developing molecular markers of small cell differentiation in prostate cancer will be important to guide diagnosis and therapy of this aggressive tumor.
Experimental Design
We examined the status of RB1, TP53 and PTEN in prostatic small cell and acinar carcinomas via immunohistochemistry (IHC), copy number alteration analysis and sequencing of formalin fixed paraffin-embedded specimens.
Results
We found Rb protein loss in 90% (26/29) of small cell carcinoma cases with RB1 allelic loss in 85% (11/13) of cases. Of acinar tumors occurring concurrently with prostatic small cell carcinoma, 43% (3/7) showed Rb protein loss. In contrast, only 7% (10/150) of primary high grade acinar carcinomas, 11% (4/35) of primary acinar carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation, and 15% (2/13) of metastatic castrate resistant acinar carcinomas showed Rb protein loss. Loss of PTEN protein was seen in 63% (17/27) of small cell carcinomas, with 38% (5/13) showing allelic loss. By IHC, accumulation of p53 was observed in 56% (14/25) of small cell carcinomas, with 60% (6/10) of cases showing TP53 mutation.
Conclusions
Loss of RB1 by deletion is a common event in prostatic small cell carcinoma and can be detected by validated IHC assay. As Rb protein loss rarely occurs in high grade acinar tumors, these data suggest that Rb loss is a critical event in the development of small cell carcinomas and may be a useful diagnostic and potential therapeutic target.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-1982
PMCID: PMC3931005  PMID: 24323898
Prostatic adenocarcinoma; small cell carcinoma; tumor suppressor; RB1; TP53; PTEN
2.  Identification of a novel germline SPOP mutation in a family with hereditary prostate cancer 
The Prostate  2014;74(9):983-990.
Background
Family history of prostate cancer is a well-recognized risk factor. Previous linkage studies have reported a putative prostate cancer susceptibility locus at chromosome 17q21-22. SPOP (Speckle-type POZ protein)maps to the 17q21-22 candidate linkage region and is one of the most frequently mutated genes in sporadic prostate cancers.
Methods
We performed targeted next generation sequencing to analyze 2009 exons from 202 genes in a candidate linkage region on chromosome 17q21-22 using 94 unrelated familial prostate cancer cases from the University of Michigan Prostate Cancer Genetics Project (n= 54) and Johns Hopkins University (n=40) including the exons and UTRs of SPOP.
Results
We identified anovel SPOP missense mutation (N296I)in a man with prostate cancer diagnosed at age 43. This mutation completely segregates with prostate cancer affection status among the men in this family. The N296I mutation resides within the evolutionarily conserved Bric-a-brac, Tram track, Broad-complex (BTB) domain, involved in recruiting targets to Cul3 for degradation. Analysis of the prostate tumor from this individual verified the presence of heterozygous N296I as well as an ERG fusion.
Conclusions
We have discovered a novel mutation in SPOP that tracks with prostate cancer within a family and is predicted to be deleterious. Taken together, our results implicate SPOP as a candidate gene for hereditary prostate cancer.
doi:10.1002/pros.22818
PMCID: PMC4230298  PMID: 24796539
familial; gene; candidate linkage region
3.  Infections and inflammation in prostate cancer 
The frequent observation of both acute and chronic inflammation of unknown stimulus in the adult prostate has motivated a large body of research aimed at identifying potential infectious agents that may elicit prostatic inflammation. The overarching hypothesis is that infection-induced inflammation may be associated with prostate cancer development or progression, as inflammation is known to serve as an “enabling characteristic” of cancer. With recent advances in molecular techniques for microorganism identification, a panoply of microorganisms has been scrutinized in prostate tissues and in relation to prostate carcinogenesis. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the evidence for infectious agents as a contributing factor to prostatic inflammation and prostate cancer, and to highlight recent literature suggesting an infectious etiology to the biogenesis of prostatic corpora amylacea and on the development of mouse models of prostatic infections.
PMCID: PMC4219279  PMID: 25110720
Infections; prostatitis; prostate cancer; acute inflammation; chronic inflammation; animal models
4.  Evaluation of PPP2R2A as a prostate cancer susceptibility gene: comprehensive germline and somatic study 
Cancer genetics  2011;204(7):375-381.
