Dental follicle cells (DFCs) are a heterogeneous population that exhibit a variety of phenotypes. However, it remains unclear whether DFCs can maintain stem cell characteristics, or mediate tissue-regeneration to form single or complex tissues in the periodontium, after long-term culturing. Therefore, DFCs were isolated from human impacted molars (HIM-DFCs), passaged >30 times, and then evaluated for their heterogeneity and multipotential differentiation. Morphology, proliferation, epitope profile, and mineralization characteristics of clones derived from single HIM-DFCs in vitro were also assayed. HIM-DFCs (passage #30) were found to be positive for the heterogeneous markers, Notch-1, stro-1, alkaline phosphomonoesterase (ALP), type I collagen (COL-I), type III collagen (COL-III), and osteocalcine. Moreover, passage #30 of the HDF1, 2, and 3 subclone classes identified in this study were found to express high levels of the mesenchymal stem cells markers, CD146 and Stro1. HDF3 subclones were also associated with the strongest ALP staining detected, and strongly expressed osteoblast and cementoblast markers, including COL-I, COL-III, bone sialoprotein (BSP), and Runx2. In contrast, HDF1 subclone analyzed strongly expressed COL-I and COL-III, yet weakly expressed BSP and Runx2. The HDF2 subclone was associated with the strongest proliferative capacity. To evaluate differentiation characteristics in vivo, these various cell populations were combined with ceramic bovine bone and implanted into subcutaneous pockets of nude mice. The 30th passage of subclone HDF1 and 3 were observed to contribute to fiber collagens and the mineralized matrix present, respectively, whereas HDF2 subclones were found to have a minimal role in these formations. The formation of a cementum-periodontal ligament (PDL) complex was observed 6 weeks after HIM-DFCs (passage #30) were implanted in vivo, thus suggesting that these cells maintain stem cell characteristics. Therefore, subclone HDF1-3 may be related to the differentiation of fibroblasts in the PDL, undifferentiated cells, and osteoblasts and cementoblasts, respectively. Overall, this study is the first to amplify HIM-DFCs and associated subclones with the goal of reconstructing complex or single periodontium. Moreover, our results demonstrate the potential for this treatment approach to address periodontal defects that result from periodontitis, or for the regeneration of teeth.
Klotho was first identified in 1997 and has been considered as an anti-aging gene. Emerging evidence demonstrates that klotho has a close relationship with cancers, including lung cancer, breast cancer, etc, by inhibiting the proliferation and promoting apoptosis of cancer cells. Cisplatin has been the most widely used drug in the first-line chemotherapy. However, the increase in cisplatin-resistant cancer cells has become a major obstacle in clinical management of cancers. In our study, we for the first time demonstrated that klotho could attenuate the resistance of lung cancer to cisplatin based chemotherapy and the apoptosis of the resistant cells with klotho overexpression was markedly increased. However, klotho knockdown cells showed enhanced resistance to chemotherapy. Further analysis showed that inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway with specific inhibitor (LY294002) attenuated the promotive effects on cancer growth following interfering with klotho shRNA. Moreover, we demonstrated that klotho modulated the resistance to cisplatin in a xenograft nude mice model. These observations suggested that klotho could improve the resistance of lung cancer cells to chemotherapy and may serve as a potential target for the gene therapy of lung cancers resistant to cisplatin based chemotherapy.
Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC) established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n−3) fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n−6) into n−3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n = 925) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n−3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n−6/n−3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01) and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation.
Pyrimorph is a novel fungicide with high activity against the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici. We investigated the risk that P. capsici can develop resistance to pyrimorph. The baseline sensitivities of 226 P. capsici isolates, tested by mycelial growth inhibition, showed a unimodal distribution with a mean EC50 value of 1.4261 (±0.4002) µg/ml. Twelve pyrimorph-resistant mutants were obtained by repeated exposure to pyrimorph in vitro with a frequency of approximately 1×10−4. The resistance factors of the mutants ranged from 10.67 to 56.02. Pyrimorph resistance of the mutants was stable after 10 transfers on pyrimorph-free medium. Fitness in sporulation, cystospore germination, and pathogenicity in the pyrimorph-resistant mutants was similar to or less than that in the parental wild-type isolates. On detached pepper leaves and pepper plants treated with the recommended maximum dose of pyrimorph, however, virulence was greater for mutants with a high level of pyrimorph resistance than for the wild type. The results suggest that the risk of P. capsici developing resistance to pyrimorph is low to moderate. Among mutants with a high level of pyrimorph resistance, EC50 values for pyrimorph and CAA fungicides flumorph, dimethomorph, and mandipropamid were positively correlated. This indicated that point mutations in cellulose synthase 3 (CesA3) may confer resistance to pyrimorph. Comparison of CesA3 in isolates with a high level of pyrimorph resistance and parental isolates showed that an amino acid change from glutamine to lysine at position 1077 resulted in stable, high resistance in the mutants. Based on the point mutations, an allele-specific PCR method was developed to detect pyrimorph resistance in P. capsici populations.
