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1.  Effect of bipolar androgen therapy for asymptomatic men with castration-resistant prostate cancer: Results from a pilot clinical study 
Science translational medicine  2015;7(269):269ra2.
Targeting androgen receptor (AR) axis signaling by disrupting androgen-AR interactions remains the primary treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. Unfortunately, all men develop resistance to primary castrating therapy and secondary androgen deprivation therapies (ADTs). Resistance develops in part because castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells adaptively up-regulate AR levels through overexpression, amplification, and expression of ligand-independent variants in response to chronic exposure to a low-testosterone environment. However, preclinical models suggest that AR overexpression represents a therapeutic liability that can be exploited via exposure to supraphysiologic testosterone to promote CRPC cell death. Preclinical data supported a pilot study in which 16 asymptomatic CRPC patients with low to moderate metastatic burden were treated with testosterone cypionate (400 mg intramuscular; day 1 of 28) and etoposide (100 mg oral daily; days 1 to 14 of 28). After three cycles, those with a declining prostate-specific antigen (PSA) continued on intermittent testosterone therapy monotherapy. Castrating therapy was continued to suppress endogenous testosterone production, allowing for rapid cycling from supraphysiologic to near-castrate serum testosterone levels, a strategy termed bipolar androgen therapy (BAT). BAT was well tolerated and resulted in high rates of PSA (7 of 14 evaluable patients) and radiographic responses (5 of 10 evaluable patients). Although all men showed eventual PSA progression, four men remained on BAT for ≥1 year. All patients (10 of 10) demonstrated PSA reductions upon receiving androgen-ablative therapies after BAT, suggesting that BAT may also restore sensitivity to ADTs. BAT shows promise as treatment for CRPC and should be further evaluated in larger trials.
doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3010563
PMCID: PMC4507510  PMID: 25568070
2.  Gemcitabine and cisplatin neoadjuvant chemotherapy for muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma: Predicting response and assessing outcomes 
Urologic oncology  2015;33(5):204.e1-204.e7.
Purpose
To evaluate gemcitabine-cisplatin (GC) neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy (NAC) for pathologic response (pR) and cancer-specific outcomes following radical cystectomy (RC) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer and identify clinical parameters associated with pR.
Materials and methods
We studied 150 consecutive cases of muscle-invasive bladder cancer that received GC NAC followed by open RC (2000–2013). A cohort of 121 patients treated by RC alone was used for comparison. Pathologic response and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were compared. We created the Johns Hopkins Hospital Dose Index to characterize chemotherapeutic dosing regimens and accurately assess sufficient neoadjuvant dosing regarding patient tolerance.
Results
No significant difference was noted in 5-year CSS between GC NAC (58%) and non-NAC cohorts (61%). The median follow-up was 19.6 months (GC NAC) and 106.5 months (non-NAC). Patients with residual non–muscle-invasive disease after GC NAC exhibit similar 5-year CSS relative to patients with no residual carcinoma (P = 0.99). NAC pR (≤pT1) demonstrated improved 5-year CSS rates (90.6% vs. 27.1%, P < 0.01) and decreased nodal positivity rates (0% vs. 41.3%, P < 0.01) when compared with nonresponders (≥pT2). Clinicopathologic outcomes were inferior in NAC pathologic nonresponders when compared with the entire RC-only–treated cohort. A lower pathologic nonresponder rate was seen in patients tolerating sufficient dosing of NAC as stratified by the Johns Hopkins Hospital Dose Index (P = 0.049), congruent with the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. A multivariate classification tree model demonstrated 60 years of age or younger and clinical stage cT2 as significant of NAC response (P < 0.05).
Conclusions
Pathologic nonresponders fare worse than patients proceeding directly to RC alone do. Multiple predictive models incorporating clinical, histopathologic, and molecular features are currently being developed to identify patients who are most likely to benefit from GC NAC.
doi:10.1016/j.urolonc.2015.02.011
PMCID: PMC4507518  PMID: 25814145
Urothelial carcinoma; Bladder cancer; Neoadjuvant chemotherapy; Gemcitabine-cisplatin; Pathologic response
3.  AR-V7 and Resistance to Enzalutamide and Abiraterone in Prostate Cancer 
The New England journal of medicine  2014;371(11):1028-1038.
Background
The androgen-receptor isoform encoded by splice variant 7 lacks the ligand-binding domain, which is the target of enzalutamide and abiraterone, but remains constitutively active as a transcription factor. We hypothesized that detection of androgen-receptor splice variant 7 messenger RNA (AR-V7) in circulating tumor cells from men with advanced prostate cancer would be associated with resistance to enzalutamide and abiraterone.
Methods
We used a quantitative reverse-transcriptase–polymerase-chain-reaction assay to evaluate AR-V7 in circulating tumor cells from prospectively enrolled patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who were initiating treatment with either enzalutamide or abiraterone. We examined associations between AR-V7 status (positive vs. negative) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response rates (the primary end point), freedom from PSA progression (PSA progression–free survival), clinical or radiographic progression–free survival, and overall survival.