PPP2R2A, mapped to 8p21.2, encodes for the α isoform of the regulatory B55 subfamily of the protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A). PP2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases and is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. Because of its known functions and location within a chromosomal region where evidence for linkage and somatic loss of heterozygosity was found, we hypothesized that either somatic copy number changes or germline sequence variants in PPP2R2A may increase prostate cancer (PCa) risk. We examined PPP2R2A deletion status in 141 PCa samples using Affymetrix SNP arrays. It was found that PPP2R2A was commonly (67.1%) deleted in tumor samples including a homozygous deletion in 3 tumors (2.1%). We performed a mutation screen for PPP2R2A in 96 probands of hereditary prostate cancer (HPC) families. No high risk mutations were identified. Additionally, we reanalyzed 10 SNPs of PPP2R2A in sporadic PCa cases and controls. No significant differences in the allele and genotype frequencies were observed among either PCa cases and controls or PCa aggressive and non-aggressive cases. Taken together, these results suggest that a somatic deletion rather than germline sequence variants of PPP2R2A may play a more important role in PCa susceptibility.
doi:10.1016/j.cancergen.2011.05.002
PMCID: PMC3722858  PMID: 21872824
PPP2R2A; homozygous deletion; prostate cancer
5.  Association of prostate cancer risk with SNPs in regions containing androgen receptor binding sites captured by ChIP-on-chip analyses 
The Prostate  2011;72(4):376-385.
Background
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately three dozen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) consistently associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Despite the reproducibility of these associations, the molecular mechanism for most of these SNPs has not been well elaborated as most lie within non-coding regions of the genome. Androgens play a key role in prostate carcinogenesis. Recently, using ChIP-on-chip technology, 22,447 androgen receptor (AR) binding sites have been mapped throughout the genome, greatly expanding the genomic regions potentially involved in androgen-mediated activity.
Methodology/Principal findings
To test the hypothesis that sequence variants in AR binding sites are associated with PCa risk, we performed a systematic evaluation among two existing PCa GWAS cohorts; the Johns Hopkins Hospital and the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) study population. We demonstrate that regions containing AR binding sites are significantly enriched for PCa risk-associated SNPs, i.e. more than expected by chance alone. In addition, compared with the entire genome, these newly observed risk-associated SNPs in these regions are significantly more likely to overlap with established PCa risk-associated SNPs from previous GWAS. These results are consistent with our previous finding from a bioinformatics analysis that one-third of the 33 known PCa risk-associated SNPs discovered by GWAS are located in regions of the genome containing AR binding sites.
Conclusions/Significance
The results to date provide novel statistical evidence suggesting an androgen-mediated mechanism by which some PCa associated SNPs act to influence PCa risk. However, these results are hypothesis generating and ultimately warrant testing through in-depth molecular analyses.
doi:10.1002/pros.21439
PMCID: PMC3366362  PMID: 21671247
AR; prostate cancer; GWAS; pathway association study
6.  GOLPH2 and MYO6:Putative Prostate Cancer Markers Localizedtothe Golgi Apparatus 
The Prostate  2008;68(13):1387-1395.
BACKGROUND
Malignant transformation is often accompanied by morphological and functional alterations in subcellular organelles. The Golgi apparatus is a subcellular structure primarily involved in modification and sorting of macromolecules for secretion and transport to other cellular destinations. Molecular alterations associated with the Golgi apparatus may take place during prostate carcinogenesis but such alterations have not been documented.
METHODS
To demonstrate that the Golgi apparatus undergoes alterations during prostate carcinogenesis, we examined the expression and localization of two candidate molecules, Golgi phosphoprotein 2 (GOLPH2) and myosin VI (MYO6), both overexpressed in prostate cancer as initially identified by expression microarray analysis.
RESULTS
Elevated GOLPH2 expression in prostate cancers was validated through real-time RT-PCR, Western blot, and tissue microarray analysis, and its Golgi localization in surgical prostate cancer tissues confirmed using two-color immunofluorescence. In addition, distinctive juxtanuclear MYO6 staining pattern consistent with Golgi localization was observed in surgical prostate cancer tissues. Two-color immunofluorescence revealed intensive Golgi-specific staining for both GOLPH2 and myosin VI in prostate cancer cells but not in the adjacent normal prostate epithelium.
CONCLUSIONS
We show that the Golgi apparatus in prostate cancer cells differs from the normal Golgi by elevated levels of two molecules, GOLPH2 and MYO6. These results for the first time demonstrated consistent cancer cell-specific alterations in the molecular composition of the Golgi apparatus. Such alterations can be explored for discovery of novel prostate cancer biomarkers through targeted organellar approaches.
doi:10.1002/pros.20806
PMCID: PMC4124602  PMID: 18543251
prostate cancer; GOLPH2; myosin VI; Golgi
7.  Loss of PTEN Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior in ERG-Positive Prostate Cancer 
Background
The associations of ERG overexpression with clinical behavior and molecular pathways of prostate cancer are incompletely known. We assessed the association of ERG expression with AR, PTEN, SPINK1, Ki-67, and EZH2 expression levels, deletion, and mutations of chromosomal region 3p14 and TP53, and clinicopathologic variables.