As one of the most dominant bacterial groups on Earth, cyanobacteria play a pivotal role in the global carbon cycling and the Earth atmosphere composition. Understanding their molecular responses to environmental perturbations has important scientific and environmental values. Since important biological processes or networks are often evolutionarily conserved, the cross-species transcriptional network analysis offers a useful strategy to decipher conserved and species-specific transcriptional mechanisms that cells utilize to deal with various biotic and abiotic disturbances, and it will eventually lead to a better understanding of associated adaptation and regulatory networks.
In this study, the Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) approach was used to establish transcriptional networks for four important cyanobacteria species under metal stress, including iron depletion and high copper conditions. Cross-species network comparison led to discovery of several core response modules and genes possibly essential to metal stress, as well as species-specific hub genes for metal stresses in different cyanobacteria species, shedding light on survival strategies of cyanobacteria responding to different environmental perturbations.
The WGCNA analysis demonstrated that the application of cross-species transcriptional network analysis will lead to novel insights to molecular response to environmental changes which will otherwise not be achieved by analyzing data from a single species.
Cross-species; Transcriptional network; Metal stress; Cyanobacteria
Toxicity is a major contributor to high attrition rates of new chemical entities in drug discoveries. In this study, an order-classifier was built to predict a series of toxic effects based on data concerning chemical-chemical interactions under the assumption that interactive compounds are more likely to share similar toxicity profiles. According to their interaction confidence scores, the order from the most likely toxicity to the least was obtained for each compound. Ten test groups, each of them containing one training dataset and one test dataset, were constructed from a benchmark dataset consisting of 17,233 compounds. By a Jackknife test on each of these test groups, the 1st order prediction accuracies of the training dataset and the test dataset were all approximately 79.50%, substantially higher than the rate of 25.43% achieved by random guesses. Encouraged by the promising results, we expect that our method will become a useful tool in screening out drugs with high toxicity.
Best Management Practices (BMPs) are one of the most effective methods to control nonpoint source (NPS) pollution at a watershed scale. In this paper, the use of a topography analysis incorporated optimization method (TAIOM) was proposed, which integrates topography analysis with cost-effective optimization. The surface status, slope and the type of land use were evaluated as inputs for the optimization engine. A genetic algorithm program was coded to obtain the final optimization. The TAIOM was validated in conjunction with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in the Yulin watershed in Southwestern China. The results showed that the TAIOM was more cost-effective than traditional optimization methods. The distribution of selected BMPs throughout landscapes comprising relatively flat plains and gentle slopes, suggests the need for a more operationally effective scheme, such as the TAIOM, to determine the practicability of BMPs before widespread adoption. The TAIOM developed in this study can easily be extended to other watersheds to help decision makers control NPS pollution.
In order to better understand the structural features of natural compounds from traditional Chinese medicines, the scaffold architectures of drug-like compounds in MACCS-II Drug Data Report (MDDR), non-drug-like compounds in Available Chemical Directory (ACD), and natural compounds in Traditional Chinese Medicine Compound Database (TCMCD) were explored and compared.
First, the different scaffolds were extracted from ACD, MDDR and TCMCD by using three scaffold representations, including Murcko frameworks, Scaffold Tree, and ring systems with different complexity and side chains. Then, by examining the accumulative frequency of the scaffolds in each dataset, we observed that the Level 1 scaffolds of the Scaffold Tree offer advantages over the other scaffold architectures to represent the scaffold diversity of the compound libraries. By comparing the similarity of the scaffold architectures presented in MDDR, ACD and TCMCD, structural overlaps were observed not only between MDDR and TCMCD but also between MDDR and ACD. Finally, Tree Maps were used to cluster the Level 1 scaffolds of the Scaffold Tree and visualize the scaffold space of the three datasets.