Results
A total of 31 enzalutamide-treated patients and 31 abiraterone-treated patients were enrolled, of whom 39% and 19%, respectively, had detectable AR-V7 in circulating tumor cells. Among men receiving enzalutamide, AR-V7–positive patients had lower PSA response rates than AR-V7–negative patients (0% vs. 53%, P = 0.004) and shorter PSA progression–free survival (median, 1.4 months vs. 6.0 months; P<0.001), clinical or radiographic progression–free survival (median, 2.1 months vs. 6.1 months; P<0.001), and overall survival (median, 5.5 months vs. not reached; P = 0.002). Similarly, among men receiving abiraterone, AR-V7–positive patients had lower PSA response rates than AR-V7–negative patients (0% vs. 68%, P = 0.004) and shorter PSA progression–free survival (median, 1.3 months vs. not reached; P<0.001), clinical or radiographic progression–free survival (median, 2.3 months vs. not reached; P<0.001), and overall survival (median, 10.6 months vs. not reached, P = 0.006). The association between AR-V7 detection and therapeutic resistance was maintained after adjustment for expression of full-length androgen receptor messenger RNA.
Conclusions
Detection of AR-V7 in circulating tumor cells from patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer may be associated with resistance to enzalutamide and abiraterone. These findings require large-scale prospective validation. (Funded by the Prostate Cancer Foundation and others.)
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1315815
PMCID: PMC4201502  PMID: 25184630
4.  Tolerability and efficacy of docetaxel in older men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in the TAX 327 trial 
Journal of geriatric oncology  2014;5(2):119-126.
Objective
Prostate cancer is a disease of older men. Weekly docetaxel (DPq1w) is often favored over the standard three-weekly regimen (DPq3w) due to concerns about safety and tolerability in this population.
Materials and Methods
Two subgroup analyses of TAX 327 were conducted. Among patients receiving DPq3w, tolerability and efficacy were compared between three age groups: <65, 65–74 and ≥75 years. For men ≥75 years, these outcomes were compared between DPq3w, DPq1w, and mitoxantrone (MP) arms. Tolerability outcomes included dose delivery, grade 3/4 adverse events and quality of life. Efficacy outcomes included overall survival and tumor response.
Results
Of 1006 men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in the trial, 335 received DPq3w. Among these, 20% were age ≥75 years. For DPq3w, there were non-significant associations of worse tolerability and efficacy with advancing age. Twenty-eight percent of men age ≥75 years had an objective pain response, compared to 38% and 34% of patients 65–74 and <65 years, respectively. There were no significant differences in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response (43–48%, p = 0.74) or measurable tumor response (7–17%, p = 0.30) according to age. Among men ≥75 years, DPq3w resulted in more dose reductions than DPq1w (22% versus 8%, p = 0.007), but tolerability was otherwise comparable. Both were associated with more favorable efficacy than mitoxantrone.
Conclusions
Tolerability and efficacy of DPq3w appear less favorable with advancing age. Compared to DPq1w, DPq3w is associated with better survival outcomes, but similar tolerability, and remains the standard first-line chemotherapy option in mCRPC. Toxicity is substantial, therefore careful patient selection, close monitoring and early management of toxicities is advised.
doi:10.1016/j.jgo.2013.12.001
PMCID: PMC4352315  PMID: 24495703
Prostate cancer; Elderly; Docetaxel
5.  The Natural History of Men Treated With Deferred Androgen Deprivation Therapy in Whom Metastatic Prostate Cancer Developed Following Radical Prostatectomy 
The Journal of urology  2007;179(1):156-162.
Purpose
We report on the natural history and factors influencing the prognosis of a cohort of hormone naïve, prostate specific antigen era patients in whom metastatic prostate cancer developed after radical prostatectomy who were followed closely and treated with deferred androgen deprivation therapy at the time of metastasis.
Materials and Methods
A total of 3,096 men underwent radical prostatectomy performed by a single surgeon at Johns Hopkins Hospital between 1987 and 2005. Of these men 422 had prostate specific antigen failure. Distant metastasis developed in 123 patients, of whom 91 with complete data formed the study cohort initially treated during the prostate specific antigen era (1987 to 2005) and receiving androgen deprivation therapy after documented metastasis. A total of 41 men died of prostate cancer. Median survival times were estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Prognostic impact was estimated as the hazard ratio derived from the Cox proportional hazards model.