Methods
The material consisted of 326 prostatectomies, 166 needle biopsies from men treated primarily with endocrine therapy, 177 transurethral resections of castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPC), and 114 CRPC metastases obtained from 32 men. Immunohistochemistry, FISH, and sequencing was used for the measurements.
Results
ERG expression was found in about 45% of all patient cohorts. In a multivariate analysis, ERG expression showed independent value of favorable prognosis (P = 0.019). ERG positivity was significantly associated with loss of PTEN expression in prostatectomy (P = 0.0348), and locally recurrent CRPCs (P = 0.0042). Loss of PTEN expression was associated (P = 0.0085) with shorter progression-free survival in ERG-positive, but not in negative cases. When metastases in each subject were compared, consistent ERG, PTEN, and AR expression as well as TP53 mutations were found in a majority of subjects.
Conclusions
A similar frequency of ERG positivity from early to late stage of the disease suggests lack of selection of ERG expression during disease progression. The prognostic significance of PTEN loss solely in ERG-positive cases indicates interaction of these pathways. The finding of consistent genetic alterations in different metastases suggests that the major genetic alterations take place in the primary tumor.
Impact
Interaction of PTEN and ERG pathways warrants further studies.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-0333-T
PMCID: PMC4086660  PMID: 24083995
8.  Genetic markers associated with early cancer-specific mortality following prostatectomy 
Cancer  2013;119(13):10.1002/cncr.27954.
BACKGROUND
To identify novel effectors and markers of localized but potentially life-threatening prostate cancer (PCa), we evaluated chromosomal copy number alterations (CNAs) in tumors from patients who underwent prostatectomy and correlated these with clinicopathologic features and outcome.
METHODS
CNAs in tumor DNAs from 125 prostatectomy patients in the discovery cohort were assayed with high resolution Affymetrix 6.0 SNP microarrays and then analyzed using the Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer (GISTIC) algorithm.
RESULTS
The assays revealed twenty significant regions of CNAs, four of them novel, and identified the target genes of four of the alterations. By univariate analysis, seven CNAs were significantly associated with early PCa-specific mortality. These included gains of chromosomal regions that contain the genes MYC, ADAR, or TPD52 and losses of sequences that incorporate SERPINB5, USP10, PTEN, or TP53. On multivariate analysis, only the CNAs of PTEN and MYC contributed additional prognostic information independent of that provided by pathologic stage, Gleason score, and initial PSA level. Patients whose tumors had alterations of both genes had a markedly elevated risk of PCa-specific mortality (OR = 53; C.I.= 6.92–405, P = 1 × 10−4). Analyses of 333 tumors from three additional distinct patient cohorts confirmed the relationship between CNAs of PTEN and MYC and lethal PCa.
CONCLUSION
This study identified new CNAs and genes that likely contribute to the pathogenesis of localized PCa and suggests that patients whose tumors have acquired CNAs of PTEN, MYC, or both have an increased risk of early PCa-specific mortality.
doi:10.1002/cncr.27954
PMCID: PMC3863778  PMID: 23609948
prostate cancer death; PTEN; MYC; somatic DNA copy number
9.  High-Throughput Screen Identifies Novel Inhibitors of Cancer Biomarker α-Methylacyl Coenzyme A Racemase (AMACR/P504S) 
Molecular cancer therapeutics  2011;10(5):825-838.
Alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (AMACR) is a metabolic enzyme whose over-expression has been shown to be a diagnostic indicator of prostatic adenocarcinoma as well as other solid tumors. Here we confirm that attenuation of AMACR expression diminishes the growth of prostate cancer cell lines using stably expressed shRNA constructs. This observation strongly suggests that the AMACR enzyme may be a target for therapeutic inhibition in prostate cancer. To this end, we report here a novel assay capable of screening libraries of diverse small molecules for inhibitors of AMACR activity. This assay facilitated the screening of approximately 5,000 unique compounds and the discovery of seven distinct chemical entities capable of inhibiting AMACR at low micromolar concentrations. The most potent inhibitor discovered is the seleno-organic compound ebselen oxide (IC50:0.80 μM). The parent compound, ebselen (IC50:2.79 μM), is a covalent inactivator of AMACR (KI(inact):24 μM). Two of the AMACR inhibitors appear selectively toxic to prostate cancer cell lines (LAPC4/LNCaP/PC3) that express AMACR compared to a normal prostate fibroblast cell line (WPMY1) that does not express the protein. This report demonstrates the first high-throughput screen for the discovery of novel AMACR inhibitors, characterizes the first non-substrate based inhibitors, and validates that AMACR is a viable chemotherapeutic target in-vitro.
doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-10-0902
PMCID: PMC3423201  PMID: 21441411
High-Throughput; Inhibitor; AMACR; Prostate Cancer; Racemase; Screen; Assay; Imaging
10.  Nucleotide resolution analysis of TMPRSS2 and ERG rearrangements in prostate cancer 
The Journal of pathology  2013;230(2):174-183.
TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangements occur in approximately 50% of prostate cancers and therefore represent one of the most frequently observed structural rearrangements in all cancers. However, little is known about the genomic architecture of such rearrangements. We therefore designed and optimized a pipeline involving target-capture of TMPRSS2 and ERG genomic sequences coupled with paired-end next generation sequencing to resolve genomic rearrangement breakpoints in TMPRSS2 and ERG at nucleotide resolution in a large series of primary prostate cancer specimens (n = 83). This strategy showed >90% sensitivity and specificity in identifying TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangements, and allowed identification of intra- and inter-chromosomal rearrangements involving TMPRSS2 and ERG with known and novel fusion partners. Our results indicate that rearrangement breakpoints show strong clustering in specific intronic regions of TMPRSS2 and ERG. The observed TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangements often exhibited complex chromosomal architecture associated with several intra- and inter-chromosomal rearrangements. Nucleotide resolution analysis of breakpoint junctions revealed that the majority of TMPRSS2 and ERG rearrangements (~88%) occurred at or near regions of microhomology or involved insertions of one or more base pairs. This architecture implicates nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and microhomology mediated end joining (MMEJ) pathways in the generation of such rearrangements. These analyses have provided important insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in generating prostate cancer-specific recurrent rearrangements.
doi:10.1002/path.4186
PMCID: PMC3668093  PMID: 23447416
TMPRSS2; ERG; rearrangement; hybrid capture; targeted next generation sequencing; prostate cancer; genomic breakpoint detection
11.  The G84E mutation of HOXB13 is associated with increased risk for prostate cancer: results from the REDUCE trial 
Carcinogenesis  2013;34(6):1260-1264.
A novel rare mutation, homeobox B13 (HOXB13) G84E, was reported to co-segregate with prostate cancer (PCa) in hereditary PCa families and associate with PCa risk in unrelated cases and controls. In this study, we aim to compare the G84E mutation frequency among subjects of different races/ethnicities from various geographic regions in the world and to assess its risk for developing PCa, in the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial. All the 3508 subjects had initial negative prostate biopsy and were biopsied at Year 2 and 4 for detection of PCa. The G84E mutation was detected only in Caucasians, with the highest carrier frequency in Northern Europe (1.06%), followed by Western Europe (0.60%) and North America (0.31%). No mutation carrier was observed in Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, Latin America, Australia and South Africa. In Caucasians, the G84E mutation frequency was 0.99% and 0.24% in positive and negative biopsy subjects, respectively (P = 0.01). In positive biopsy subjects, the frequency was significantly higher in subjects with a positive family history than those without (4.31% versus 0.34%, P = 0.002). In the 4 year follow-up, the PCa detection rate was 53.8% among the 13 mutation carriers and 22.0% among 3186 non-carriers, relative risk = 2.45 (95% confidence interval: 1.48–4.07). All mutation carriers shared a common haplotype, suggesting a founder effect. In Finland, the G84E mutation was estimated to occur in the year 1792 (95% credible interval: 1735–1831). In conclusion, the G84E mutation of HOXB13, a relatively recent mutation that likely occurred in Northern Europe, significantly increases risk for PCa.
doi:10.1093/carcin/bgt055
PMCID: PMC3670258  PMID: 23393222
12.  Association of Reported Prostate Cancer Risk Alleles With PSA Levels Among Men Without a Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer 
The Prostate  2009;69(4):419-427.
BACKGROUND
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is widely used for prostate cancer screening but its levels are influenced by many non cancer-related factors. The goal of the study is to estimate the effect of genetic variants on PSA levels.
METHODS
We evaluated the association of SNPs that were reported to be associated with prostate cancer risk in recent genome-wide association studies with plasma PSA levels in a Swedish study population, including 1,722 control subjects without a diagnosis of prostate cancer.
RESULTS
Of the 16 SNPs analyzed in control subjects, significant associations with PSA levels (P≤0.05) were found for six SNPs. These six SNPs had a cumulative effect on PSA levels; the mean PSA levels in men were almost twofold increased across increasing quintile of number of PSA associated alleles, P-trend=3.4×10−14. In this Swedish study population risk allele frequencies were similar among T1c case patients (cancer detected by elevated PSA levels alone) as compared to T2 and above prostate cancer case patients.
CONCLUSIONS
Results from this study may have two important clinical implications. The cumulative effect of six SNPs on PSA levels suggests genetic-specific PSA cutoff values may be used to improve the discriminatory performance of this test for prostate cancer; and the dual associations of these SNPs with PSA levels and prostate cancer risk raise a concern that some of reported prostate cancer risk-associated SNPs may be confounded by the prevalent use of PSA screening.
doi:10.1002/pros.20908
PMCID: PMC3348520  PMID: 19116992
genetic; bias; KLK3
13.  Genome-Wide Association Scan for Variants Associated with Early-Onset Prostate Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e93436.
Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer and the second leading cause of cancer related mortality for men in the United States. There is strong empirical and epidemiological evidence supporting a stronger role of genetics in early-onset prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association scan for early-onset prostate cancer. Novel aspects of this study include the focus on early-onset disease (defined as men with prostate cancer diagnosed before age 56 years) and use of publically available control genotype data from previous genome-wide association studies. We found genome-wide significant (p<5×10−8) evidence for variants at 8q24 and 11p15 and strong supportive evidence for a number of previously reported loci. We found little evidence for individual or systematic inflated association findings resulting from using public controls, demonstrating the utility of using public control data in large-scale genetic association studies of common variants. Taken together, these results demonstrate the importance of established common genetic variants for early-onset prostate cancer and the power of including early-onset prostate cancer cases in genetic association studies.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0093436
PMCID: PMC3989171  PMID: 24740154
14.  Carbohydrate Restriction, Prostate Cancer Growth, and the Insulin-Like Growth Factor Axis 
The Prostate  2008;68(1):11-19.
BACKGROUND
Recent evidence suggests carbohydrate intake may influence prostate cancer biology. We tested whether a no-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (NCKD) would delay prostate cancer growth relative to Western and low-fat diets in a xenograft model.
METHODS
Seventy-five male SCID mice were fed a NCKD (84% fat–0% carbohydrate–16% protein kcal), low-fat (12% fat–72% carbohydrate–16% protein kcal), or Western diet (40% fat–44% carbohydrate–16% protein kcal). Low-fat mice were fed ad libitum and the other arms fed via a modified-paired feeding protocol. After 24 days, all mice were injected with LAPC-4 cells and sacrificed when tumors approached 1,000 mm3.
RESULTS
Despite consuming equal calories, NCKD-fed mice lost weight (up to 15% body weight) relative to low-fat and Western diet-fed mice and required additional kcal to equalize body weight. Fifty-one days after injection, NCKD mice tumor volumes were 33% smaller than Western mice (rank-sum, P = 0.009). There were no differences in tumor volume between low-fat and NCKD mice. Dietary treatment was significantly associated with survival (log-rank, P = 0.006), with the longest survival among the NCKD mice, followed by the low-fat mice. Serum IGFBP-3 was highest and IGF-1:IGFBP-3 ratio was lowest among NCKD mice while serum insulin and IGF-1 levels were highest in Western mice. NCKD mice had significantly decreased hepatic fatty infiltration relative to the other arms.
CONCLUSIONS
In this xenograft model, despite consuming more calories, NCKD-fed mice had significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival relative to Western mice and was associated with favorable changes in serum insulin and IGF axis hormones relative to low-fat or Western diet.
doi:10.1002/pros.20683
PMCID: PMC3959866  PMID: 17999389
prostatic neoplasms; diet; carbohydrate; fat; ketogenesis; insulin; IGF-1
15.  Evidence for two independent prostate cancer risk associated loci in the HNF1B gene at 17q12 
Nature genetics  2008;40(10):1153-1155.
A fine mapping study in the HNF1B gene at 17q12 among two study populations revealed a second prostate cancer locus, ~26 kb centromeric to the first known locus (rs4430796); these are separated by a recombination hotspot. A SNP in the second locus (rs11649743) was confirmed in five additional populations, and P=1.7×10−9 for an allelic test in the seven combined studies. The association at each SNP remains significant after adjusting for the other SNP.
doi:10.1038/ng.214
PMCID: PMC3188432  PMID: 18758462
16.  Genetic Variants and Family History predict Prostate Cancer similar to PSA 
Purpose
While PSA is the best biomarker for predicting prostate cancer, its predictive performance needs to be improved. Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) revealed the overall performance measured by the areas under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) at 0.68. The goal of the present study is to assess the ability of genetic variants as a PSA independent method to predict prostate cancer risk.
Experimental Design
We systematically evaluated all prostate cancer risk variants that were identified from genome-wide association studies during the past year in a large population-based prostate cancer case-control study population in Sweden, including 2,893 prostate cancer patients and 1,781 men without prostate cancer.
Results
Twelve SNPs were independently associated with prostate cancer risk in this Swedish study population. Using a cutoff of any 11 risk alleles or family history, the sensitivity and specificity for predicting prostate cancer were 0.25 and 0.86, respectively. The overall predictive performance of prostate cancer using genetic variants, family history, and age, measured by AUC was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.63–0.66), significantly improved over that of family history and age (0.61%, 95% CI: 0.59–0.62), P = 2.3 × 10−10.