The analysis of the scaffold architectures of MDDR, ACD and TCMCD shows that, on average, drug-like molecules in MDDR have the highest diversity while natural compounds in TCMCD have the highest complexity. According to the Tree Maps, it can be observed that the Level 1 scaffolds present in MDDR have higher diversity than those presented in TCMCD and ACD. However, some representative scaffolds in MDDR with high frequency show structural similarities to those in TCMCD and ACD, suggesting that some scaffolds in TCMCD and ACD may be potentially drug-like fragments for fragment-based and de novo drug design.
Scaffold; Drug-likeness; Traditional Chinese medicines; Murcko frameworks; Scaffold tree; Tree maps
The aim was to investigate the association between human insulin and cancer incidence and mortality in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.
We recruited 8,774 insulin-naïve diabetes patients from the Shanghai Diabetes Registry (SDR). The follow-up rate was 85.4%. All subjects were divided into the insulin use cohort (n = 3,639) and the non-insulin use cohort (n = 5,135). The primary outcome was the first diagnosis of any cancer. The secondary outcome was all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of cancer and mortality.
We observed 98 cancer events in the insulin use cohort and 170 in the non-insulin use cohort. Cancer incidence rates were 78.6 and 74.3 per 10,000 patients per year in the insulin users and the non-insulin users, respectively. No significant difference in cancer risk was observed between the two cohorts (adjusted RR = 1.20, 95% CI 0.89–1.62, P = 0.228). Regarding site-specific cancers, only the risk of liver cancer was significantly higher in the insulin users compared to that in the non-insulin users (adjusted RR = 2.84, 95% CI 1.12–7.17, P = 0.028). The risks of overall mortality (adjusted RR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.47–2.43, P<0.0001) and death from cancer (adjusted RR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.39–3.35, P = 0.001) were all significantly higher in the insulin users than in the non-insulin users.
There was no excess risk of overall cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with human insulin. However, a significantly higher risk of liver cancer was found in these patients. Moreover, insulin users showed higher risks of overall and cancer mortality. Considering that individuals treated with insulin were more likely to be advanced diabetic patients, caution should be used in interpreting these results.
Secular trends in the epidemiology of diabetes are best described by studying the same population over time, but few such studies exist. Using surveys from Mauritius in 1987 and 2009, we examined 1) the change in the prevalence of diabetes, 2) the extent to which changes in traditional diabetes risk factors explained the increase, and 3) the change in the distribution of plasma glucose levels over time.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Independent population-based surveys were undertaken in Mauritius in 1987 and 2009 using similar methodology in adults aged 20–74 years. Physical measurements and fasting blood samples were taken, and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed at both surveys.
The age-standardized prevalence of diabetes in 2009 was 22.3% (95% CI 20.0–24.6) among men and 20.2% (18.3–22.3) among women, representing an increase since 1987 of 64 and 62% among men and women, respectively. Concurrent changes in the distribution of age, ethnicity, waist circumference, BMI, physical activity, smoking, family history of diabetes, and hypertension explained more of the increase in the prevalence of diabetes in men than in women. Increases in plasma glucose (especially fasting glucose) were seen across the population but were greater at the upper levels.
In Mauritius, there has been a marked increase in diabetes prevalence over 22 years. This mainly results from changes in traditional risk factors, leading to population-wide increases in plasma glucose levels. Interventions to control this escalation of diabetes should focus on population-wide strategies.
The glutamate excitotoxicity, mediated through N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), plays an important role in cerebral ischemia injury. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) can be activated by multiple stimuli that may happen during stroke. The present study evaluated the effect of TRPV4 activation on NMDA-activated current (INMDA) and that of blocking TRPV4 on brain injury after focal cerebral ischemia in mice. We herein report that activation of TRPV4 by 4α-PDD and hypotonic stimulation increased INMDA in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, which was sensitive to TRPV4 antagonist HC-067047 and NMDAR antagonist AP-5, indicating that TRPV4 activation potentiates NMDAR response. In addition, the increase in INMDA by hypotonicity was sensitive to the antagonist of NMDAR NR2B subunit, but not of NR2A subunit. Furthermore, antagonists of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) significantly attenuated hypotonicity-induced increase in INMDA, while antagonists of protein kinase C or casein kinase II had no such effect, indicating that phosphorylation of NR2B subunit by CaMKII is responsible for TRPV4-potentiated NMDAR response. Finally, we found that intracerebroventricular injection of HC-067047 after 60 min middle cerebral artery occlusion reduced the cerebral infarction with at least a 12 h efficacious time-window. These findings indicate that activation of TRPV4 increases NMDAR function, which may facilitate glutamate excitotoxicity. Closing TRPV4 may exert potent neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia injury through many mechanisms at least including the prevention of NMDAR-mediated glutamate excitotoxicity.