Results
Median followup from radical prostatectomy was 120 months (range 24 to 216). Kaplan-Meier median (range) times to failure were 24 months (12 to 144) from radical prostatectomy to prostate specific antigen failure, 36 months (0 to 132) from prostate specific antigen failure to metastasis, 84 months (12 to 180) from metastasis to death and 168 months (24 to 216) from radical prostatectomy to death. Statistically significant univariate risk factors for prostate cancer specific mortality at the time of metastasis were pain at diagnosis of metastases (p = 0.002), time from radical prostatectomy to metastasis (p = 0.024) and prostate specific antigen doubling time less than 3 months during the 24 months before metastasis (p = 0.016). Multivariable analysis demonstrated independent predictors of prostate cancer specific mortality at the time of metastasis, namely pain (HR 3.5, p = 0.003) and prostate specific antigen doubling time less than 3 months (HR 3.4, p = 0.017).
Conclusions
Men treated with deferred androgen deprivation therapy for the development of metastasis after radical prostatectomy may have a long life span, 169 months after radical prostatectomy (range 24 to 216). The presence of pain and short prostate specific antigen doubling time predicted an unfavorable outcome.
doi:10.1016/j.juro.2007.08.133
PMCID: PMC4342043  PMID: 18001801
prostatic neoplasms; prostatectomy; neoplasm metastasis; androgens; pain
6.  Small cell carcinoma of the prostate 
Nature reviews. Urology  2014;11(4):213-219.
Pure small-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the prostate is a rare entity and one of the most aggressive malignancies of the prostate. Histologically, prostatic SCCs of the prostate are part of a spectrum of anaplastic tumours of the prostate and are similar to SCCs of the lungs. In most cases, SCC of the prostate is associated with conventional prostatic adenocarcinoma. Both components of these mixed tumours frequently share molecular alterations such as ERG gene rearrangements or AURKA and MYCN amplifications, suggesting a common clonal origin. The clinical behaviour of small-cell prostate carcinomas is characterized by extensive local disease, visceral disease, and low PSA levels despite large metastatic burden. Commonly, the emergence of the SCC occurs in patients with high-grade adenocarcinoma who are often treated with androgen deprivation treatment (ADT). However, SCCs do not usually benefit from ADT. A biopsy of accessible lesions is strongly recommended to identify those with SCC pathological features, as management is undoubtedly affected by this finding. Chemotherapy is the standard approach for treating patients with either localized or advanced prostatic SCC. Despite the emergence of more-aggressive treatment modalities, the prognosis of men with prostatic SCC remains dismal.
doi:10.1038/nrurol.2014.21
PMCID: PMC4339095  PMID: 24535589
7.  Maximal Testosterone Suppression in Prostate Cancer—Free vs Total Testosterone 
Urology  2014;83(6):1217-1222.
Testosterone remains a key target in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. The relationship of free testosterone to prostate cancer treatment and outcomes remains largely unexplored. A consensus of prostate cancer experts was convened in 2013 to review current knowledge surrounding relationship of total and free testosterone to prostate cancer, discuss the free hormone hypothesis, and highlight future avenues for therapeutics. Free testosterone may better reflect prostate cancer tissue androgen levels than serum total testosterone concentration. Free testosterone deserves more research regarding its relation to clinical outcomes.
doi:10.1016/j.urology.2014.02.001
PMCID: PMC4332796  PMID: 24713136
8.  Active Smoking May Negatively Affect Response Rate, Progression-Free Survival, and Overall Survival of Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Treated With Sunitinib 
The Oncologist  2013;19(1):51-60.
An international multicenter retrospective study of sunitinib-treated metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients was performed to determine the association between outcome and the pretreatment status of smoking, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, and other known prognostic factors. The results showed that active smoking may negatively affect the progression-free and overall survival of these patients.
Learning Objectives
Describe the association between risk factors for renal cell carcinoma and the outcome of sunitinib treatment for metastatic disease.Explain the impact of active smoking on the outcome of sunitinib-treated metastatic renal cell carcinoma.Discuss obesity, hypertension, and diabetes in relation to the outcome of sunitinib-treated metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
Background.
Obesity, smoking, hypertension, and diabetes are risk factors for renal cell carcinoma development. Their presence has been associated with a worse outcome in various cancers. We sought to determine their association with outcome of sunitinib treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC).
Methods.
An international multicenter retrospective study of sunitinib-treated mRCC patients was performed. Multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association between outcome and the pretreatment status of smoking, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, and other known prognostic factors.
Results.
Between 2004 and 2013, 278 mRCC patients were treated with sunitinib: 59 were active smokers, 67 were obese, 73 were diabetic, and 165 had pretreatment hypertension. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 9 months, and overall survival (OS) was 22 months. Factors associated with PFS were smoking status (past and active smokers: hazard ratio [HR]: 1.17, p = .39; never smokers: HR: 2.94, p < .0001), non-clear cell histology (HR: 1.62, p = .011), pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio >3 (HR: 3.51, p < .0001), use of angiotensin system inhibitors (HR: 0.63, p = .01), sunitinib dose reduction or treatment interruption (HR: 0.72, p = .045), and Heng risk (good and intermediate risk: HR: 1.07, p = .77; poor risk: HR: 1.87, p = .046). Factors associated with OS were smoking status (past and active smokers: HR: 1.25, p = .29; never smokers: HR: 2.7, p < .0001), pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio >3 (HR: 2.95, p < .0001), and sunitinib-induced hypertension (HR: 0.57, p = .002).