Conclusion
The predictive performance for prostate cancer using genetic variants and family history is similar to that of PSA. The utility of genetic testing, alone and in combination with PSA levels, should be evaluated in large studies such as the European Randomized Study for Prostate Cancer trial and PCPT.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-1743
PMCID: PMC3187807  PMID: 19188186
prostate cancer; prediction; PSA; association
17.  Infections and inflammation in prostate cancer 
The frequent observation of both acute and chronic inflammation of unknown stimulus in the adult prostate has motivated a large body of research aimed at identifying potential infectious agents that may elicit prostatic inflammation. The overarching hypothesis is that infection-induced inflammation may be associated with prostate cancer development or progression, as inflammation is known to serve as an “enabling characteristic” of cancer. With recent advances in molecular techniques for microorganism identification, a panoply of microorganisms has been scrutinized in prostate tissues and in relation to prostate carcinogenesis. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the evidence for infectious agents as a contributing factor to prostatic inflammation and prostate cancer, and to highlight recent literature suggesting an infectious etiology to the biogenesis of prostatic corpora amylacea and on the development of mouse models of prostatic infections.
PMCID: PMC4219279  PMID: 25110720
Infections; prostatitis; prostate cancer; acute inflammation; chronic inflammation; animal models
18.  Genome-wide association study identifies a new locus JMJD1C at 10q21 that may influence serum androgen levels in men 
Human Molecular Genetics  2012;21(23):5222-5228.
Circulating androgen levels are often used as indicators of physiological or pathological conditions. More than half of the variance for circulating androgen levels is thought to be genetically influenced. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) has identified two loci, SHBG at 17p13 and FAM9B at Xp22, for serum testosterone (T) levels; however, these explain only a small fraction of inter-individual variability. To identify additional genetic determinants of androgen levels, a GWAS of baseline serum T and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels was conducted in 3225 men of European ancestry from the REduction by DUtasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) study. Cross-validation was used to confirm the observed associations between the drug (n = 1581) and placebo (n = 1644) groups of REDUCE. In addition to confirming the associations of two known loci with serum T levels (rs727428 in SHBG: P = 1.26 × 10−12; rs5934505 in FAM9B: P = 1.61 × 10−8), we identified a new locus, JMJD1C at 10q21 that was associated with serum T levels at a genome-wide significance level (rs10822184: P = 1.12 × 10−8). We also observed that the SHBG locus was associated with serum DHT levels (rs727428: P = 1.47 × 10−11). Moreover, two additional variants in SHBG [rs72829446, in strong linkage equilibrium with the missense variant D356N (rs6259), and rs1799941] were also independently associated with circulating androgen levels in a statistical scale. These three loci (JMJD1C, SHBG and FAM9B) were estimated to account for ∼5.3 and 4.1% of the variance of serum T and DHT levels. Our findings may provide new insights into the regulation of circulating androgens and potential targets for androgen-based therapy.
doi:10.1093/hmg/dds361
PMCID: PMC3607470  PMID: 22936694
19.  Identification of a novel NBN truncating mutation in a family with hereditary prostate cancer 
Familial cancer  2012;11(4):595-600.
Nibrin (NBN), located on chromosome 8q21 is a gene involved in DNA double-strand break repair that has been implicated in the rare autosomal recessive chromosomal instability syndrome known as Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome. NBS is characterized by specific physical characteristics (microcephaly and dysmorphic facies), immunodeficiency, and increased risk of malignancy. Individuals who are heterozygous for NBN mutations are clinically asymptomatic, but may display an elevated risk for certain cancers including, but not limited to, ovarian and prostate cancer as well as various lymphoid malignancies. In this study, 94 unrelated familial prostate cancer cases from the University of Michigan Prostate Cancer Genetics Project (n= 54) and Johns Hopkins University (n=40) were subjected to targeted next-generation sequencing of the exons, including UTRs, of NBN. One individual of European descent, diagnosed with prostate cancer at age 52, was identified to have a heterozygous 2117 C>G mutation in exon 14 of the gene, that results in a premature stop at codon 706 (S706X). Sequencing of germline DNA from additional male relatives showed partial co-segregation of the NBN S706X mutation with prostate cancer. This NBN mutation was not observed among 2768 unrelated European men (1859 with prostate cancer and 909 controls). NBN is involved in double-strand break repair as a component of the MRE11 (meiotic recombination 11)/RAD50/NBN genomic stability complex. The S706X mutation truncates the protein in a highly conserved region of NBN near the MRE11 binding site, thus suggesting a role for rare NBN mutations in prostate cancer susceptibility.
doi:10.1007/s10689-012-9555-1
PMCID: PMC3485445  PMID: 22864661
Cancer; Hereditary; Prostate; NBN gene
20.  Potential Impact of Adding Genetic Markers to Clinical Parameters in Predicting Prostate Biopsy Outcomes in Men Following an Initial Negative Biopsy: Findings from the REDUCE Trial 
European urology  2012;62(6):953-961.