TRPV4; NMDA receptor; NR2B subunit; phosphorylation; excitotoxicity; cerebral ischemia
The chemical similarity of cellulose and chitin supports the idea that their corresponding hydrolytic enzymes would bind β-1,4-linked glucose residues in a similar manner. A structural and mutational analysis was performed for the plant cellulolytic enzyme BGlu1 from Oryza sativa and the insect chitinolytic enzyme OfHex1 from Ostrinia furnacalis. Although BGlu1 shows little amino-acid sequence or topological similarity with OfHex1, three residues (Trp490, Glu328, Val327 in OfHex1, and Trp358, Tyr131 and Ile179 in BGlu1) were identified as being conserved in the +1 sugar binding site. OfHex1 Glu328 together with Trp490 was confirmed to be necessary for substrate binding. The mutant E328A exhibited a 8-fold increment in Km for (GlcNAc)2 and a 42-fold increment in Ki for TMG-chitotriomycin. A crystal structure of E328A in complex with TMG-chitotriomycin was resolved at 2.5 Å, revealing the obvious conformational changes of the catalytic residues (Glu368 and Asp367) and the absence of the hydrogen bond between E328A and the C3-OH of the +1 sugar. V327G exhibited the same activity as the wild-type, but acquired the ability to efficiently hydrolyse β-1,2-linked GlcNAc in contrast to the wild-type. Thus, Glu328 and Val327 were identified as important for substrate-binding and as glycosidic-bond determinants. A structure-based sequence alignment confirmed the spatial conservation of these three residues in most plant cellulolytic, insect and bacterial chitinolytic enzymes.
Fermentation production of biofuel ethanol consumes agricultural crops, which will compete directly with the food supply. As an alternative, photosynthetic cyanobacteria have been proposed as microbial factories to produce ethanol directly from solar energy and CO2. However, the ethanol productivity from photoautotrophic cyanobacteria is still very low, mostly due to the low tolerance of cyanobacterial systems to ethanol stress.
To build a foundation necessary to engineer robust ethanol-producing cyanobacterial hosts, in this study we applied a quantitative transcriptomics approach with a next-generation sequencing technology, combined with quantitative reverse-transcript PCR (RT-PCR) analysis, to reveal the global metabolic responses to ethanol in model cyanobacterial Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The results showed that ethanol exposure induced genes involved in common stress responses, transporting and cell envelope modification. In addition, the cells can also utilize enhanced polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) accumulation and glyoxalase detoxication pathway as means against ethanol stress. The up-regulation of photosynthesis by ethanol was also further confirmed at transcriptional level. Finally, we used gene knockout strains to validate the potential target genes related to ethanol tolerance.
RNA-Seq based global transcriptomic analysis provided a comprehensive view of cellular response to ethanol exposure. The analysis provided a list of gene targets for engineering ethanol tolerance in cyanobacterium Synechocystis.
Ethanol; Tolerance; Transcriptomics; Synechocystis
To determine whether the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is activated in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) in homo-sapiens.
The retina of controls and patients with PVR were collected and their levels of PI3K, phospho-AKT, phospho-mTOR, phospho-p70S6k and phospho-4EBP-1 were determined by Western blot. The cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cell line D407 was treated with a specific mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin (RAPA) or a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, of various concentrations and durations. Cell morphology was observed by phase contrast microscopy and the proliferation and apoptosis of treated cells were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry.
Levels of PI3K, phospho-AKT, phospho-mTOR, phospho-P70S6K and phospho-4EBP1 was increased in the retina in PVR (P<0.05). In D407 cells, both RAPA and LY294002 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and cell cycle progression, and promoted apoptosis (P <0.05); morphologically, the cells became smaller. Both RAPA and LY294002 reduced levels of phospho-AKT, phospho-mTOR, phospho-p70S6k and phospho-4EBP1 expression (P <0.05). RAPA, but not LY294002, had no significant effect on PI3K expression.
PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway is highly activated in the retinal pigment epithelial cells of PVR. The inhibitors of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, RAPA and LY294002, could inhibited the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway by reducing the levels of phosphorylation of mTOR pathway components.
human retinal pigment epithelial cell; proliferative vitreoretinopathy; PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway
Previous studies have indicated two main domestic pig dispersal routes in East Asia: one is from the Mekong region, through the upstream region of the Yangtze River (URYZ) to the middle and upstream regions of the Yellow River, the other is from the middle and downstream regions of the Yangtze River to the downstream region of the Yellow River, and then to northeast China. The URYZ was regarded as a passageway of the former dispersal route; however, this assumption remains to be further investigated. We therefore analyzed the hypervariable segements of mitochondrial DNA from 513 individual pigs mainly from Sichuan and the Tibet highlands and 1,394 publicly available sequences from domestic pigs and wild boars across Asia. From the phylogenetic tree, most of the samples fell into a mixed group that was difficult to distinguish by breed or geography. The total network analysis showed that the URYZ pigs possessed a dominant position in haplogroup A and domestic pigs shared the same core haplotype with the local wild boars, suggesting that pigs in group A were most likely derived from the URYZ pool. In addition, a region-wise network analysis determined that URYZ contains 42 haplotypes of which 22 are unique indicating the high diversity in this region. In conclusion, our findings confirmed that pigs from the URYZ were domesticated in situ.
AIM: To investigate the clinicopathological features and prognostic value of lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: We examined LSD1 expression in 60 paired liver cancer tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. In addition, we analyzed LSD1 expression in 198 HCC samples by immunohistochemistry. The relationship between LSD1 expression, clinicopathological features and patient survival was investigated.
RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and qRT-PCR consistently confirmed LSD1 overexpression in HCC tissues compared to adjacent non-neoplastic tissues (P < 0.01). Additionally, immunostaining showed more LSD1-positive cells in the higher tumor stage (T3-4) and tumor grade (G3) than in the lower tumor stage (T1-2, P < 0.001) and tumor grade (G1-2, P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, HCC patients with high LSD1 expression had significantly lower 5-year overall survival rates (P < 0.001) and lower 5-year disease-free survival rates (P < 0.001), respectively. A Cox proportional hazards model further demonstrated that LSD1 over-expression was an independent predictor of poor prognosis for both 5-year disease-free survival [hazards ratio (HR) = 1.426, 95%CI: 0.672-2.146, P < 0.001] and 5-year overall survival (HR = 2.456, 95%CI: 1.234-3.932, P < 0.001) in HCC.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest for the first time that the overexpression of LSD1 protein in HCC tissues indicates tumor progression and predicts poor prognosis.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Lysine specific demethylase 1; Tumor progression; Prognosis
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and DHA-derived lipid mediators have recently been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties. In fact, DHA can down-regulate lipolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of NF-κB via a PPARγ-dependent pathway. We sought to investigate the effects of the novel DHA-derived mediator resolvin D1 (RvD1) on LPS-induced acute lung injury and to determine whether these effects occur via a PPARγ-dependent pathway.
BALB/c mice aged 6–8 weeks were randomly divided into seven groups: two control groups receiving saline or RvD1 (600 ng) without LPS; a control group receiving LPS only; an experimental group receiving RvD1 (300 ng) or RvD1 (600 ng), followed by LPS; a group receiving the PPARγ antagonist GW9662; and a group receiving GW9662, then RvD1 (600 ng) and finally LPS. LPS (50 μM) and saline were administered intratracheally. RvD1 was injected intravenously 24 h and 30 min before LPS, while GW9662 was injected intravenously 30 min before RvD1. Mice were killed at 6, 12, and 24 h. Samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed for cell counts and cytokine analysis. Lung tissues were collected for histology, Western blotting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs).
At all three time points, groups receiving either dose of RvD1 followed by LPS had significantly lower total leukocyte counts and levels of TNF-α and IL-6 levels in BALF than did the group given only LPS. RvD1 markedly attenuated LPS-induced lung inflammation at 24 h, based on hematoxylin-eosin staining of histology sections. RvD1 activated PPARγ and suppressed IκBα degradation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, based on Western blots and EMSAs. The PPARγ inhibitor GW9662 partially reversed RvD1-induced suppression of IκBα degradation and p65 nuclear translocation.