Conclusion.
Active smoking may negatively affect the PFS and OS of sunitinib-treated mRCC. Clinicians should consider advising patients to quit smoking at initiation of sunitinib treatment for mRCC.
doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2012-0335
PMCID: PMC3903056  PMID: 24309979
Active smoking; Metastatic renal cell carcinoma; Outcome; Sunitinib treatment
9.  Association of pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with first-line docetaxel 
BJU international  2014;114(0):E11-E17.
Objective
To determine whether the pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a measure of systemic inflammatory response, is associated with overall survival (OS) in men receiving chemotherapy with docetaxel for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).
Patients and Methods
Records from 238 consecutive patients who were treated with first-line docetaxel-containing chemotherapy for mCRPC at a single high-volume centre from 1998 to 2010 (and who had adequate information to enable calculation of NLR) were reviewed.
Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models were used to predict OS after chemotherapy initiation.
Results
In univariable analyses, the NLR as a discrete variable (optimal threshold 3.0) was significantly associated with OS (P = 0.001).
In multivariable analyses, a lower NLR (≤3.0) was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality (P = 0.002).
In Kaplan-Meier analysis, the median OS was higher (18.3 vs 14.4 months) in patients that did not have an elevated NLR than in those with an elevated NLR (log-rank; P < 0.001).
Conclusions
Men who were treated with first-line docetaxel for mCRPC who had a low pretreatment NLR (≤3.0) had significantly longer OS.
NLR may be a potentially useful clinical marker of systemic inflammatory response in predicting OS in men with mCRPC who receive docetaxel and may be helpful to stratify patients for clinical trials.
These findings derived from a retrospective analysis need to be validated in larger populations in prospective studies, and in the context of different therapies.
doi:10.1111/bju.12531
PMCID: PMC4004702  PMID: 24529213
neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio; prostate cancer; chemotherapy; metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; docetaxel; overall survival
10.  Survival in Men With Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Treated With Hormone Therapy: A Quantitative Systematic Review 
Purpose
We aimed to describe disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in men with localized or locally advanced prostate cancer receiving immediate hormone therapy as adjunct to radiation therapy, adjunct to radical prostatectomy, or stand-alone therapy.
Materials and Methods
A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CancerLit, the Cochrane Library, and Current Contents (from 1986 to September 2006) yielded 35 high-quality clinical trials (n = 11,105 patients) which formed the evidence base. Selected studies were required to address early hormone therapy in nonmetastatic prostate cancer only. Data on DFS and OS were extracted from individual trials, summarized statistically, and displayed in graphic form.
Results
Survival probabilities were extracted from 16 trials (n = 5,987 patients) addressing hormone therapy as an adjunct to radiation therapy, 11 trials (n = 1,885 patients) investigating hormone therapy as an adjunct to prostatectomy, and 10 trials (n = 3,233 patients) evaluating hormone therapy alone. In men receiving hormones and radiation, estimated 5-year DFS and OS were 52% and 82%, whereas median DFS and OS were 5.4 years and more than 7 years, respectively. In men receiving hormones and surgery, 5-year DFS and OS were 64% and 90%, whereas median DFS and OS were more than 6 years and more than 7 years, respectively. In men receiving hormones alone, 5-year DFS and OS were 57% and 70%, whereas median DFS and OS were 6.0 years and more than 7 years, respectively.
Conclusion
This systematic review provides a new baseline for expected DFS and OS in patients treated with hormone therapy for nonmetastatic prostate cancer. Survival in these men may be longer than estimated previously.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2007.11.1559
PMCID: PMC4133788  PMID: 17971600
11.  Adjuvant Leuprolide With or Without Docetaxel in Patients With High-Risk Prostate Cancer After Radical Prostatectomy (TAX-3501) 
Cancer  2013;119(20):3610-3618.
BACKGROUND
The current trial evaluated 2 common therapies for patients with advanced prostate cancer, docetaxel and hormonal therapy (HT), in the surgical adjuvant setting.
METHODS
TAX-3501 was a randomized, phase 3, adjuvant study post-radical prostatectomy (RP) in high-risk patients with prostate cancer (n = 228) comparing 18 months of HT with (CHT) without docetaxel chemotherapy either immediately (I) or deferred (D). High-risk disease was defined as a 5-year freedom-from-disease-progression rate of ≤60% as predicted by a post-RP nomogram. Progression-free survival (PFS), including prostate-specific antigen disease recurrence, was the primary endpoint. The authors also assessed the accuracy of the nomogram and analyzed testosterone recovery in 108 patients treated with HT who had at least 1 posttreatment testosterone value.