Background
Several germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been consistently associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk.
Objective
To determine whether there is an improvement in PCa risk prediction by adding these SNPs to existing predictors of PCa.
Design, setting, and participants
Subjects included men in the placebo arm of the randomized Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial in whom germline DNA was available. All men had an initial negative prostate biopsy and underwent study-mandated biopsies at 2 yr and 4 yr. Predictive performance of baseline clinical parameters and/or a genetic score based on 33 established PCa risk-associated SNPs was evaluated.
Outcome measurements and statistical analysis
Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were used to compare different models with different predictors. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) and decision curve analysis (DCA) were used to assess changes in risk prediction by adding genetic markers.
Results and limitations
Among 1654 men, genetic score was a significant predictor of positive biopsy, even after adjusting for known clinical variables and family history (p = 3.41 × 10−8). The AUC for the genetic score exceeded that of any other PCa predictor at 0.59. Adding the genetic score to the best clinical model improved the AUC from 0.62 to 0.66 (p < 0.001), reclassified PCa risk in 33% of men (NRI: 0.10; p = 0.002), resulted in higher net benefit from DCA, and decreased the number of biopsies needed to detect the same number of PCa instances. The benefit of adding the genetic score was greatest among men at intermediate risk (25th percentile to 75th percentile). Similar results were found for high-grade (Gleason score ≥7) PCa. A major limitation of this study was its focus on white patients only.
Conclusions
Adding genetic markers to current clinical parameters may improve PCa risk prediction. The improvement is modest but may be helpful for better determining the need for repeat prostate biopsy. The clinical impact of these results requires further study.
doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2012.05.006
PMCID: PMC3568765  PMID: 22652152
Prostate cancer; Genetics; AUC; Detection rate; Reclassification; SNPs; Prospective study; Clinical trial
21.  Tracking the clonal origin of lethal prostate cancer 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2013;123(11):4918-4922.
Recent controversies surrounding prostate cancer overtreatment emphasize the critical need to delineate the molecular features associated with progression to lethal metastatic disease. Here, we have used whole-genome sequencing and molecular pathological analyses to characterize the lethal cell clone in a patient who died of prostate cancer. We tracked the evolution of the lethal cell clone from the primary cancer to metastases through samples collected during disease progression and at the time of death. Surprisingly, these analyses revealed that the lethal clone arose from a small, relatively low-grade cancer focus in the primary tumor, and not from the bulk, higher-grade primary cancer or from a lymph node metastasis resected at prostatectomy. Despite being limited to one case, these findings highlight the potential importance of developing and implementing molecular prognostic and predictive markers, such as alterations of tumor suppressor proteins PTEN or p53, to augment current pathological evaluation and delineate clonal heterogeneity. Furthermore, this case illustrates the potential need in precision medicine to longitudinally sample metastatic lesions to capture the evolving constellation of alterations during progression. Similar comprehensive studies of additional prostate cancer cases are warranted to understand the extent to which these issues may challenge prostate cancer clinical management.
doi:10.1172/JCI70354
PMCID: PMC3809798  PMID: 24135135
22.  Variation in IL10 and Other Genes Involved in the Immune Response and in Oxidation and Prostate Cancer Recurrence 
Background
To evaluate the association of variation in genes involved in immune response, including IL10, production and detoxification of reactive oxygen species, and repair of oxidative DNA damage with risk of recurrence after surgery for localized prostate cancer.
Methods
We conducted a nested case-control study of men who had a radical prostatectomy in 1993–2001. 484 recurrence cases and 484 controls were matched on age, race, and pathologic stage and grade. Germline DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded unaffected lymph nodes. We genotyped candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL10, CRP, GPX1, GSR, GSTP1, hOGG1, IL1B, IL1RN, IL6, IL8, MPO, NOS2, NOS3, SOD1, SOD2, SOD3, TLR4, and TNF and tagging SNPs in IL10, CRP, GSR, IL1RN, IL6, NOS2, and NOS3. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Results
The minor allele (A) in IL10 rs1800872, known to produce less interleukin-10, was associated with a higher risk of recurrence (OR=1.76, 95% CI: 1.00–3.10), and the minor allele (G) in rs1800896, known to produce more interleukin-10, was associated with a lower risk of recurrence (OR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.48–0.91). We also observed associations for candidate SNPs in CRP, GSTP1, and IL1B. A common IL10 haplotype and two common NOS2 haplotypes were associated with recurrence.