These results suggest that RvD1 may attenuate lung inflammation of LPS-induced acute lung injury by suppressing NF-κB activation through a mechanism partly dependent on PPARγ activation.
Acute lung injury; Docosahexaenoic acid; Lipid mediators; NF-κB; Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma; Resolvin D1
It is evident that epigenetic factors, especially DNA methylation, play essential roles in obesity development. Using pig as a model, here we investigated the systematic association between DNA methylation and obesity. We sampled eight variant adipose and two distinct skeletal muscle tissues from three pig breeds living within comparable environments but displaying distinct fat level. We generated 1,381 gigabases (Gb) of sequence data from 180 methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) libraries, and provided a genome-wide DNA methylation map as well as a gene expression map for adipose and muscle studies. The analysis showed global similarity and difference among breeds, sexes and anatomic locations, and identified the differentially methylated regions (DMRs). The DMRs in promoters are highly associated with obesity development via expression repression of both known obesity-related genes and novel genes. This comprehensive map provides a solid basis for exploring epigenetic mechanisms of adipose deposition and muscle growth.
OCT4 and Survivin are important factors for cancer cell proliferation, renewal and dedifferentiation, and correlate with resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy in most human cancers, but their regulatory mechanisms are not well known.
In this study, 50 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) were retrospectively analyzed. OCT4 was expressed in 13 cases (26%), and survivin was positively expressed in 31 cases (62%), examined by immunochemistry. OCT4 was found to be an independent predictive factor for median survival time, and the patients from the subgroup with both high expression of OCT4 and Survivin had the worst prognosis investigated by log-rank test. To further explore the molecular regulatory mechanism between OCT4 and Survivin, we constructed the specific small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-expressing vectors targeting OCT4 or/and Survivin and manipulated the expression of OCT4 and Survivin. By Western blotting and RT-PCR, we found that OCT4 could up-regulate Survivin expression in the esophageal cancer cell lines Eca109 and TE1. Simultaneously knockdown of OCT4 and Survivin expression induced cell apoptosis and G2-phase decrease of cell cycle by flow cytometry, and finally exerted an enhanced anti-proliferation potency in Eca109 and TE1 cell lines by MTT assay.
This study shows that OCT4 and Survivin expression were correlated with poor survival in patients with ESCC. OCT4 and Survivin may be regarded as targets in ESCC biotherapy.
The flavonoid myricetin is found in several sedative herbs, for example, the St. John's Wort, but its influence on sedation and its possible mechanism of action are unknown. Using patch-clamp technique on a brain slice preparation, the present study found that myricetin promoted GABAergic activity in the neurons of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) by increasing the decay time and frequency of the inhibitory currents mediated by GABAA receptor. This effect of myricetin was not blocked by the GABAA receptor benzodiazepine- (BZ-) binding site antagonist flumazenil, but by KN-62, a specific inhibitor of the Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase II (CaMK-II). Patch clamp and live Ca2+ imaging studies found that myricetin could increase Ca2+ current and intracellular Ca2+ concentration, respectively, via T- and L-type Ca2+ channels in rat PVN neurons and hypothalamic primary culture neurons. Immunofluorescence staining showed increased phosphorylation of CaMK-II after myricetin incubation in primary culture of rat hypothalamic neurons, and the myricetin-induced CaMK-II phosphorylation was further confirmed by Western blotting in PC-12 cells. The present results suggest that myricetin enhances GABAA receptor activity via calcium channel/CaMK-II dependent mechanism, which is distinctively different from that of most existing BZ-binding site agonists of GABAA receptor.
MicroRNAs have been reported to be aberrantly expressed in patients with pancreatic cancer. The aim of the present meta-analysis is to establish the overall diagnostic accuracy of the measurement of microRNA for diagnosing pancreatic cancer.
Material and methods
After a systematic review of English language studies from Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library, the sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of accuracy of microRNA in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer were pooled using random-effects models. The methodological quality of each study was assessed by QUADAS (quality assessment for studies of diagnostic accuracy). Statistical analysis was performed by employing Meta-Disc 1.4 software and STATA. Summary receiver operating characteristic curves were used to summarize overall test performance. Deeks’ test was used to test the potential publication bias.