RESULTS
Between December 2005 and September 2007, 228 patients were randomized between the treatment cohorts. TAX-3501 was terminated prematurely because of enrollment challenges, leaving it underpowered to detect differences in PFS. After a median follow-up of 3.4 years (interquartile range, 2.3–3.8 years), 39 of 228 patients (17%) demonstrated PSA disease progression, and metastatic disease progression occurred in 1 patient. The median time to baseline testosterone recovery after the completion of treatment was prolonged at 487 days (95% confidence interval, 457–546 days). The nomogram’s predicted versus observed freedom from disease progression was significantly different for the combination D(HT) and D(CHT) group (P < .00001).
CONCLUSIONS
TAX-3501 illustrated several difficulties involved in conducting postoperative adjuvant systemic trials in men with high-risk prostate cancer: the lack of consensus regarding patient selection and treatment, the need for long follow-up time, nonvalidated intermediate endpoints, evolving standard approaches, and the need for long-term research support. Except for selected patients at very high-risk of disease recurrence and death, surgical adjuvant trials in patients with prostate cancer may not be feasible.
doi:10.1002/cncr.28270
PMCID: PMC4124610  PMID: 23943299
prostate cancer; adjuvant therapy; docetaxel; leuprolide; testosterone recovery
12.  Preclinical and Clinical Studies with the Multi-Kinase Inhibitor CEP-701 as Treatment for Prostate Cancer Demonstrate the Inadequacy of PSA Response as a Primary Endpoint 
Cancer biology & therapy  2007;6(9):1360-1367.
Purpose
CEP-701 is a potent inhibitor of trk receptors that causes cell death in prostate cancer (PC) models. CEP-701 binds to serum proteins and a preprostatectomy study was performed to assess prostate tissue penetration and clinical response to CEP-701.
Methods
Growth assays and Western blot analyses were performed to evaluate CEP-701 kinase inhibition. In a preprostatectomy study, patients received CEP-701 for five days prior to prostatectomy and prostate tissue analyzed for CEP-701 levels. A phase II dose escalation study was performed in patients with hormone refractory PC with rising PSA and no metastases. Endpoints included PSA response and safety.
Results
CEP-701 binds to serum proteins limiting tissue penetration. An oral dose of 40 mg bid of CEP-701 for five days produced levels of 219 ± 38 nM in prostate at time of prostatectomy. No patients in the Phase II study met the primary response criteria of >50% PSA decline. Seven/9 patients had increase in PSA slope on CEP-701 compared to PSA slope prestudy. Five/9 patients had a decrease in PSA levels after stopping CEP-701. Laboratory studies showed increased PSA production by CEP-701 growth arrested human PC cells in vitro and in vivo.
Conclusions
Evaluation of PSA response is an inadequate indicator of response in CEP-701 treated PC patients. Therefore, the effectiveness of CEP-701 as treatment for prostate cancer has not been adequately tested. Based on a strong preclinical rationale, further clinical studies with CEP-701 using alternative endpoints are indicated.
PMCID: PMC4124640  PMID: 17786033
prostate cancer; PSA; kinase; peceptor; CEP-701
14.  Penile Cancer 
Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis represents approximately 0.5% of all cancers among men in the United States and other developed countries. Although rare, it is associated with significant disfigurement, and only half of the patients survive beyond 5 years. Proper evaluation of both the primary lesion and lymph nodes is critical, because nodal involvement is the most important factor of survival. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Penile Cancer provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this devastating disease based on evidence and expert consensus.
PMCID: PMC4042432  PMID: 23667209
15.  Does short-term ADT before and during radiation therapy improve outcomes in locally advanced prostate cancer? 
SUMMARY
This Practice Point discusses the 10-year data of the RTOG 8610 trial, published by Roach III and colleagues, which suggest that a short, 4-month course of neoadjuvant–concomitant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) might be sufficient to improve clinically relevant long-term outcomes in men with bulky, locally advanced prostate cancer. The results show that patients randomized to receive short-term ADT before and during radiation therapy (RT), rather than RT alone, had improved long-term disease-specific mortality, freedom from distant metastases, disease-free survival, freedom from biochemical failure, and possibly even overall survival. Importantly, no increase in the risk of fatal cardiac events was seen. The study did not, however, address the issue of the optimum duration of ADT; recent data suggest that longer courses of ADT (≥2 years), when added to RT, might further improve disease-free and even overall survival, especially in patients with high-grade disease.
doi:10.1038/ncpuro1175
PMCID: PMC4036454  PMID: 18665153
androgen deprivation therapy; disease-free survival; locally advanced prostate cancer; overall survival; radiation therapy
16.  Novel targeted therapeutics for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer 
Cancer letters  2009;291(1):1-13.