Conclusion
Variation in IL10, CRP, GSTP1, IL1B, and NOS2 was associated with recurrence independent of pathologic prognostic factors.
Impact
This study supports that genetic variation in immune response and oxidation influence recurrence risk and suggests genetic variation in these pathways may inform prognosis.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-0458
PMCID: PMC3467312  PMID: 22859398
genotype; prostate; cancer; recurrence; risk
23.  Germline Mutations in HOXB13 and Prostate-Cancer Risk 
The New England journal of medicine  2012;366(2):141-149.
BACKGROUND
Family history is a significant risk factor for prostate cancer, although the molecular basis for this association is poorly understood. Linkage studies have implicated chromosome 17q21-22 as a possible location of a prostate-cancer susceptibility gene.
METHODS
We screened more than 200 genes in the 17q21-22 region by sequencing germline DNA from 94 unrelated patients with prostate cancer from families selected for linkage to the candidate region. We tested family members, additional case subjects, and control subjects to characterize the frequency of the identified mutations.
RESULTS
Probands from four families were discovered to have a rare but recurrent mutation (G84E) in HOXB13 (rs138213197), a homeobox transcription factor gene that is important in prostate development. All 18 men with prostate cancer and available DNA in these four families carried the mutation. The carrier rate of the G84E mutation was increased by a factor of approximately 20 in 5083 unrelated subjects of European descent who had prostate cancer, with the mutation found in 72 subjects (1.4%), as compared with 1 in 1401 control subjects (0.1%) (P = 8.5×10−7). The mutation was significantly more common in men with early-onset, familial prostate cancer (3.1%) than in those with late-onset, nonfamilial prostate cancer (0.6%) (P = 2.0×10−6).
CONCLUSIONS
The novel HOXB13 G84E variant is associated with a significantly increased risk of hereditary prostate cancer. Although the variant accounts for a small fraction of all prostate cancers, this finding has implications for prostate-cancer risk assessment and may provide new mechanistic insights into this common cancer. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1110000
PMCID: PMC3779870  PMID: 22236224
24.  Prostate cancer risk associated loci in African Americans 
Four genome-wide association studies, all in populations of European descent, have identified 20 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 20 regions that are associated with prostate cancer risk. We evaluated these 20 SNPs in a combined African American (AA) study, with 868 prostate cancer patients and 878 control subjects. For 17 of these 20 SNPs, implicated risk-associated alleles were found to be more common in these AA cases than controls, significantly more than expected under the null hypothesis (P = 0.03). Two of these 17 SNPs, located at 3p12, and Region 2 at 8q24, were significantly associated with prostate cancer risk (P < 0.05), and only SNP rs16901979 at Region 2 of 8q24 remained significant after accounting for 20 tests. A multivariate analysis of additional SNPs across the broader 8q24 region revealed three independent prostate cancer risk-associated SNPs, including rs16901979, rs13254738, and rs10086908. The first two SNPs were ∼20 kb apart and the last SNP, a novel finding from this study, was ∼100 kb centromeric to the first two SNPs. These results suggest that a systematic evaluation of regions harboring known prostate cancer risk SNPs implicated in other races is an efficient approach to identify risk alleles for AA. However, studies with larger numbers of AA subjects are needed, and this will likely require a major collaborative effort to combine multiple AA study populations.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0091
PMCID: PMC2729762  PMID: 19549807
prostate cancer; African Americans; genome-wide association; 8q24; risk
25.  Fine mapping and family-based association analyses of prostate cancer risk variants at Xp11 
Two SNPs (rs5945572 and rs5945619) at Xp11 were recently implicated in two genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of prostate cancer. Using a family-based association test for these two SNPs in 168 prostate cancer families, we showed in this study that the risk alleles of the two reported SNPs were over-transmitted to affected offspring, P = 0.009 for rs5945372 and P = 0.03 for rs5945619, which suggested the observed association in case-control studies were not driven by potential population stratification. We also performed a fine mapping study in ~800 kb region at Xp11 among two independent case-control studies, including 1,527 cases and 482 controls from Johns Hopkins Hospital and 1,172 cases and 1,157 controls from the Prostate, Lung, Colon and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. The strongest association was found with SNPs in the haplotype block where the two initial reported SNPs were located, although many SNPs in ~140 kb region were highly significant in the combined allelic tests (P = 10−5−10−6). The second strongest association was observed with SNPs in ~286 kb region at another haplotype block (P = 10−4−10−5), ~94 kb centromeric to the first region. The significance of SNPs in the second region decreased considerably after adjusting for SNPs at the first region, although P remained < 0.05. Additional studies are warranted to test independent prostate cancer associations at these two regions.
doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-1221
PMCID: PMC2795389  PMID: 19549809
prostate cancer; population-based association; family-based association; Xp11; fine mapping

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