Nine studies from seven publications met our inclusion criteria. The summary estimates for microRNAs in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer in these studies were pooled sensitivity 0.89 (95% CI: 0.86-0.91), specificity 0.93 (95% CI: 0.90-0.95), positive likelihood ratio 11.62 (95% CI: 5.75-23.50), negative likelihood ratio 0.14 (95% CI: 0.08-0.24), diagnostic odds ratio 115.13 (95% CI: 33.73-351.28), and the area under the curve was 0.97.
MicroRNA assay plays an important role in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. The results of microRNA assays should be interpreted in parallel with clinical findings and the results of conventional tests.
microRNA; pancreatic cancer; meta-analysis; diagnosis; accuracy
A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) create compartmentalized environment inside the cell to bring various signaling molecules to their targets. In the heart, a slowly activating potassium channel (IKs) important for cardiac repolarization is tightly regulated by the sympathetic nervous system in an AKAP-dependent manner. IKs channel forms a macromolecular complex with AKAP9 and other enzymes, such as PKA, phosphatase, adenylyl cyclase and phosphodiesterase, all of which are responsible to control the phosphorylation state of the channel. Such a complex thus ensures the IKs channel to be regulated properly to maintain the normal cardiac rhythm. Disruptions of various elements of the complex have been found to cause severe pathological consequences, including the Long QT Syndrome.
To present retinal microstructure, metabolism and function abnormalities in the course of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) by Heidelberg spectralis modality imaging platform and observe its outcome by EDI-SD-OCT and two wavelength autofluorescence.
A case of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome in a 23-year-old female presented initially with a 15-day history of floaters and a central scotoma in the right eye. To establish the diagnosis, multimodality imaging was performed, namely, blue light-fundus autofluorescence (BL-FAF, excitation 488nm, emission >500nm), near-infrared fundus autofluorescence (NIR-FAF, excitation 787nm, emission >800nm) using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), spectrum-domain enhance depth imaging optical coherence tomography (SD-EDI-OCT), multifocal electroretinography (mf-ERG) and fundus photogragh were performed and followed up at the eighth month after initially visiting.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed a transient disruption of the foveal photoreceptor outer segments in correspondence to foveal granularity. NIR-FAF showed hypoautofluorescent areas, ≤40µm in size, mostly concentrated around the posterior pole and its temporal side less than that in BL-FAF. Mf-ERG show pinnacle disappeared in fovea and macula and responses decreased markedly compared with the follow eye. At the eighth month follow up, hyperfluorescence in BL-FAF were disappear, while, NIR-FAF Hypofluorescent spots in early stage of such lesion were reduced. But OCT demonstrated the structure was recovered in residual Hypofluorescent area in NIR-FAF. The subfoveal choroidal thickness was decreased from 372µm to 307µm slightly and cost line was recovered.
MEWDS is a benign self-healing disease and there is no pathological evidence to investigate the natural course of such disease. SD-OCT allows highly detailed images approaching histopathology to certify the microstructural changes. Two-wave length FAF and mf-ERG provide more information about metabolism in outer retina especial RPE and photoreceptor. Spectralis OCT combined with two-wavelength FAF and mf-ERG provide a new way to analyze this disease and offer more details for therapy and follow-up.
MEWDS; Spectralis OCT; NIR-FAF; BL-FAF; mf-ERG
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was recently identified as a factor produced by multiple myeloma (MM) cells, which may contribute to bone resorption and disease progression in MM, though the molecular mechanism of this process is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of BDNF on bone disease and growth of MM cells both in vitro and in vivo. Co- and triple-culture systems were implemented. The in vitro results demonstrate that BDNF augmented receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) expression in human bone marrow stromal cells, thus contributing to osteoclast formation. To further clarify the effect of BDNF on myeloma bone disease in vivo, ARH-77 cells were stably transfected with an antisense construct to BDNF (AS-ARH) or empty vector (EV-ARH) to test their capacity to induce MM bone disease in SCID–rab mice. Mice treated with AS-ARH cells were preserved, exhibited no radiologically identifiable lytic lesions and, unlike the controls treated with EV-ARH cells, lived longer and showed reduced tumor burden. Consistently, bones harboring AS-ARH cells showed marked reductions of RANKL expression and osteoclast density compared to the controls harboring EV-ARH cells. These results provide further support for the potential osteoclastogenic effects of BDNF, which may mediate stromal–MM cell interactions to upregulate RANKL secretion, in myeloma bone diseases.