Virtually all patients that succumb to prostate cancer die of metastatic castration-resistant disease. Although docetaxel is the standard of care for these patients and is associated with a modest prolongation of survival, there is an urgent need for novel treatment strategies for metastatic prostate cancer. In the last several years, great strides have been made in our understanding of the biological and molecular mechanisms driving prostate cancer growth and progression, and this has resulted in widespread clinical testing of numerous new targeted therapies. This review discusses some of the key therapeutic agents that have emerged for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in the last 5 years, with an emphasis on both molecular targets and clinical trial design. These agents include mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway inhibitors, anti-angiogenic drugs, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway inhibitors, apoptosis-inducing drugs, endothelin receptor antagonists, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) ligand inhibitors, vitamin D analogues, cytochrome P17 enzyme inhibitors, androgen receptor modulators, epigenetic therapies, vaccine therapies, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA)-4 blocking agents.
doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2009.08.012
PMCID: PMC4029098  PMID: 19717225
Metastatic castration-resistant prostate; cancer; Targeted therapies; Immune therapies; Molecular targets; Clinical trials; Drug development
17.  Is abiraterone acetate well tolerated and effective in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer? 
SUMMARY
This Practice Point commentary discusses the findings of the first phase I trial to evaluate abiraterone acetate (an inhibitor of the androgen-regulating enzyme CYP17) in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer. This open-label, dose-escalation study by Attard et al. showed that abiraterone was well tolerated but often induced a syndrome of secondary mineralocorticoid excess that improved with eplerenone (a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist). Abiraterone is a potent suppressor of adrenal androgen synthesis, and produced lasting prostate-specific antigen responses in approximately half of the patients. A few patients had partial regression of distant metastases. Although promising, these results should be interpreted with caution owing to the small sample size and because the study was not primarily designed to examine drug efficacy. Multi-institutional, prospective trials should provide additional information on the tolerability and activity of this compound and further define the population most likely to benefit from this endocrine approach.
doi:10.1038/ncponc1262
PMCID: PMC4014058  PMID: 18957947
abiraterone acetate; castration-resistant prostate cancer; CyP17 enzyme; efficacy; tolerability
18.  Design and End Points of Clinical Trials for Patients With Progressive Prostate Cancer and Castrate Levels of Testosterone: Recommendations of the Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Working Group 
Purpose
To update eligibility and outcome measures in trials that evaluate systemic treatment for patients with progressive prostate cancer and castrate levels of testosterone.
Methods
A committee of investigators experienced in conducting trials for prostate cancer defined new consensus criteria by reviewing previous criteria, Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), and emerging trial data.
Results
The Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Working Group (PCWG2) recommends a two-objective paradigm: (1) controlling, relieving, or eliminating disease manifestations that are present when treatment is initiated and (2) preventing or delaying disease manifestations expected to occur. Prostate cancers progressing despite castrate levels of testosterone are considered castration resistant and not hormone refractory. Eligibility is defined using standard disease assessments to authenticate disease progression, prior treatment, distinct clinical subtypes, and predictive models. Outcomes are reported independently for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), imaging, and clinical measures, avoiding grouped categorizations such as complete or partial response. In most trials, early changes in PSA and/or pain are not acted on without other evidence of disease progression, and treatment should be continued for at least 12 weeks to ensure adequate drug exposure. Bone scans are reported as “new lesions” or “no new lesions,” changes in soft-tissue disease assessed by RECIST, and pain using validated scales. Defining eligibility for prevent/delay end points requires attention to estimated event frequency and/or random assignment to a control group.
Conclusion
PCWG2 recommends increasing emphasis on time-to-event end points (ie, failure to progress) as decision aids in proceeding from phase II to phase III trials. Recommendations will evolve as data are generated on the utility of intermediate end points to predict clinical benefit.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2007.12.4487
PMCID: PMC4010133  PMID: 18309951
19.  Unmet Needs in the Prediction and Detection of Metastases in Prostate Cancer 
The Oncologist  2013;18(5):549-557.
Despite advances in therapy options, few guidelines or reviews address the optimal timing or methodology for the radiographic detection of metastatic disease in patients with advanced prostate cancer. This review discusses the current status of predicting the presence of metastatic disease, with a particular emphasis on the detection of the M0 to M1 transition, and reviews current data on newer imaging technologies that are changing the way metastases are detected.
The therapeutic landscape for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer is rapidly evolving, especially for those patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CPRC). Despite advances in therapy options, the diagnostic landscape has remained relatively static, with few guidelines or reviews addressing the optimal timing or methodology for the radiographic detection of metastatic disease. Given recent reports indicating a substantial proportion of patients with CRPC thought to be nonmetastatic (M0) are in fact metastatic (M1), there is now a clear opportunity and need for improvement in detection practices. Herein, we discuss the current status of predicting the presence of metastatic disease, with a particular emphasis on the detection of the M0 to M1 transition. In addition, we review current data on newer imaging technologies that are changing the way metastases are detected. Whether earlier detection of metastatic disease will ultimately improve patient outcomes is unknown, but given that the therapeutic options for those with metastatic and nonmetastatic CPRC vary, there are considerable implications of how and when metastases are detected.
doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2013-0027
PMCID: PMC3662846  PMID: 23650019
Imaging; Lymph nodes; Magnetic resonance imaging; Neoplasm metastasis; Prostatic neoplasms; Radionuclide imaging
20.  Pretreatment Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Ketoconazole: Association with Outcome and Predictive Nomogram 
The Oncologist  2012;17(12):1508-1514.
Association between the pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and outcome of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with ketoconazole was assessed. The pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and prostate-specific antigen doubling time, and prior response to androgen-deprivation therapy, were associated with the progression-free survival interval in these patients.
Background.
The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), an inflammation marker, is prognostic in several cancers. We assessed the association between the pretreatment NLR and outcome of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with the CYP17 inhibitor ketoconazole.
Methods.
This was an international, retrospective study of 156 mCRPC patients treated with ketoconazole. The independent effect of the pretreatment NLR and factors associated with treatment outcome were determined by multivariate analysis.
Results.
Seventy-eight patients (50%) had a ≥50% decline in prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The median progression-free survival (PFS) time was 8 months. Excluded from the analysis were 23 patients without available data on their NLR and those with a recent health event or treatment associated with a blood count change. Sixty-two patients (47%) had a pretreatment NLR >3. Risk factors associated with the PFS outcome were a pretreatment NLR >3 and PSA doubling time (PSADT) <3 months and a prior response to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist of <24 months or to an antiandrogen of <6 months. The number of risk factors was used to form a predictive nomogram by patient categorization into favorable (zero or one factor), intermediate (two factors), and poor (three or four factors) risk groups.
Conclusions.
In mCRPC patients treated with ketoconazole, the pretreatment NLR and PSADT, and prior response to androgen-deprivation therapy, may be associated with the PFS time and used to form a risk stratification predictive nomogram.
doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2012-0125
PMCID: PMC3528383  PMID: 22971522
Ketoconazole treatment; Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio; Outcome; Predictive nomogram
21.  Improved Overall Survival Trends of Men with Newly Diagnosed M1 Prostate Cancer: A SWOG Phase III Trial Experience (S8494, S8894 & S9346) 
The Journal of urology  2012;188(4):1164-1169.
Purpose
Frequent PSA testing in screening and monitoring of prostate cancer has led to significant stage migration. We evaluated if overall survival (OS) in hormone naïve, metastatic prostate cancer patients has improved during the era of PSA use. We also assessed whether any subsets of patients benefited differentially during this period.
Materials and Methods
We compared OS in three sequential phase III trials of men with hormone naïve, metastatic prostate cancer receiving similar androgen deprivation therapy (n=3096): two conducted prior to the ‘PSA era’ (S8494 and S8894), and the other during this era (S9346). OS was adjusted for patient and disease risk factors in the latter two trials. Subgroups were evaluated by interactions of risk factors with trial.
Results
Median OS in S8494 was 30 months, 33 months in S8894; and 49 months in S9346. Adjusting for risk factors, there was a 22% lower risk of death in S9346 compared to S8894 (hazard ratio 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.70, 0.87, p<0.001). The improvement in OS was greater in African Americans (AA) (p=0.008 for test of interaction). In both S8494 and S8894, median survival for AA was 27 months and 34 and 35 months for non-AA, respectively; this racial difference disappeared in S9346 (AA OS=48 months, non-AA OS=49 months).
Conclusions
Adjusting for risk factors, OS was significantly improved in the post-PSA era trial. However, attributing this solely to PSA monitoring cannot be concluded. AA men now have comparable OS to Caucasians. Current estimates of survival should be used for designing new trials in this population.
doi:10.1016/j.juro.2012.06.046
PMCID: PMC3481164  PMID: 22921015
22.  The Experience with Cytotoxic Chemotherapy in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer 
doi:10.1016/j.ucl.2012.07.012
PMCID: PMC3742094  PMID: 23084532
Cytotoxic chemotherapy; Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; Docetaxel
23.  Biodistribution, Tumor Detection, and Radiation Dosimetry of 18F-DCFBC, a Low-Molecular-Weight Inhibitor of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen, in Patients with Metastatic Prostate Cancer 
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a type II integral membrane protein expressed on the surface of prostate cancer (PCa) cells, particularly in androgen-independent, advanced, and metastatic disease. Previously, we demonstrated that N-[N-[(S)-1,3-dicarboxypropyl]carbamoyl]-4-18F-fluorobenzyl-Lcysteine (18F-DCFBC) could image an experimental model of PSMA-positive PCa using PET. Here, we describe the initial clinical experience and radiation dosimetry of 18F-DCFBC in men with metastatic PCa.
Methods
Five patients with radiologic evidence of metastatic PCa were studied after the intravenous administration of 370 MBq (10 mCi) of 18F-DCFBC. Serial PET was performed until 2 h after administration. Time- activity curves were generated for selected normal tissues and metastatic foci. Radiation dose estimates were calculated using OLINDA/EXM 1.1.
Results
Most vascular organs demonstrated a slow decrease in radioactivity concentration over time consistent with clearance from the blood pool, with primarily urinary radiotracer excretion. Thirty-two PET-positive suspected metastatic sites were identified, with 21 concordant on both PET and conventional imaging for abnormal findings compatible with metastatic disease. Of the 11 PET-positive sites not identified on conventional imaging, most were within the bone and could be considered suggestive for the detection of early bone metastases, although further validation is needed. The highest mean absorbed dose per unit administered radioactivity (µGy/MBq) was in the bladder wall (32.4), and the resultant effective dose was 19.9 ± 1.34 µSv/MBq (mean ± SD).
Conclusion
Although further studies are needed for validation, our findings demonstrate the potential of 18F-DCFBC as a new positron-emitting imaging agent for the detection of metastatic PCa. This study also provides dose estimates for 18F-DCFBC that are comparable to those of other PET radiopharmaceuticals such as 18F-FDG.
doi:10.2967/jnumed.112.104661
PMCID: PMC3742115  PMID: 23203246
prostate-specific membrane antigen; prostate cancer; 18F; urea; PET/CT
24.  The effect of clinical trial participation versus non-participation on overall survival in men receiving first-line docetaxel-containing chemotherapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer 
BJU international  2012;110(11 0 0):E575-E582.
OBJECTIVE
To study differences in baseline characteristics and outcomes of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) receiving first-line docetaxel-containing chemotherapy on prospective clinical studies (trial participants) versus those receiving this therapy outside of a clinical study (non-participants).
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Records from 247 consecutive chemotherapy-naive patients who were treated with docetaxel-containing chemotherapy for mCRPC at a single high-volume centre from 1998 to 2010 were reviewed.
All patients received docetaxel either as clinical trial participants (n = 142; 11 separate studies) or as non-participants (n = 105).
Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models predicted overall survival after chemotherapy initiation.
RESULTS
There was no significant difference between trial participation and non-participation with respect to patient age, type of primary treatment, tumour grade or clinical stage.
Multivariable analyses showed a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.567; P = 0.027) among trial participants vs non-participants.
CONCLUSIONS
Patients that were treated with docetaxel for mCRPC showed a significantly longer overall survival when enrolled in a clinical trial.
Improved survival in trial participants may reflect the better medical oversight typically seen in patients enrolled in trials, more regimented follow-up schedules, or a positive effect on caregivers’ attitudes because of greater contact with medical services.
With the retrospective nature of this analysis and the small study population, prospective studies are needed to validate the present findings and to further investigate the relationship between clinical trial participation and outcomes.
doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11286.x
PMCID: PMC3715077  PMID: 22702837
prostate cancer; chemotherapy; clinical trial; metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; docetaxel; overall survival
25.  AIM1 PROMOTER HYPERMETHYLATION AS A PREDICTOR OF DECREASED RISK OF RECURRENCE FOLLOWING RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY 
The Prostate  2011;72(10):1133-1139.
Purpose
To evaluate the prognostic significance of six epigenetic biomarkers (AIM1, CDH1, KIF1A, MT1G, PAK3 and RBM6 promoter hypermethlation) in a homogeneous group of prostate cancer patients, following radical prostatectomy.
Patients and Methods
Biomarker analyses were performed retrospectively on tumors from 95 prostate cancer patients all with a Gleason score of 3+4=7 and a minimum follow up period of 8 years. Using Quantitative Methylation Specific PCR (QMSP), we analyzed the promoter region of six genes in primary prostate tumor tissues. Time to any progression was the primary endpoint and development of metastatic disease and/or death from prostate cancer was a secondary endpoint. The association of clinicopathological and biomolecular risk factors to recurrence was performed using the Log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model for multivariate analysis. To identify independent prognostic factors, a stepwise selection method was used.
Results
At a median follow-up time of 10 years, 48 patients (50.5%) had evidence of recurrence: biochemical/PSA relapse, metastases, or death from prostate cancer. In the final multivariate analysis for time to progression, the significant factors were: older age, HR=0.95 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.0) (P=0.03), positive lymph nodes HR=2.11 (95%CI: 1.05, 4.26) (P=0.04) and decreased hypermethylation of AIM1 HR=0.45 (95%CI: 0.2, 1.0) (P=0.05).
Conclusions
Methylation status of AIM1 in the prostate cancer specimen may predict for time to recurrence in Gleason 3+4=7 patients undergoing prostatectomy. These results should be validated in a larger and unselected cohort.
doi:10.1002/pros.22461
PMCID: PMC3360823  PMID: 22127895

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